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The irruption of the barbarous nations of the North, upon the declining Empire, is of great importance in civil history. It occasioned a signal revolution in power and property, and produced wonderful effects on the manners, customs, and laws of Europe. But although it took crowns from kings, and property from rich laymen, and overwhelmed multitudes in slavery, its disastrous influence was small, or of no permanency, on the Christian Church. That Church had already degenerated, through ignorance and corrupt worship; but it retained its property, and power, and the number of its subjects: nay, it greatly increased all these ; for the conquering nations forsook their pagan creed for the religion of the conquered *.

* Mosheim, Cent. vi. part i.-Gibbon narrates the number of the barbarous nations which had become Christian before the age of . Charlemagne; and remarks that the Christians were then in possession of all the fertile lands of Europe, which had been seized by these warriors. (Decline of the Roman Empire, ch. xxxvii. p. 532, 4to.)



Denunciation of the Three Woc.

CHAP. viii. VER. 13.


13 Kai zidos, rj 5x80%



Ο αγέλα σελωμένε εν μεσαρανώμαλε, λέγον. φωνή μεγάλο" Ούαι, ůzi, saizpis xacloro xatu ini rūs gas,

13 And I beheld, and I
heard one

flying in the space be-
tween heaven and
earth, saying, with a
loud voice,“ Woe!
" woe! woe! to those

13 And I bebeld, and

heard an angel Aying through the midst of heaven, saying, with a loud voice, Wo, wo, wo to the inhabiters of the earth, by reason of the other voices' of εκ των λοιπών φωδών της σάλπιγγα. των τριών αγγέλων των μελλόντων σαλπίζειν,

“ who dwell upon the

eartb, from the re“ maining voices of “ the trumpet of the “ three angels, who are

yet to sound !"

the trumpet of the three angels which are yet to sound.

Ver. 13. And I beheld, and I heard one


(angel) flying ; &c.] Griesbach has admitted the word &ET8 (eagle) into the text, and seems to produce powerful authorities for the adinission. But the received reading, Afyens (angel) seems also supported by good authorities; and internal evidence will appear decisive in its favour. The two words have resemblance in Greek character, and might be confounded by transcribers. I prefer the word angel, because, in the scenery of the Apocalypse, the action is almost en. tirely and exclusively administered by angels. And in ch. xiv. 6, the Prophet sees “ another angel flying in the space between heaven and earth.To what former angel does this other angel refer, but to this of the eighth chapter, who is the only one before described as flying? And it is in the same “ heaven and earth.” And this angel of the sivth chapter is followed by others, all of them angels, no eagle. I reniark also the application of the word ¿vos, one, to this angel or eagle, whichsoever it may be. If it be to be applied to an eagle, why does the Prophet say one eagle; why not an eagle? for no eagles had been mentioned. But there is a propriety, if it be an angel, in saying one angel, because many angels had been, and were then, employed in the action. The cohort of seven angels were then standing forth with their trumpets.


space between

Ib. In the space between heaven and earth.] The MEGBpevnes appears to have been one of the cardinal points in the Chaldean astronomy, opposed to the hypogæum*: but in this passage, it seems simply to mean the intermediate space between heaven and earth, as they appeared in this vision; the one extended above, the other below t.

Ib. Woe! woe! woe!] The Divine messenger, at the command of God, leaving heaven, and hovering over the earth, proclaims three woes, or dreadful calamities, to happen to its inhabitants, under the three remaining Trumpets. No greater calamity can happen to the sons of inen, than the corruption, the rejection, the loss of true Religion. Under the four preceding Trumpets, an hostile invasion of the whole Christian Church, in its fourfold division, had taken place; but the view of its effects had been hitherto general, and representative of few particulars. The warfare s now exhibited more plainly and openly; and Antichrist will soon stand confessed. In the apostolic times, in the times when this vision was exhibited (and the four first Trumpets seem to have their date from those times, ch. i.), Antichrist already was said to be come f; the mystery of iniquity did then work §, “and waxed “ worse and worse l.” So, under the four first Trumpets, the storm seems increasing; but the calamity is as yet described only in general terms, previous to a more particular exhibition. Now it advances to its maturity, and most desolating effects, by three distinct and particular explosions, under the three last Trumpets.

* Brucker, Hist. Crit. Philos. i. 139.

+ See note, ch vii. 1. 1 i John ii. 18, 22. iv. 3. 2 John 7.

§ 2 Thess. ii. 7. 11 2 Tim. iii, 13. What is thus expressed by the Sacred writers, has always been understood to signify the beginnings of Antichristian power.





The fifth Trumpet, and first IVoe.

CHAP. ix. VER. 1–19.

