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268

65. Plan of the Charterhouse

285

66. View of Wash-house Court, Charterhouse

286

67. Specimens of Simple Head-Stones

299

68. River Drift Stone Implement found at Reculver

:313

69. Flint Arrow-Heads, English

31+

70. Flanged Bronze Celt found in Dorsetshire

315

71. Restoration of an Irish Lake-Dwelling

316

72. Conjectural Restoration of Avebury

317

73. The Boy and Panyer

319

74. The Three Kings

ib.

75. Two Old City Mansions

3:20

ib.

PREFACE.

In accordance with long-established custom, it behoves the EDITOR of the JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH ARCHÆOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION to say a few words by way of Preface, and the present Editor does so with the more confidence and pleasure because he is deeply sensible of the kindness and consideration he has met with from all the members of the Association with whom he has had personal or official relations since the mantle of Dr. W. DE GRAY BIRCH was transferred to his shoulders. He feels the onerous nature of the task which has been assigned him in succeeding so able an Editor and so renowned an Archäologist as Dr. BIRCH ; but his hope is, and his endeavour will ever be, that the Association, and the great and important work in which it is engaged in fostering a love for, and an intelligent interest in, Archæological studies, shall not suffer in his hands.

The present volume, THE THIRD OF THE NEW SERIES, for the year 1897, contains twenty-nine of the principal Papers which were laid before the Congress in London in the summer of 1896, or during the evening meetings of the Session of 1896-7 in London, as well as a record of the Congress and evening meetings. The Volume is enriched, as in former years, with numerous full-page illustrations, and smaller woodcuts, which have been contributed by the authors of the Papers to which they relate, to whom our warm thanks are due. In this way the appearance of the Journal is greatly improved, and its value enhanced.

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The contents are, as usual, very niiscellaneous, and embrace a wide range of subjects ; but once again we have to confess that no very important or unusual archæological discovery will be found within its pages. The chief event of the year, from an archæological point of view, was the exploration of the so-called “ Danes' Graves” in Yorkshire by Canon GREENWELL, in which he discovered that they were in no wise connected with the Danes, to whom local tradition assigned them, but were in reality of Early British origin.

We are glad to note that during the past year there have been no great losses of members, though in common with all Antiquarians we bave to mourn the loss of Sir A. WOLLASTON FRANKS, K.C.B., and Rev. W. SPARROW SIMPSON, D.D., by the hand of death, and our Council will miss Mr. A. G. LANGDON, who has resigned.

On the other hand, in Mr. HOVENDEN the Council feel that they have gained an earnest and able coadjutor, and the Congress at Conway has again brought many new members to fill up the places of old supporters. In this connection the present Editor feels that he cannot do better than quote some words of his predecessor, sincerely hoping that all our members will lay them to heart and act upon them, viz. :“ It is to the succession of new names that we must look, if the Association is to be perennial, for material aid to empower us to continue indefinitely the cherishing of the divine flame of knowledge which brought us together in the first instance, and has preserved our integrity for upwards of half a century.”

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H. J. DUKINFIELD ASTLEY.

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31 December 1897.

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(Read at the London and Home Counties Congress, September 21st, 1896.)

TWO-FOLD difficulty seems to beset one who undertakes, as I have rashly done, to inaugurate the meeting of an Archæological Society. One is, that he has among his audience a large number of those who are profoundly versed in

the only subjects to which he can allude, and who will smile-quite goodnaturedly, for a real antiquary is always goodnatured-at his lamentable want of depth and breadth, whatever they may think of his length. The other is, that the general public (I do not know if there are any of that important body now present) is apt to class all antiquaries together as belonging to the Dryasdust school ; or at least to put all of them on a level with Monkbarns and his “ Agricola dedicavit libens lubens.” Such critics smile, not at the speaker, but at his subject, and those whom he hopes to interest.

In entering on the task assigned me-in spite of those who know too much, and care about it, and those who know too little and do not care about it-I must endeavour to answer two questions which may naturally be put respecting any subject so introduced to notice : “What is it ?” and “ What use is it?

We call ourselves an “ Archæological ” Association. It seems to me that the introduction of this Greek name is judicious, and prevents a misapprehension. The old name “ antiquary," and the old adjective “antiquarian’ (let me remark in passing that “antiquarianis an adjective, though very often, most incorrectly, used instead of the proper substantive “ antiquary) have, rightly or wrongly, come to be applied to the mere amassing of old things, and the admiration of them because they are old. The antiquarianism which is simply a delight in antiques as such is harmless enough, but is open to the depreciatory opinion which, as I have said, the non-antiquarian majority are apt to form of it, and not unfrequently to express.

We are not mere collectors or inspectors of things ancient; our pursuit is rightly termed archæology, the logos or science of that which is old. Just as geography is now no longer the enumeration of a number of names, with a statement of their position on the map, but is a science dealing with the conformation of the earth, and the character of its various portions, considered with regard to their influence on the movements and developments of mankind ; just as history is no longer confined to the recapitulation of strings of events and names, but is also a scientific consideration and classification of causes and effects, social, moral, and political ; so antiquarianism has become archæology, and the antiquary has given place to the archæologist : the scientific student and classifier of things of old ; and our Society is an Archæological Association. Of course, I shall not be misunderstood as being absurd enough to imply any reflection on that great society, now near two centuries old, which naturally retains its ancient name. I only mean that our more modern association has done well to adopt the more technical appellation.

Then, what is the use of archæology? Is it merely a pastime, intellectual indeed, and the reverse of frivolous, but only a pastime? No. It is the handmaid of historical science. Chronology has been termed the “

eye"

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