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atonement for those sins which would otherwise preclude their entrance. 2dly, By granting to them spiritual assistance. 3dly, By supplying them with rules and directions, which he has illustrated by his own perfect example. Hence he has called himself the Way, the Door, no one entereth but through him. And against those who faithfully and diligently attempt an entrance through him, the powers of Hell shall not prevail. In Acts xiv, 27, it is called, the door of farth,and is described as open to the Gentiles, through the mercies of God.

Ver. 9. Jews.] See note, ch. ii. 9. A complete triumph over these pretended saints is promised to this humble Church; and probably it took place in those early times, of which so little history remains. But as this meek and faithful Church is a type and resemblance of the pure Church of Christ; so, to that universal Church, when it shall appear in its purity, after this type, the conversion of the whole body of the Jews seems promised ; which has been vaịnly, though often attempted by violence and persecution.

Ver. 10. I will keep thee from the hour of trial.] This promise, in favour of the Church of Philadelphia, was probably fulfilled in some subsequent persecution, of which we have no special account.

Ver. 11. I am coming soon.] See notes, ch. i. 3, iii. 16.

Ib. Crown.] See note, ch. ii. 15,

Ver. 12. Column.] The ancient nations were ac. customed to erect columns in honourable memorial of heroes. Such, in idea at least, were the columns of Hercules. Absalom, “having no son to keep his s! name in remembrance," built a column to be called


by his name*. The Christian conqueror is here promised such an honourable memorial in God's temple, in his everlasting temple in heaven. Agreeably to this figurative language, the Apostles James and Peter are accounted coluinns of the Church (otuhos, Gal. ii. 9.) And the Alexandrian martyrs of the third century are called atuh78 ©£s, and also Attalus of Pergamos, in the account of the martyrs at Lyons and Vienne in the second century t.

Ib. New Jerusalem.] The numerous prophecies, foretelling great and everlasting glory to Jerusalem, have not been fulfilled in the literal Jerusalem ; nor can be so fulfilled, without contradicting other predictions, especially those of our Lord, which have denounced its ruin. They remain therefore to be fulfilled in a spiritual sense ; in that sense which Saint Paul points out to us, when, in opposition to “ Jeru“salem that now is, and is in bondage with her chil

dren,” he presents to our view “ Jerusalem which is above, which is free, which is the mother of us all.” This is the city which “Abraham looked to; a building "not made with hands, whose builder and maker is “God I;" even the heavenly Jerusalem, whose splendour will be displayed in the concluding chapters of this book.

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* 2 Sam. xviii. 18.
+ Euseb. Hist. Eccl. lib. vi. c. 41. & lib. v. 1.
1 Gal, iv. 24–27. Heb. xi, 10-16. xii. 22-24. xiii, 14.




The Address to the Church in Laodicea.

CHAP. iii. VER. 14-21.

14 Kai tą dryera , 14 And to the Angel of 14 And unto the Angel

της εκκλησίας εν the Church in Laodi- of the Church of Λαοδικεία γράψον" cea, write: Thus saith the Laodiceans, write, Τάδε λέγει ο 'Αμήν,

the Amen, the faith- These things saith the o náplus ó wisus ry ful and true Witness, Amen, the faithful and αληθινός, η αρχή της the Beginning of the true Witness, the Be

κτίσεως τ8 Θε8. . 15 Creation of God. I ginning of the Creation 15 οίδα σε τα έρμα, know thy works, that 15 of God; I know thy

ότι έτε ψυχρός εί, thou art neither cold works, that thou art ότι ζεσός: όφελος

nor hot; I would that neither cold nor hot: ψυχρός ής, ή ζεσός: thou wert cold or hot: I would thou wert cold 16"Ουτως, ότι χλι- 16 So then, because thou 16.or hot. So then beαρός εί, και ότι ψυ

art lukewarm, and nei- cause thou art lukexeos, Te Besòs, ther cold nor hot, I

warm, and neither cold μέλλω σε εμέσαι εκ

am about to 'nauseate nor hot, I will spue το σόματός με thee out of my mouth; thee out of my mouth: 17 "Οτι λέγεις* "Οτι

