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one article to another, till it rises to the bodies, and then to“ the souls of men.” Can we avoid recalling to memory the purgatory, the penances, the commutations, the indulgences, made saleable in the corrupt papal church ?
Ver. 12. Fine linen.] It is not necessary, respecting this passage, to determine the contested point, whether Bursos was used to signify linen, or cotton. It is plain from the context, as also from Luke xvi. 19, that it was the apparel only of the rich; and so it is here coupled with purple, scarlet, silk, &c. which were certainly the distinguishing habits of the opulent. Silk, at the time this Revelation was delivered, was a very rare and dear commodity, being then the produce only of China *.
Ver. 17. Every pilot-&c.] Here is presented a third company of mourners, of the same kind with those who lamented over the ancient maritime Tyre f. That these should be so affected, shews the extent of influence which the mystical Babylon had acquired in distant nations; for she corrupts wheresoever her baneful commerce can be extended. The reading é I TOTOV, restored by Griesbach, seems to be of great authority; in confirmation of which it is observed, that in the Vulgate, the word locum was antiently read, which has been changed to lacum . It does not however appear to afford an appropriate sense; and therefore, many attempts have been made to amend the reading; but it is not very inaterial; for the context shews how it is to be generally understood, namely, of those who sail in ships. I suspect in Tomov to be a technical, maritime phrase; but have translated it as if writ
* See Gibbon, llist. ch. xl, where the history of silk is collected. + Ezek, xxvii. 32.
ten ÉTU TOV TOTOV: in the sense in which the Æthiopic version seems to have rendered it.
Ver. 20. Rejoice over her, o heaven ; &c.] The same rejoicing is announced upon the prophesied fall of the ancient Babylon * ; and her eternal desolation is represented under the same imagery t. “But what “ reason had the Christians to rejoice over the calami“ ties brought on Rome by Alaric or Totilas; in which " they themselves were the principal sufferers? And “ how were these calamities any vindication of their " cause, or of the cause of true Religion $?”.
Ver. 21. A stone-&c.] Thus also the ancient Babylon, condemned never to rise again, is described as sinking, like a stone, in Euphrates g.
Ver. 22. The voice of harpers.] Here, the cheerful noise heard in a populous city, “the busy hum of “ men,” is poetically described. There is resemblance to the great poet's description of a joyous city ||. But so entire and final is the destruction of Babylon, that these shall be heard in her no more for ever. The prototype of this description is to be seen in Jer. vii. 34; xvi. 9; xxv. 10; Xxxiii. 2. But Rome, as Bishop Newton observes, has never suffered this utter desolation. She has often been captured and plundered by the enemy ; but she still remains (says he) a joyous city, the resort of strangers, delighting Europe with her music, and her arts 1. I shall not pursue the learned Prelate in his endeavours to prove that modern Rome is to be destroyed by fire, literally understood. Fire, in prophetic language, implies utter destruction; and it is the corruption, the * Jer. li. 48.
+ Jer. li. 64. Bishop Newton, Dissert. on Proph. vol, iii, p. 317. § Jer. li. 63, 64.
|| llom. Iliad. lib. xviii. 490 Dissert. iii. 317. QQ 2
superstition, and usurped dominion of Rome, which are to be utterly destroyed, not her buildings. She is Babylon in a spiritual sense; and in a spiritual sense it is, that she is to be burned and consumed, “even unto the end.”
Ver. 23–24. Sorcery-blood of prophets.] We have here two distinguishing marks of this corrupt Church, which have been before noticed :-1. The arts of deception, like the sorceries and incantations of the heathen priests, by which she has beguiled the nations and their kings :--2. Her tyranny, by which she has persecuted, even to tortures and death, those who refuse her yoke. And as the blood of the prophets was required of the ancient Jerusalemn; so is the blood of the Christian Saints and Martyrs, from this corrupt city*
The denunciation of the judgement of Babylon, contained in this speech of the angel, seems principally intended for the support and comfort of the poor, persecuted Christian Church, during the high zenith of the Antichristian usurpation. To answer this purpose the more effectually, almost every part of the prophecy is taken from the prophetical denunciations of the Old Testament, against Babylon, Tyre, &c. which were known to have been literally fulfilled. No other method could afford such perfect confidence to those, who, in the new Babylon, clearly discovered the tyranny and wickedness of the old one. And from the time that Papal Rome was acknowledged to be this new Babylon, and this discovery was made early in the twelfth century t) great must have been the encouragement derived to the Reformers from this chapter of the Apocalypse.
• Luke xi. 50, 51.
Exultation in Heaven over the fallen Babylon, and upon
the approach of the new Jerusalem.
CHAP. XIX. VER. 1-10.
