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This prophecy of Daniel may have been fulfilled typically, and in its primary sense, in Antiochus Epiphanes * ; but that in this persecutor, the prediction was not finally completed, we may affirm upon the authority of an apostle. For St. Paul, who lived after the times of Antiochus, teaches the Christians of his time to look to a future accomplishment of this prophecy; to expect a falling away from the faith, a signal corruption, and even apostacy, in the leading powers of the Christian Church; when “the man of sin, the son of per
dition, shall be revealed,” whom he describes in words to the same effect with these of Daniel and St. John; “Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is “ called God, or that is worshipped, so that he is as God; “sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he " is God; even he whose coming is after the working " of satan, with all power, and signs, and lying “wonders t.” It may be useful to bring these several prophecies into one view; so that the comparison of thein may be more nearly exhibited. Their relation to each other was observed by so early a commentator as Irenæus 1. –
+ 2 Thess. ii. 3, 4, 9.
* See Wintle, on Daniel vii. &c.
Lib. v. c. 25. 26.
DAN. viii. 8. 24. 25. 21. 11.
REV. X111. 11--- 13 ; XIX. 20, 21.
2 THEss. ii. 3-5. 8, 9, 10, 11. Ιδε, κερας έτερον μικρον ανεβη ( 11, -----αλλο θηριον αναβαινον εκ της γής, Ο άνθρωπος της αμαριας, δυτος εν μέσω αυλων" και ιδε, οφθαλμοι και ειχε κέραια δυο όμοια αρνιο" και της απωλειας,-εν σαση απάτη ωσα οφθαλμοι ανθρωπε εν τω κε- ελαλει ως δρακιον.
της αδικιας, -ο ανικαμενος και
υπεραιρομενος επι σαν7α λεγομεραιτέθω, και σομα λαλέν μεταλα. 12. Και την εξεσίαν το τεράσε θηρια σασαν
νον θεον η σεβασμα, ώσε αυλον
ας τον ναόν τε Θεό καθισαι απο-
θηριον το πρώτον
γιαν τα σαγανα, εν
13. Και ποιεί σημεια μεγαλα, ινα και συς | μει, και σημείοις, και τερασι
ποιή καλαβαιναν εκ τε έρανε ας την γην ψευδες. ρε και καιρων και γε ήμισυ καιρο.
ενωπιον των ανθρώπων.
14. Και αλανα τες και οικείας επι της γης Και το κερας εκεινο έποια δια
α έδoθη αύω ποιησαι πολεμον μέρα των αγιων, καις ενωπιον τε θηριο λεγων τους καλοικέσιν ίσχυσε προς αυτες.
επι της γης ποιησαι εικονα τω θηριω, και έχει την πληγήν της μαχαιρας, και έζησε.
η απος ασια εις το σισευσαι αυθες τα ψευδει.
13. Και εδόθη αυγω δεναι πνευμα της εικονι το
θηριε, ένα και λαληση ή ακων τ8 θηριό,
αν μη ωροσκυνή-
μεγαλες, και τες αλεσιές και τες ωω
της δεξιας, η επι των μελώπων αυτων.
( Chap. xix. 20. Και έπιασθη το θηριον, και
εις την λιμνην τ8 συρος την καιομενην εν
Ον ο Κυριος Ιησες αναλωσει το
πνευμαι τ8 σομάθος αυε, και
21. οι λοιποι επεκ/ανθησαν εν τη ρομ
φαια τε καθημενε επι τε ίππε, τη εξελθεση εκ τέ σομαίος αυθε.
In comparing these descriptions of Antichrist we must observe, that the prophecy of Daniel is the most general, and the most obscure of the three. This is agrecable to the analogy of prophetical Scripture, which is found to afford additional information, as it approaches nearer to the times foretold *. The prophecy of the Apocalypse exhibits a nearer view of the common subject, and discovers objects which had not been discerned before; while the words of Saint Paul may be taken as a comment on those of Daniel; and, being the comment of an inspired writer, may be considered at the same time as illustrating, by the IIoly Spirit, the prophecy of the Apocalypse. The little horn, which, in the vision of Daniel, had appeared somewhat more than a common horn, (for it had eyes, and a mouth, and spake, and fouglat, and conquered,) upon a nearer view, as presented to the Apocalytic Prophet, becomes a separate wild-beast ; and yet, between him and the other wild beast there is, as in the prophecy of Daniel, a very close conpection and resemblance. Ile exerciseth all the power of the first beast; renders him an object of worship; becomes great through his influence; partakes all bis fortunes; and perishes with him at the last.
This nearer view discovers to is also the two-fold ecclesiastical power which Antichrist was to establish, and which did not appear distinctly at the distance at which it was shewil to Daniel t. This method of
* Bp. Lowtli's Prælect. xx. p. 197.
+ Yet it is remarkable, that the three horns rooted up, the three kingdoms destroyed by the little horn, though represented by Daniel, are not at all noticed in the vision seen by Saint John. This part of the prophecy of Daniel appears to me to be of difficult solution. The three kingdoms, which by modern expositors are assigned for this
sacred prophecy, wherein one vision, under the same or different imagery, enlarges upon another vision, and refers to and illustrates the same original archetype, may be frequently observed. Instances occur continually in the visions of Daniel, “ which,” as Sir Isaac Newton remarks, “all relate to one another,
every following prophecy adding somewhat new
to the former*.” The vision of the Beasts is only that of the Image enlarged ; yet represented under other symbols. And thus the vision of Antichrist, in the Apocalypse, is no more different from those of Daniel, than those of Daniel are from each other. All look to the same times; all are from the same sacred inspiration; and unfold and confirm each other. Now as these several prophecies, of Daniel, of Saint Paul, and of Saint John, seem all to belong “ to the latter times,” and to point to the same object, supporting and explaining each other; so, they appear to have been evidently fulfilled, or to be now fulfilling in the world.
1. The church of Rome can point out to us the grand apostacy of the Mahometans, accomplished principally by religious artifice; a blasphemous, destructive usurpation, set up in a form the least suspected, because it had the apparent sanctions of
purpose, “the exarchate of Ravenna, the kingdom of the Lom“bards, the state of Rome," (Bishop Newton, &c. &c.) taken all together, make so petty a territory, that they seem to compose only a part of one of those ten kingdoms into which the Roman empire, (whether we consider either the whole of it, or the western part only) was divided. Yet if these be the kingdons, they belong to one horn only, of the second apocalyptic beast, and to that horn which is to be viewed more particularly in ch. xvii: and thus perhaps in some degree
the omission is to be accounted for. * Sir Isaac Newton on Daniel, part i. ch. 3. 5