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Haveth he nout of Walingford oferlyngs,
Let him habbe, ase he brew, bale to dryng",

Maugre Wyndesore i.
Richard, thah thou, &c.

III.

The kyng of Alemaigne wende do ful welk,
He saisede the mulne for a castel,
With harem sharpe swerdes he grounde the stel,
He wende that the sayles were mangonel

To help Wyndesore.
Richard, thah thou, &c.

IV.

The kyng of Alemaigne gederedeo ys host,
Makede him a castel of a mulne post P,
Wende with is prude, ant is muchele bost,
Brohte from Almayne mony sori gost"

To store Wyndesore.
Richard, thah thou, &c.

defie, &c.

m their.

& Overlyng, i. e. superiour. But per- 548. Robert de Brunne, a poet of haps the word is osterlyng, for esterlyng, whom I shall speak at large in his proa French piece of money. Wallingford per place, translates the onset of this was one of the honours conferred on battle with some spirit, edit. Hearne, Richard, at his marriage with Sanchia p. 217 : daughter of the count of Provence.

Symon com to the felde, and put up his [Perhaps o ferlyng, “one furlong. "]

banere, "Let him have, as he brews, poison The king schewed forth his schelde, his [misery] to drink.” i Windsor-castle was one of the king's The kyng saide on hie, Simon ieo vous

dragon ful austere : chief fortresses.

*“ Thought to do full well.”

1 Some old chronicles relate, that at the battle of Lewes Richard was taken battering-rams. [Vid. infra p. 71. in a windmill. Hearne MSS. Coll. note n.

gathered. vol. 106. p. 82. Robert of Gloucester

P mill-post.

pride. mentions the same circumstance, edit. He brought with him many foHearne, p. 547.

reigners, when he returned to England, The king of Alemaigne was in a wind- from taking possession of his dignity of mulle inome.

king of the Romans. This gave great

offence to the barons. It is here inRichard and prince Edward took shelter sinuated, that he intended to garrison in the Grey-friars at Lewes, but were Windsor-castle with these foreigners. afterwards imprisoned in the castle of The barons obliged him to dismiss Wallingford. "See Hearne's Langtoft, most of them soon after he landed in EnGloss. p. 616; and Rob. Glouc. p. gland.

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By God that is aboven ous he dude muche synne,
That lette passen over see the erl of Warynne :
He hath robbed Engelond, the mores, ant the fenne,
The gold, ant the selver, and y-boren henne,

For love of Wyndesore.
Richard, thah thou, &c.

VI.

Sire Simond de Mountfort hath suore bi ys chyn,
Hevede he nou here the erle of Waryn,
Shuld he never more come to is ynų,
Ne with sheld, ne with spere, ne with other gyn",

To help of Wyndesore:
Richard, thah thou, &c.

VII.

Syre Simond de Montfort hath swore bi ys cop,
Hevede he nou here Sire Hue de Bigot,
Al he shulde grante here twelfemoneth scots
Shulde he never more with his fot pot,

To helpe Wyndesore.
Richard, thah thou, &c.

VIII.

[Be the luef, be the loht Sire Edward,
Thou shalt ride sporeless o thy lyard,
Al the ryhte way to Douere ward,
Shalt thou never more breke foreward,

And that reweth sore;
Edward, thou dudest ase a shreward,

Forsoke thyn emes * lore.
Richard, thah thou, &c.]

• The earl of Warren and Surry, and year's tax. I had transcribed this bal. Hugh le Bigot the king's justiciary, lad from the British Museum and written mentioned in the seventh stanza, had these few cursory explanations, before I fled into France.

knew that it was printed in the second had.

edicion of Doctor Percy's Ballads, ii. 1. habitation, home.

See MSS. Harl ut supr. f. 58. bo engine, weapon.

• (uncle's. ] VOL. I.

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These popular rhymes had probably no small influence in encouraging Leicester's partisans, and diffusing his faction. There is some humour in imagining that Richard supposed the windmill to which he retreated, to be a fortification; and that he believed the sails of it to be military engines. In the manuscript from which this specimen is transcribed, immediately follows a song in French, seemingly written by the same poet, on the battle of Evesham fought the following year; in which Leicester was killed, and his rebellious barons defeated y. Our poet looks upon his hero as a martyr; and particularly laments the loss of Henry his son, and Hugh le Despenser justiciary of England. He concludes with an English stanza, much in the style and spirit of those just quoted.

A learned and ingenious writer, in a work which places the study of the law in a new light, and proves it to be an entertaining history of manners, has observed, that this ballad on Richard of Alemaigne probably occasioned a statute against libels in the year 1275, under the title, “ Against slanderous reports, or tales to cause discord betwixt king and people." That this spirit was growing to an extravagance which deserved to be checked, we shall have occasion to bring further proofs.

