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the Gospel, as an everlasting rule of faith and of conduct. It has been the endeavour of the antichristian powers to corrupt, or secrete, this Gospel", which is to lead all nations and languages to the knowledge and worship of the Almighty Creator. So the progress of the Reformation seems here to be prefigured, which, from its first dawnings, ever appealed to the everlasting Gospel as the sole rule of faith, and preached the restoration of Gospel worship in opposition to the reigning impurities and superstitions.

Ver. 7. Judgment.] See note, ch. si. 18.

• Maliomet and his followers have corrupted,

the papal hierarchy have secreted it.



The second Angel proclaims.

CHAP. xiv. ver. 8.

8 Και άλλος αγελος

ήχολέθησε, λέγων" *Επεσεν, έπεσε ΒαΟυλών ή τσόλις ή μέγαλη, [ότι] εκ To ong rğ duus της τσορείας αυ. της σεπότικε πάντα Oyna

8 And another angel fol

lowed, saying; “ She
" is fallen! Babylon,
“ the great Babylon,
" is fallen! [for] of
" the wine of the rage
" of her fornication
“she hath made all
" the nations to drink."

8 And there followed

another angel, saying: Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication,


Another angel follows, proclaiming the fall of “ Babylon, that great city,” which had intoxicated, seduced, and corrupted the nations with her impure religion. This city, and her fall, will be more particularly represented in chapters xvii. and xviii. It is sufficient in this place to observe, that this is one very formidable horn of the second antichristian beast, the false prophet; the fall of which is here prophetically anticipated, for the comfort and encouragement of the suffering Church, engaged in opposing her. And the progress of the Reformation seems still to be generally described : for, the purer Christians, the Albigenses and Valdenses, in the twelfth century, pronounced the church of Rome to be this very

Babylon; the mother of harlots, and abomina“ tions of the earth *.” From this discovery is to be dated the beginning of her fall.

* See Mede's Works, pp. 517.722. &c. Thuan. Hist. lib. vi. cap. 16. Bp. Newton's Dissert. vol. iii. p. 258. 8vo.



The third Angel proclaims.

CHAP. xiv. VER. 9-12.

9 Kai zgitos ayeros | 9 And a third angel fol

κολύθησεν αυτοίς, , lowed them, saying λέγων έν φωνή μετά- with a loud voice: “If λη" Εί τις το θηρίον " any one worship the τσεσκινεί και την ει

“ beast and his image, κόνα αυτ8, κ λαμ: " and receive a mark Gάνει χάραγμα επί upon his forehead,

9 And the third angel

fo Howed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in


or upon

τα μελώπε αυτά, ,

his hand ; jy ni The xxique 10" Eveu lie shall drink 10 αυτ8, Και αυτός " of the wine of the

σιελαι έκ τε οίνο 56 wrath of God, of the το θυμό τε Θεέ, ,

" imbittered powerful τα κεκερασμένα α

“ wine, in the cup of κράτα, εν τω πολη- “ his anger, and shall ρίω της οργής αυτο

“ be tormented with κβασανισθήσέlαι εν

“ fire and brimstone τυρί και θείων ενώπιον

" before the holy anτων αγίων αγγέλων και gels, and before the

Švámlov águis. 11“ Lamb. And tlie 11 Και ο καπνός τα " smoke of their torβασανισμό αυτών

" ment ascendeth for αναβαίνει εις αιώνας ever and ever: and alarar xj ex ixe- " they have no rest, σιν ανάπαυσιν ημέ- day nor night, who

worship the beast Geogxuyelas và Sa

" and his image, and ρίων και την εικόνα

"if any one receive αυτά, και εί τις “ the mark of his λαμβάνει το χά- | 12« name. Herein the

ραμα τα ονόμα- "patience of the Saints 12 tos autê, inde

“ is, they who keep υπομονή των αγίων " the commandments ésivo ude oi tmpšvles “ of God, and the τας εντολάς TŐ “ faith of Jesus.” Θεώ, και την πίσιν 'Inos.