1 Kaió iuniãy | 1 And the fifth angel

γελG- εσάλπισε, και sounded : and I saw a είδον αγέρα εκ τ8 star from heaven fall oçavê mirlwxóta to the earth: and to sis thr ynve rý idó. him was given the key θη αυτώ ή κλείς το of the pit of the botΦρέατος της αβύσσε. .

2 tomless deep. And he 2 Και ήνοιξε το φρέας opened the pit of the

της αβύσσε και α- bottomless deep. And νέβη καπνός εκ το there arose smoke out φεία, ως καπνός

of the pit, as the smoke καμίνε μεγάλης και of a great furnace. And έσκολίσθη ο ήλιος και the sun was darkened, ο αης έκ το καπνό

and the air, by the 3 på opéctos. Kai 3 smoke of the pit. And

εκ τε καπου εξήλ. out of the smoke came θον ακρίδες εις την forth locusts


the γήν, και εδόθη αυταίς

earth, And to them εξεσία, ως έχεσιν was given power, as

εξεσίαν οι σκορπίοι the scorpions of the 4 tñs pñs. Kai ipfé 4 earth have power, And θη αυταίς, να μη


commanded αδικήσωσι τον χός- them, that they should τον της γής, έο not injure the grass

of σαν χλωρών, έδε the earth, nor

any των δένδρον" ει μη

green thing, nor any της ανθρώπες, οι- tree; but only the men τινες έκ έχεσι την

whosoever have not σφραγίδα τέ Θεέ

the scal of God upon επί των μετώπων 5 their foreheads. And 5 ritar. Και εδό

it was given them not

1 And the fifth angel

sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key

of the bottomless pit. 2 And he opened the

bottomless pit, and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened,

by reason of the smoke 3 of the pit. And there

came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth; and unto them was given power, as the

scorpions of the earth 4 have power. And it

was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the

seal of God in their 5 foreheads. And to

them it was given that



θη αυταίς, ίνα μη to kill them, but that they should not kill αποκλείνωσιν αυτές,

they should be tor- them, but that they αλλ' να βασανισ- mented five months : should be tormented θωσι μήνας σέντε and the torment of five months: and their και ο βασανισμός them is as the torment torment was as the torαυτών ως βασανισ- of a scorpion, when it ment of a scorpion, μός σκορπία, όταν 6 striketh a man. And when he striketh a

παίση άνθρωπος" in those days shall the 6 man. And in those 6 Και εν ταις ημέραις men seek death, and days shall men seek

εκείναις ζητήσωσιν οι shall not find it; and death, and shall not άνθρωποι τον θάνα

shall desire to die, and find it; and shall de-' ΤΟΥ,

και ε μη ευρή- death shall flee from sire to die, and death σεσιν αυτόν και επι- 7 them.

And the ap

shall flce from them. Θυμήσεσιν αποθα


pearances of the lo-7 And the shapes of the νεϊν, και φεύξεται ο custs were like horses

locusts were like unto θάναλος απ' αυτών:

prepared for battle : horses prepared unto 7 Και τα ομοιώμαλα

and upon their heads, battle; and on their των ακρίδων όμοια

as it were, crowns of beads were as it were ίπποις ήτοιμασμέ

gold; and their faces crowns like gold, and τοις εις πόλεμον και as the faces of men :

their faces were as the επί τας κεφαλάς 18 And they had hair, as

8 faces of men. . And αυτών ως τέφανος

it were, the hair of they had hair as the χρυσού, και τα πρό

women; and their teeth hair of women, and σωπα αυτών ως

9 were as of lions. And their teeth were as the πρόσωπα ανθρώ

they had breast-plates, 9 teeth of lions. And 8 πων.

as it were, breast- they had breast-plates, τρίχας ως τρίχας

plates of iron. And as it were breast-plates γυναικών, και οδόνες

the sound of beir of iron; and the αυτών ως λεόνlων ή

wings as the sound of sound of their wings 9 σαν. Και είχον θώ

chariots of many horses was as the sound of ρακας σιδηρές και

10 rushing to battle. And chariots of many horses και φωνή των στερύ

they have tails like to 10 running to battle. And γων αυτών ως φωνή

scorpions; and stings they had tails like unto αρμάτων, ίππων

were in their tails. And scorpions, and there σολλών τρεχόντων their power was

to were stings in their 10 εις πόλεμον. Και injure the men five

tails: and their power έχεσιν έράς ομοίας

11 months. They bave was to hurt men five σκορπίοις, και κένθρα

over them a king, the 11 months. And they had ήν εν ταϊς Βραίς αυ

angel of the bottomless a king over them, των και η εξυσία

deep; his name in He- which is the angel of αυτών αδικήσαι τες

Β Β 2

Kai sigor

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