1 Melà ræūra nxeoa | 1 After these things, I | 1 And after these things
ús ourne ogedoe word heard, as it were, a I heard a great voice dõjevádno iv tã šo loud voice of a great of much people in heapavã, détoul wro 'Aa multitude in heaven, ven, saying; Alleluia; An Gia 5 mgia, saying, “ Allelujah! Salvation, and glory, nai n do&o, nain " the salvation, and and honour, and pow
dúvzuus të Orion 1 “ the glory, and the er unto the Lord our 2 mūro "Oti áambovaci “power of our God! 2 God: For, true and
rj dinanzi airgious | 2 “for, true and righte- righteous are his judgeavtē• öro éxçıvs two “ous are his judge | ments; for he hath πόρνην την μεγά “ments; for, he bath judged the great whore, λην, ήτις έφθειρε την “ judged the great which did corrupt the y i ro Gopia “barlot, which did earth with her fornicaairas, xj itedirnos “ corrupt the earth tion; and hath avenged το αίμα των δέλων “ with her fornication; the blood of his ser
aitē ix xxipòs ai. “ and hath avenged vants at her hand. 3 tis. Kai Osútipov “ the blood of his ser- 3 And again they said,
εύρηκαν''Αλληλεία “ vants at her hand.” | Alleluia. And her xại ó nativos autñs 3 And again they said, smoke rose up for ever Arabaixes is tes " Allelujah!" And the | 4 and ever. And the εκ τύ θρόνο εξήλθε, from the thronel bim, both small and λέγεσα: Αινείτε τον came forth, saying; | 6 great. And I heard Θεόν ημών τσάνιες “ Praise our God, all as it were the voice of οι δελοι αυτά, οι “ ye his servants, ye a great multitude, and φοβέμενοι αυτόν οι « who fear him, both as the voice of many
αιώνας των αιώνων. smoke of her as four-and-lwenty elders, 4 Kæi iTECOV O Węto cendeth for ever and and the four beasts, fell
Góticos o fíxoor | 4 ever. And the twenty down and worshipped Tiggages, xại và four elders, and the God that sat on the Ficouga Swa, xai four living-creatures throne, saying; Amen; προσεκύνησαν τη fell down, and wor. 5 Alleluia. And a voice Θες το καθημένω shipped God who sit came out of the throne, ini to Spóve, dé teth on the throne, saying; Praise our
goules• 'Alliro 'AN saying, “ Amen! Al God, all ye his ser5 anéia. Kai own 5 “lelujab!"And a voice vants, and ye that fear
μικροί και οι μεγάλοι. « small and great.” waters, and as the 6 Και ήκεσα ως φω 6 And I heard as it were, voice of mighty thun
νην όχλα πολλά, και a voice of a great mul derings, saying; Alle. ως φωνήν υδάτων titude, and as a voice luia: for the Lord God τσολλών, και ως of many waters, and Omnipotent reigneth, φωνήν βρονίων ισ as a voice of miglity 7 Let us be glad and reχυρών, λέγουλας thunderings, saying; joice, and give honour 'Αλληλεια ότι έ “ Allelujah! for, the to him: for, the mar. βασίλευσε Κύριο. “ Lord our God the riage of the Lamb is
ο Θεός ημών και σαν « Omnipotent reign come, and his wife bath 7 τοκράτωρ. Χαίρω
« eth. Let us be glad, made herself ready. μεν και αγαλλιά
« and rejoice, and give | 8 And to her was grantμεθα, και δώμεν την
« the glory to him; ed, that she should be δόξαν αυτά ότι ήλ “ for the marriage of arrayed in fine linen, θεν ο γάμο το “ the Lamb is come, clean and white: for, αρνία, και η γυνή αυ “ and his wife hath the fine linen is the
τ8 ήτοίμασεν ε « prepared herself. | righteousness of saints. 8 αυτήν. Και εδόθη
" And it hath been | 9 And he saith unto me; αυτή, ένα περιβά “ given to her, that Write, Blessed are they ληλαι βύσσινον κα « she should be ar which are called unto θαρόν και λαμπρός “rayed in fine linen, the marriage-supper of το γαρ βύσσινον, “pure and bright : for, the Lamb. And he
τα δικαιώμαλά έσι “ the fine linen is the saith unto me, These 9 των αγίων. Και “ righteousness of the are the true sayings of
diye mor Tek 9“ saints." And he 1 10 God. And I fell at ψον Μακάριοι οι saith unto me, “Write; bis feet to worship εις το δείπνον το “ Blessed are they who him: And be said unto γάμε τα αρνίε κε “ are called to the me; See thou do it not: κλημένοι. Και λέ “ marriage- supper of I am thy fellow-serγει μοι. Ούτοι οι « the Lamb.” And vant, and of thy bre
λόγοι αληθινοί εισι be saith unto me, thren that have the 10 τύ Θεξ. Και έπε “ These are the true testimony of Jesus : σον έμπροσθεν των 10“ words of God.” And
worship God: for the ποδών αυτό προσ. I fell down before his testimony of Jesus is κυνήσαι αυτό και η feet to worship 'him: the spirit of prophecy. λέγει μ:: "Oρα μή. Ι. and he saith unto me,