I must not pass over the reign of Henry the Third, who died in the year 1272, without observing, that this monarch entertained in his court a poet with a certain salary, whose name was Henry de Avranchesa. And although this poet was a Frenchman, and most probably wrote in French, yet this first instance of an officer who was afterwards, yet with sufficient impropriety, denominated a poet laureate in the English court, deservedly claims particular notice in the course of these annals. He is called Master Henry the Versifierb: which Y f. 59. It begins,

• Henry of Huntingdon says, that Chaunter mestoit | mon ever le voit en Walo Versificator wrote a panegyric on up duré langage,

Henry the First ; and that the same Tut en pluraunt | fust fet le chaunt | de Walo Versificator wrote a poem on the noitre du. Baronage, &c.

park which that king made at Wood7 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE STATUTES,

stock. Apud Leland's Collectan. vol. CHIEFLY THE MORE ANCIENT, &c. edit. ii. 303. i. 197. edit. 1770. Perhaps he 1766. p. 71.

was in the department of Henry mena See Carew's Sury. Cornw. P. 58.

tioned in the text. One Gualo, a Latin odit. 1602.

poet, who flourished about this time,

appellation perhaps implies a different character from the royal Minstrel or Joculator. The king's treasurers are ordered to pay this Master Henry one hundred shillings, which I suppose to have been a year's stipend, in the year 1251 o. And again the same precept occurs under the year 1249d. Our master Henry, it seems, had in some of his verses reflected on the rusticity of the Cornish men. This insult was resented in a Latin satire now remaining, written by Michael Blaunpayne, a native of Cornwall, and recited by the author in the presence of Hugh abbot of Westminster, Hugh de Mortimer official of the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop elect of Winchester, and the bishop of Rochester While we are speaking of the Versifier of Henry the Third, it will not be foreign to add, that in the thirty-sixth year of the same king, forty shillings and one pipe of wine were given to Richard the king's harper, and one pipe of wine to Beatrice his wife f.

CRATICON.

is mentioned by Bale, iii. 5. and Pitts, Est tibi gamba capri, crus passeris, et p. 233. He is commended in the Poli latus apri;

A copy of his Latin hexa- Os leporis, catuli nasus, dens et gena metrical satire on the monks is printed muli: by Mathias Flacius, among miscellane- Frons vetulæ, tauri caput, et color unous Latin poems De corrupto Ecclesiæ dique mauri. statu, p. 489. Basil. 1557. oct.

C“ Magistro Henrico Versificatori.” In a blank page of the Bodleian maSee Madox, Hist. Excheq. p. 268.

nuscript, from which these extracts are • Ibid. p. 674. In MSS. Digb. Bibl. made, is written, “ Iste liber constat Bodl. I find, in John of Hoveden's Sa

ftratri Johanni de Wallis monacho Ra. lutationes quinquaginta Mariæ, “ Mag. meseye.”.. The name is elegantly enHenricus, VERSIFICATOR MAGNUS, de B. riched with a device. This manuscript Virgine,” &c.

contains, among other things, Planctus e MSS. Bibl. Bodl. Arch. Bodl. 29.

de Excidio Troja, by Ilugo Prior de in pergam. 4to. viz. “ Versus magistri Montacuto, in rhyming hexameters and Michaelis Cornubiensis contra Mag.

pentameters, viz. fol. 89. Camden cites Henricum Abricensem coram dom.

other Latin verses of Michael BlaunHugone abbate Westmon. et aliis." fol.

pain, whom he calls “ Merry Michael

See 81. b. Princ. “ARCHIPOETA vide quod the Cornish poet." Rem. p. 10. non sit cura tibi de.” See also fol. 83. b.

also p. 489. edit. 1674. He wrote Again, fol. 85.

many other Latin pieces, both in prose Pendo poeta prius te diximus Archi- and verse. POETAM,

[Compare Tanner in Joannes CORQuam pro postico nunc dicimus esse NUBIENSIS, who recites his other pieces. poetam,

Bibl. p. 432. Notes i 8.- Additions.) Imo poeticulum, &c.

f Rot. Pip. an 36 Henr. iji.

« Et in Archipoeta means here the king's chief poet. Ricardo Citharistæ regis, xl. sol. per

uno dolio vini empto et dato magistro In another place our Cornish satirist Br. Reg. Et in uno dolio empto et thus attacks master Henry's person. dato Beatrici uxori ejusdem Ricardi."

But why this gratuity of a pipe of wine should also be made to the wife, as well as to the husband, who from his profession was a genial character, appears problematical according to our present ideas.

The first poet whose name occurs in the reign of Edward the First, and indeed in these annals, is Robert of Glocester, a monk of the abbey of Glocester. He has left a poem of considerable length, which is a history of England in verse, from Brutus to the reign of Edward the First. It was evidently written after the year 1278, as the poet mentions king | Arthur's sumptuous tomb, erected in that year before the high altar of Glastenbury churchf: and he declares himself a living witness of the remarkably dismal weather which distinguished the day on which the battle of Evesham above mentioned was fought, in the year 1265%. From these and other circumstances this piece appears to have been composed about the year 1280. It is exhibited in the manuscripts, is cited by many antiquaries, and printed by Hearne, in the Alexandrine measure; but with equal probability might have been written in four-lined stanzas. This rhyming chronicle is totally destitute of art or imagination. The author has cloathed the fables of Geoffrey of Monmouth in rhyme, which have often a more poetical air in Geoffrey's prose. The language is not much more easy or intelligible than that of many of the Norman Saxon poems quoted in the preceding section: it is full of Saxonisms, which indeed abound, more or less, in every writer before Gower and Chaucer. But this obscurity is perhaps owing to the western dialect, in which our monk of

.( Beatrice may possibly have been a persons on behalf of all the menestreur jugleress, whose pantomimic exhibitions jou gleurs et jougleresses of that city, we were accompanied by her husband's find among others the names of Iehanot harp, or who filled up the intervals Langlois et Adeline, fame de Langlois between his performances. This union Jaucons, fils le moine et Marguerite, la of professional talents in husband and fame au moine. See Roquefort de la wife was not uncominon. In a copy of Poesie Françoise dans les xii. et sii. the ordonnances for regulating the min- Siècles. p. 288.--Edit.] strels, &c. residing at Paris, a docu | Pag. 224. edit. Hearne. Oxon. ment drawn up by themselves in the 1724. year 1321, and signed by thirty-seven 8 Pag. 560.

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