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Only planet which was thought big enough for a poetical visit. Although suddenly deserted by his mystic intelligencer, he finds himself weary and desolate, on the sea-shore, in an impassable forest, or a flowery meadow.

The following is the passage which Pope has copied from Palingenius: and as Pope was a great reader of the old English poets, it is most probable that he took it immediately from our translator, or found it by his direction ?

An Ape, quoth The, and iesting-stock

Is Man, to god in skye,
As oft as he doth trust his wit

Too much, presuming hie,
Dares searche the thinges of nature hid,

Her secrets for to speake ;
When as in very deed his minde

Is dull, and all to weake'.

These are the lines of the original.

Simia cælicolum risusque jocusque deorum est,
Tunc Homo, cum temere ingenio confidit, et audet
Abdita naturæ fcrutari, arcanaque rerum ;
Cum revera ejus crassa imbecillaque fit mens'

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Googe, supposed to have been a native of Alvingham in Lino colnshire, was a scholar, and was educated both at Christ's college in Cambridge, and New-college in Oxford. He is complimented more than once in Turberville's Sonnets'. He pub

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lished other translations in English. I have already cited his version of Naogeorgus's hexametrical poem on ANTICHRIST, or the PAPAL DOMINION, printed at London in 1570, and dedicated to his chief patron sir William Cecill". The dedication is dated from Staples-inn, where he was a student. At the end of the book, is his version of the same author's SPIRITUAL AGRICULTURE, dedicated to queen Elisabeth ".

Elisabeth W. Thomas Naogeorgus, a German, whose real name is Kirchmaier, was one of the many moral or rather theological Latin poets produced by the reformation *. Googe alfo translated and enlarged Conrade Heresbach's treatise on agriculture, gardening, orchards, cattle, and domestic fowls'. This version was printed in 1577, and dedicated from Kingston to fir William Fiztwilliams?. Among Crynes's curious books in the Bodleian at Oxford , is Googe's tranflation from the Spanish of Lopez de Mendoza's PROVERBES, dedicated to Cecill, which I have never seen elsewhere, printed at London by R. Watkins in 15796: In this book the old Spanish paraphrast mentions Boccace's Theseid'.

But it was not only to these later and degenerate classics, and to modern tracts, that Googe's industry was confined. He also translated into English what he called Aristotle's TABLE OF THE TEN CATEGORIES ", that capital example of ingenious but

* I suspect there is a former edition for W. Pickering, Lond. 1566. 4to.

In quarto. * Kirchmaier fignifies the fame in German as his assumed Greek name NAOTEOPros, a labourer in the church. He wrote besides, five books of Satires, and ewo tra. gedies in Latin. He died in 1578. See “ Thomæ Naogeorgii ReGNUM PAPISTI. “ Cum, cui adjecta funt quædam alia ejus. “dem argumenti. Bafil. 1553." 8vo. Ibid.. 1559. One of his Latin tragedies called HAMANLS, is printed among Oporinus's DRAMATA SACRA, or plays from the Old Testament, in 1547, many of which are

Latin versions from the vernacular German. See Oporin. DRAM. S. vol.ii. p. 107.

y In quarto, for Richard Watkins. In the Preface to the first edition, he fays, “ For my safety in the vniuersitie, I craue « the aid and appeal to the defence of the “ famous Christ - college in Cambridge « whereof I was ons an vnprofitable mem“ber, and [of] the ancient mother of “ learned men the New-college in Oxford.”

2 Feb. 1, 1577. There were other edi, tions, 1578, 1594. Lond. 4to.

• Cod. CrYNES, 886.
o Sm. 8vo.
c Fol. 71.a.
d MSS. Coxetes.


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useless subtlety, of method which cannot be applied to pra&ice, and of that affectation of unnecessary deduction and frivolous investigation, which characterises the philosophy of the Greeks, and which is conspicuous not only in the demonstrations of Euclid, but in the Socratic disputations recorded by Xenophon. The solid fimplicity of common sense would have been much less subject to circumlocution, embarrassment, and ambiguity. We do not want to be told by a chain of proofs, that two and two make four. This specific character of the schools of the Greeks, is perhaps to be traced backwards to the loquacity, the love of paradox, and the fondness for argumentative discourse, so peculiar to their nation. Even the good sense of Epictetus was not proof against this captious phrenzy. What patience can endure the solemn quibbles, which mark the stoical conferences of that philosopher preserved by Arrian? It is to this fpirit, not solely from a principle of invidious malignity, that Tully alludes, where he calls the Greeks, 66 Homines conten“ tionis quam veritatis cupidiorese.” And in another part of the same work he says, that it is a principal and even a national fault of this people,

Quocunque in loco, quoscunque inter “ homines visum est, de rebus aut DIFFICILLIMIS aut non NE

CESSARIIS, ARGUTISSIME DISPUTARE". The natural liveliness of the Athenians, heightened by the free politics of a democracy, seems to have tinctured their conversation with this sort of declamatory disputation, which they frequently practiced under an carnest pretence of discovering the truth, but in reality to indulge their native disposition to debate, to display their abundance of words, and their address of

argument, to amuse, surprise, and perplex. Some of Plato's dialogues, professing a profundity of speculation, have much of this talkative humour.

• De ORATORE, Lib. i. $. xi.

Ibid. Lib. ij. ß. iv.

3 M 2


Beside these versions of the Greek and Roman poets, and of the antient writers in prose, incidentally mentioned in this review, it will be sufficient to observe here in general, that almost all the Greek and Roman classics appeared in Englidh before the year 1600. The effect and influence of these translations on our poetry, will be considered in a future section...


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UT the ardour of translation was not now circumscribed


historians, orators, or critics, of Greece and Rome.

I have before observed, that with our frequent tours through Italy, and our affectation of Italian manners, about the middle of the sixteenth century, the Italian poets became fashionable, and that this circumstance, for a time at least, gave a new turn to our poetry. The Italian poets, however, were but in few hands; and a practice of a more popular and general nature, yet still resulting from our communications with Italy, now began to prevail, which produced still greater revolutions. This was the translation of Italian books, chiefly on fictitious and narrative subjects, into English.

The learned Ascham thought this novelty in our literature too important to be passed over without observation, in his reflections on the course of an ingenuous education. It will be much to our purpose to transcribe what he has said on this subject : although I think his arguments are more like the reasonings of a rigid puritan, than of a man of liberal views and true penetration; and that he endeavours to account for the origin, and to state the consequences, of these translations, more in the spirit of an early calvinistic preacher, than as a sensible critic or a polite scholar. " These be the inchauntments of Circe, brought out of Italie

to marre mens manners in England : much, by example of “ ill life, but more by precepts of fonde bookes, of late tran“ Nated oute of Italian into English, solde in euery Shop in London, commended by honest titles, the sooner to corrupe

" honest

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