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Selections from

OBSERVATIONS UN MODERN GARLENING

by

Thomas Whately

London

1801

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INTRODUCTION

I. Gardenine, in the perfection to which it has been lately broucht in England, is entitled to a place of considerable rank aniont the liberal arts. It is as superior to landskip paintine, as a reality to a representation: it is an exertion of fancy, a subject for taste; and being released now from the restraints of recularity, and enlarged beyond the purposes of domestic convenience, the rost beautiful, the most simple, the most noble scenes of nature are all within its pl'ovince: for it is no longer confined to the sopts from whion it DOITONS its name, but regulates also the disposition and en bellishments of a park, a farra, or a riding; and the business of a Cardener is to su lect and to apply whatever is kroat, elyant or characteristic in any f them; to discover and to show all the advantates of the place upon which he is employed; to supply its defects, to correct its faults, and to improve its boalities. For these operations, the objects of nature are still his only matcrials. I'is first enquiry, therefore, must be into the means by which those effects are attained in nature, which he is to produce; and into those properties in the objects of nature, which should detergine hili in the choice and granrenent of theri.

Nature, always sizple, eiiploys but four maiorials in the Coposition of her scenes, round, wood, wator, and rocks. The cultivation of nature has introduced a fifth species, the buil;incs recuisite for the accommodation of non. Sach of those again acriit or varieties in their figure, imensions, colour, ani situation. very landskip is composed of those parts only; evory beauty in a lan iskip depenis on the application of their several varieties.

OF GROUND.

II. The shepe of round must be either a convex, a concave, or a plano; in terris less technical called a swell, & 10llow, and a level. By combinations of those are forned all the irrefularities of which ground is capable; and the beauty of it depends on the degrees and the proportions in which they are blended.

Both the convex and the concave are forms in themselves of wore variety than a plane: either of them may therefore be adirittod to a greater extent t'ian can be allowed to the ot'er; but lotels are not therefore titally inadiissible. The preference unjustly shown to them in the old gardens, where they prevailed alilost in exclusion of every other forn, has raised a prejudice against theil. It is frequently reckoned an excellene 1:1 ä inve

t e round, that every the least part of it is uneven; but then it wants ons on the three creat varieties of cround, which may sorties be inter lixed with the other two. gentle concave declivity falls and spreads easily on a ilat; the channels between several solls dog enerate into more gutters, if some

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