10 his hand, The same

shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, wliich is poured out without mixture, into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone, in the presence of the holy angels, and in the pre

sence of the Lamb: 11 Aud the smoke of their

torment ascendeth up for ever and ever; and they have no rest day nor night who worship the beast and his image, and whosoerer

receiveth the mark of 12 bis name. Here is

the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

σας και νυκτος οι

A third angel proclaims just and eternal vengeance upon those who “ worship the beast;" who knowing their duty and their allegiance to God, sacrifice them to their worldly interests. They are threatened with “ the wine of the wrath of God;" the wine, which is at first strong of itself, unmixed (expalov), has no diluting liquor put to it, to reduce its strength, as was common in the eastern nations


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of antiquity. But, secondly, it is nevequoplevov, rendered still stronger by the mixture of powerful, intoxicating ingredients. Compare Isaiah li. 17–29; Psalm lxxv. 8. “The Hebrew idea of which Saint John ex

presses in Greek, with the utmost precision, though “ with a seeming contradiction in terms, rexegeOuevos augalov, merum mixtum; pure wine made yet

stronger by a mixture of powerful ingredients. In “ the land of Jehovah, (saith the Psalmist,) there is a

cup, and the wine is turbid; it is full of mixed liquor, and he poureth out of it, (or rather he poureth it out of one vessel into another, to mix it

perfectly, according to the reading expressed by the "ancient versions,) all the ungodly shall wring them s out and drink them.” The expression in the Sep

tuagint, Psalm lxxv. 8 : worageou—o1v8 a'zgałe winges "nepeolecllos, which in the Chaldee is called a cup of “ malediction, throws additional light on this pas

sage. Compare also Psalm xi. 6; 1x. 3: Jer. xxv. “ 15, 16, &c. : Lam. iv. 21: Ezek. xxiii. 32, &c. : “ Hab. ii. 16: Zech. xii. 2: also Hom. Il. xxii. 527;

Odyss. iv. 220*.” Such terms were used to express the anger of God, 'terrible by temporal punishments, but most terrible by those torments beyond the grave, “ where their worm dieth not, and their fire is not “ quenched ;" which ideas are also forcibly expressed in the words now before us; “ the smoke of their “ torment ascendeth for ever and ever.Thus the terror of the greater evil is exhibited, to enable Christians to undergo the less with patient courage deşcribed in the twelfth verse.

* Bp. Lowth, on Isaiab li.



SECTION V. The Blessedness of those who die in the Lord, pro


CHAP. xiv. VER. 13.

13 Kai šxvou parnis | 13 And I heard a voice

šx špevē, 28- from heaven, saying;
γέσης. . Γράψον" " Write; Blessed are
Μακάριοι οι νεκροί “ the dead, who die
οι εν Κυρίω άπο- “ in the Lord, hence-
θνήσκολες απάρλι. . “ forth, even so, saith
Ναι, λέγει το σνευ- " the Spirit, that they
iya årataú-

may rest from their
σωνίαι εκ των κόπων “ labours, but their
αυτών» τα δε έργα “ works follow with
αυτών ακολεθεί με " them."

13 And I heard a voice

from heaven, saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord, from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them.

The voices of the angels had pronounced the punishments of those who, for worldly purposes receiving the antichristian mark, deny their Lord. A voice from heaven, from the throne itself, confirms their denunciations, adding thereto this consolation; that if the fiery trial proceed to its last stage, even to temporal death, this death shall be blessed; shall introduce the martyr to an eternal freedom from pain and trouble; his sufferings on earth shall be recompensed with everlasting rest and glory.

These four proclamations are plain in their meaning, and of easy solution to those who are versed in Scriptural language. They seem intended to be so, in order that all Christians may be encouraged in time of trial to preserve their allegiance to their Lord, the Lamb; whose banner is unfolded in this chapter.


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