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THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTER
HENRY LONGUEVILLE MANSEL, B.D.
WAYNFLETE PROFESSOR OF MORAL AND METAPHYSICAL PHILOSOPHY,
TUTOR AND LATE FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD,
HONORARY LL.D. OF THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH.
La Logique n'est qu'un retour de la Psychologie sur elle-même.
SECOND EDITION, CORRECTED AND ENLARGED.
A PORTION of the following pages has already appeared in two Articles contributed by the Author to the North British Review“. The present Work is an attempt to exhibit more fully the relations there intimated as existing between Logic and Psychology, with some additional matters, which could not be included within the limits of a Review. The title of the work is not meant to imply that it contains an introduction to Logic, or is designed for the use of those unacquainted with its rudiments. On the contrary, without some previous knowledge of the elementary portion of that science, the greater part of the present Volume will not be intelligible. But it is intended as an inquiry into that which in the order of nature is prior to Logic; though in the order of time it is of later scientific development, and in the order of study should be postponed till after an acquaintance at least with the elements of logical science an inquiry into a subject which is indicated by every page of Logic in which mind and its operations are mentioned, and which is the touchstone by which the whole truth and scientific value of Logic must ultimately be tested :-an inquiry into the constitution and laws of the thinking faculty, such as they are assumed by the Logician as the basis of his deductions. It may therefore be regarded as an attempt to prosecute, in relation to Logic, the inquiry instituted by the Prolegomena of Kant in relation to Metaphysics; namely, What are the psychological conditions under which a scientific system is possible ; and what, in conformity to those conditions, are the characteristic features which such a system must exhibit? It is not intended
a No. 27. Art. Philosophy of Language. No. 29. Art. Recent Extensions of Formal Logic.
a complete treatise, either on Psychology alone, or on Logic alone; but as an exposition of Psychology in relation to Logic, containing such portions of the former as are absolutely necessary to the vindication and even to the understanding of the latter.
That something of the kind is not altogether unneeded, will be acknowledged by those who are acquainted with the literature of the subject. During the last and present century, under the influence of the Critical Philosophy of Kant, Formal Logic, in itself and in its relations to Psychology, has been elaborated by numbers of eminent writers in Germany, from whose labours
the English student has, as yet, derived hardly any benefit. Misconceptions are still allowed to prevail concerning the nature and office of Logic, which the slightest acquaintance with the actual constitution of human thought and its laws would suffice to dissipate for ever. Matters treated of by different logicians are alternately expelled from and restored to the province of the science, without the appearance of any thing like a sound canon of criticism to determine what is logical and what is not. Attack and defence of the study have been conducted on grounds equally untenable; and a conception of Logic as it might be were the human mind constituted as it is not, is frequently tossed to and fro between contending parties, to the exclusion of Logic as it must be while the human mind is constituted as it is.
But if an exposition of Psychology in relation to Logic is thus needed for a distinct conception of the latter science in itself, it is not less needed when we look to the conditions under which that science may be most profitably employed as a branch of academical study. Few who are acquainted with the various logical systems of modern times will hesitate to give a decided preference over all others to the formal view of the science, which from the days of Kant has gradually been advancing to perfection. Whether we regard the unity and scientific completeness of the system itself, the great names by which