« הקודםהמשך »
PERGOLESI, Giovanni Battista, one of his productions. In Rome, his Olimpiade the most distinguished musicians, whose was represented anew, with the greatest proper name was Giambattista Jesi, was magnificence, and its beauties were enborn at Pergola (hence his name, Pergo- thusiastically applauded. According to lesi), in the March, according to some in the universal opinion of the Italians, no 1707, according to others in 1704. In one ever excelled him in musical expres1717, he entered the Conservatorio dei po- sion. Some call him the Dominichino, veri di Gesù Cristo at Naples, then under others even the Raphael, of music ; but the direction of Gaetano Grecco. This he is censured for repetitions, an abrupt great master initiated his pupil in all the style, and transpositions which injure the secrets of the art. At the age of fourteen text. Pergolesi inclines more to the soft years, Pergolesi had distinguished himself than to the powerful ; even his Stabat, by various compositions, in which melody according to the judgment of modern muwas sacrificed to artifices of counterpoint; sicians, is somewhat weak. His manner but no sooner had he left the Conserva- is tinged with melancholy, originating, torio, and studied the vocal compositions perhaps, from his feeble state of health. of Vinci and Hasse, than he changed his Porto Rico, or PUERTO Rico, an island manner entirely. In his first opera, how- belonging to Spain, one of the Great Anever, only some ariette were well receiv- tilles (of which group it is the smallest ed;
but prince Stigliano judged favorably and most easterly), lies between lat. 17° of Pergolesi's talents, and procured him 50 and 18° 32' N., and between lon. 65° employment (1730—34) at the Teatro 43 and 67° 10 W., baving the Atlantic on nuovo. During this time, he also com- the north and the Caribbean sea on the posed La serva Padrona, for the theatre south. It is separated from Hayti, on San-Bartolomeo. But his genius was not the west, by a channel twenty-five leagues satisfied with ordinary subjects: he seized broad. One hundred and ten miles in an opportunity to make himself known at length, by thirty-six in breadth. PopulaRome by a more important composition, tion, 130,000, of which 25,000 are slaves. and wrote, in 1735, his Olimpiade, for the Until 1815, Porto Rico was an expense to theatre Tordinone. Yet this opera, though Spain; but since that time foreigners have of great merit, did not please much. been allowed to settle there; and it is now Pergolesi now returned to Naples, and in a very flourishing condition. It has a composed his Dirit and Laudate, the suc- fine climate, a fertile soil, and produces cess of which afforded a compensation coffee, sugar, tobacco, cotton, fruits. The for the former coldness of the public. exports of the year 1830 were estimated His health declined, and his friends in- ạt $2,500,000 ; imports at $2,000,000. The duced him to go to Torre del Greco, at sugar crop of 1831 was estimated at 45,000 the foot of mount Vesuvius, which is con- hogsheads, that of coffee at 125,000 quinsidered salutary for pulmonary patients. tals, Porto Rico, which was called by Here he composed his far-famed Stabat the natives (Arrowauks) Boriqua, was disMater dolorosa, his cantate Orfeo, and the covered by Columbus in 1493, and is said Salve, Regina, his last work. He died in to bave contained at that time 600,000 in1739, at Puzzuoli, when his fame had habitants, who were soon exterminated by just begun to spread over Europe. The the Spaniards. theatres and the churches resounded with
Pago. Percussion Locks
Penal Law (see Criminal Perdiccas.
History of Persia .
“Pere Lachaise (see Lachaise) Persian Language, Litera-
ture, and Ancient Reli-
« Persian Æra (see Epoch) 39
Wheel (see Hydrau-
lics, vol. vi. p. 506)
Penclope (see Ulysses) 5 Perihelion ..
Lake (see Thrasy.
“ Peripneumony (see Pneumo- Perugino
“ Peruke (see Wig)
tecture, p. 311).
“ Peristyle (sce Architecture, p. Pervigilia
« Pestalozzi (John Henry)
« Pestilence (see Plague, and
Pentapla, Pentaglot .. " Perkins (doctor Elisha)
III (emperor of Rus-
St., Church of (see
Pepe (see Naples and Sicily, Perron, Anquetil du (see An-
26 Peterborough (the earl of)
Peter's, St. (river) 57 Philip II (king of France) : 78 Physics (see Natural Phi-
“Physiocratic or Agricultural
VI of France (see System ..
the Bold (see Burgun-
Physiography (see Mineralo-
the Good (see Burgun- Physiology
80 Pib-Corn, or Hornpipe
64 Philo (a Jewish author) " Picard (Louis Benoit)
of Biblos .
“ Picards (see Adamites)
81 Piccolomini (family of this
“ Philology (History of ) 93 Picbegru (Charles)
99 Pichincha (the Battle of) 123
“Pichler, or Pickler (family
Appendix, end Pickering (Timothy)
" Pickle-Herring (see Harle-
-, Natural, or Phys- quin).
Peripatetic (see Pico della Mirandola (see
Peripatetic Phi- Mirandola)
losophy) 101 Picquet (see Piquet)
" Pictet (Marcus Augustus).
103 Picts (see Scots)
“ Phocas's Column (see Col- Piedmont
« Piedmontese Revolution.
105 Piepowder Court (see
Courts of England).
Pierre (Jacques Bernardin
Henri de St.)
108 Piété, Mont de (see Lom-
Pietro di Cortona (see Cor
114 Pigafetta (Antonio)
" Pigalle (Jean Baptiste)
" Phryxus (see Argonauts, Pigeon.
Athamas, and Helle) 115 Pig Iron (sce Iron, vol. vü.
“ Pig of Ballast
Phthiotis (see Thessaly). " Pig of Lead
78 Phthisis (see Pulmonary Pigments
6 Pigmy (see Pygmy)
Pike (a fish)
Plesiosaurus (see Organic Polarity (see Electricity,
Polarization of Light 212 Ponta Delgada (see Mi- Porto Cabello, or Puerto Ca-
Rico (see Appendix,
end of this vol.)
Prince of, (see
Santo (see Madeira)
Charles XIV). Ports Cinque (see Cinque
Portsmouth (town in Eng.
(town in New
Hampshire) . 271
Portuguese Language and
Pontus (country of Asia Mi- Literature
216 (in mythology) 247 Poseidon (see Neptune)
Posen, or Posnania
Posilippo (see Pausilippo)
Position (see Prosody)
Posselt (Ernest Louis)
“ Post-Captain (see Captain)
(head of the Roman Postern
Potemkin (Gregory Alexan-
261 Pothier (Robert Joseph) 506
Clay (see Clay) 262 Potocki (Polish family).
Porphyry (in mineralogy) 264 Potter, de (see Netherlands,
(a philosopher) 265 in the Appendix at the end
of the work).
Potter's Clay (see Clay).
Potwallopers (see Preston). 308
, or Port Hole
Poudre de Succession
Port-au-Prince (see Port Ré- Pougens (Marie Charles Jo-
South Wales, and Poultices (see Cataplasms)
Mahon (see Mahon)
Powder of Succession (see
Poudre de Succession) 311
Power (in arithmetic).
238 (a malt liquor) 269 of a Glass
Portici (see Naples, and Her- Powers, Great (of Europe)
“Portiuncula (see Francis- Poyais.
Pozzo di Borgo (count) 312
(town in Maine) Pozzuoli.
270 Prado (see Madrid)
" Pradon (Jean Nicolas).
Pradt (Dominique Dufour