17 Because thou sayest 17 Because thou sayest, σλέσιος είμι, και

that I am rich, and am I am rich, and increasσεπλέτηκα, και έδεgrown wealthy, and

ed with goods, and νός χρείαν έχω" και have need of nothing,

have need of nothing; εκ οίδας, ότι συ εί

and knowest not that and knowest not that ο ταλαίπωρG», και

thou art wretched, and thou art wretched, and ο ελεεινός, και τοιωmiserable, and poor,

miserable, and poor, χος, και τυφλός, και

and blind, and naked. and blind, and naked. 18 γυμνος: Συμβαλεύω

18 I counsel thee to buy 18 I counsel thee to buy σοι, αγοράσαι τσαρ'

of me gold purified of me gold tried in the εμά χρυσίον σεπυ

in the fire, that thou fire, that thou mayest εωμένον εκ συρος, ,

may'st be rich; and be rich; and white ένα σλότησης και white raiment, that raiment, that

thou μάτια λευκά, ένα

thou may'st be clothed; mayest be clothed, and περιβάλη, και μη

and that the shame of that the shame of thy φανερωθή ή αισχύνη thy nakedness may not

nakedness do not apa της γυμνότηλός σε



Ch. iii. 14–21.]



thine eyes


και κολλέριον έγχρί- appear; and to anoint pear; and anoint thine σαι τες οφθαλμός


eye- eyes with eye-salve, ένα βλέπης.

salve, that thou mayest that thou mayest see, 19 'Εγώ όσες έαν φι- 19 see. As many as I 19 As many as I love, I

λώ, ελέγχω και σαι- love, I prove and chas- rebuke and chasten :

δεύω» ζήλωσαν έν, ten; be zealous, there- be zealous, therefore, 20 rj pålæróncov. ’ide, 20 fore, and repent. Be- 20 and repent. Behold, isana ni nu dú

hold, I stand at the I stand at the door, gay, xy xgéw is)

door, and knock; if and knock; if any man τις ακέση της φω

any one shall hear

my hear my voice, and ans us, xai avoien

voice, and open the open the door, I will την θύραν, εισελεύ

door, I will come in come in to hiin, and σομαι προς αυτόν, ,

unto him, and will sup will sup with him, and και δειπνήσω μ' αυ

with him, and he with 21 he with me. To bim τ8, και αυτός με έμε.

21 me. He who over- that overcometh, will 21 Ο νικών, δώσω αυ

cometh, to him will I I grant to sit with me τω καθίσαι μεθ' έ

give to sit with me on in my throne, even as με εν τη θρόνω με,

my Throne; as I also I also overcame, and ώς καγώ ενίκησα, ,

bave overcome, and am set down with my και εκάθισα μετά το am seated with my

Father in his 'Throne. σειρός με εν τω Father on his Throne.

22 He that hath an ear, θρόνο αυτά. ο . 22 He that hath an ear,

let him hear what the χων ές, ακεσάτω,

let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the τι το πνεύμα λέγει

Spirit saith unto the Churches. ταϊς εκκλησιαις. .


Ver. 14. Laodicea.] Upon the river Lycus (for there were other cities of the same name) stood this city, flourishing in wealth, in the times immediately preceding the date of this vision *. Near to it was situated the city of Colossæ; and in the times of Saint Paul, these appear to have been sister Churches of the same character, neither of which had been personally visited by this great Apostle to the Gentiles t. To each of them he wrote epistles, which he ordered to be read interchangeably by both. And that which now bears

Pliny, Nat. Hist. v. c. xix.

+ Col. ii. 1.


the inscription to the Ephesians, is supposed by some able writers to have been the Epistle to Laodicea *. But at the time of Saint John's banishment to Patmos, the Church of Colossæ seems to have been absorbed in that of Laodicea; or at least the latter appears to have been at that time the superior and predominant Church. But its ruin and present state of desolation are described by modern travellers as more complete and lamentable than that of the other six.

Ver. 14. The Amen.] This word imports truth and certainty ; “ I am he, all whose promises will be most “strictly fulfilled.” See 2 Cor. i. 20.

Ib. Faithful and true Witness.] See note, ch. i. 4.

Ib. The Beginning of the Creation of God.] See note, ch. ii. 17. For this seems to refer to the new creation, new building, where in Christ all things are made new f. There is a new commandment, a new worship, a new temple, a new city, 8 THUTUS TUS HTIGEWS, of which Christ is the corner stone and foundation I. And he is not only the agxn, but the anagyn from the grave, the first fruits, insuring the resurrection of his followers.

Ver. 15. Neither cold nor hot.] Many are the professed Christians, in all countries, as well as in Laodicea, who, contented to be named after their Redeemer, are indifferent to their actions and their consequences. Supposing themselves rich in his merits, and “wanting nothing,” they fall into a lifeless sort of Christianity, which must needs be disgusting to that zealous Master who suffered so much for them, laying so fair a foundation for their active exertions. Here he calls upon such persons to examine their situation;

+ 2 Cor. v. 17.

* See note, ii. 1.

1 Pet. ii. 6. Eph. ii. 20.


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