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PART III.

SECTION II.

The four first Trumpets.

CHAP. viii. VER. 6-12.

6 Και οι έπλα αγελοι 6 And the seven angels, οι έχοντες τας επα

who had the seven σάλπιγγας, ήτοίμα- trumpets, prepared

6* autós, va themselves to sound. 7 σαλπίσωσι. Και 7 And the first sounded;

ο πρώτο. εσάλ- and there were hail THƠ, xinwlo xả- and fire mingled with λαζα και πώς μιμιγ

blood ; and they were μένα εν αίματι, και cast upon the land ; Cañon is the qñre

and the third part of και το τρίτος της the land was burnt γής κατικάη, και το up; and the third part τρίτον των δένδρων of the trees was burnt xalrnán, nai was up; and all green grass

χωρίς χλωρός κα- 8 was burnt up. And 8 πκάη. Και ο δεύ- the second angel sound

τις αγγελθέ- - ed; and, as it were, a σάλπισε, και ως όρος great mountain, burnμέγα συρί καιόμε- ing with fire, was cast You Canon eis one into the sea; and the θάλασσας και εγέ- third part of the sea XTO ogótor rñs 9 became blood: And

θαλάσσης, αίμα" the third part of the 9 Και πέθανε το τρί- creatures in the sea,

τον των κλισμάτων which had life, died; των εν τη θαλάσ- and the tbird part of ση, τα έχοντα ψυ

the ships was destroyzás rý rò rgitos 10 ed. And the third

των πλοίων διεφθά- angel sounded ; and 10 ρη. Και ο τρίτος there fell from heaven

αγελα εσάλπισε, , a great star, burning και έπεσεν εκ τ8 - like a meteor; and it

6 And the seven angels

which had the seven
trumpets, prepared

themselves to sound. 7 The first angel sound

ed; and there follow-
ed hail and fire mingled
with blood; and they
were cast upon the
earth: and the third
part of trees was burnt

up, and all green gras3 8 was burnt up. And the

second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea; and the third part

of the sea became 9 blood : And the third

part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the

ships were destroyed. 10 And the third angel

sounded, and there fell a great star from hea. ven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the

a

gavõ åsing migas καιόμενο ως λαμπας, και έπεσεν επι το τρίτος των σολα

μών, και επί τας τση11 γας υδάτων. Και

το όνομα τ8 ασίρος λέγεται ο "Αψινθος: και γίνεται το τρίτον των υδάτων εις αψινθον, και πολλοί Tay a>ogomay ariθανον εκ των υδάτων, ,

ότι επικράνθησαν. . 12 Και ο τέταρτο

αγελα εσάλπισε, , και επλήγη το τρίτον το ηλία, και το τρίτον των αστέρων: ένα σκολισθη το τρίτον αυτών, και η ημέρα μη φαίνη το τρίτον αυτής, και η νυξ 6μοίως. .

fell
upon

the third part
of the rivers, and upon

the springs of waters.
11 And the name of the

star is called theWorm-
wood; and the third
part of the waters be-
comes wormwood; and
many of the men died
of the waters, because

they were made bitter.
12 And the fourth angel

sounded; and the third
part of the sun was
smitten, and the third
part of the moon, and
the third part of the
stars; so that a third
part of them should
be darkened, and the
day might not shine,
as to the third part of
it, and the night like-
wise.

fountains of waters : 11 And the name of the

star is called Wormwood : and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the

waters, because they 12 were made bitter. And

the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smilten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; 60 as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

Ver. 6. And the seven angels, who had the seden trumpets, prepared themselves to sound.] The former part of this chapter having prepared us for a new kind of representation, in which we may expect to find the history of those commotions which followed the descent of Christianity upon earth ; we will in the next place observe, with what propriety they are severally introduced by the sound of Trumpets. Trumpets were in use among the Israelites for several purposes: first, for assembling the people *, or their leaders t; or,

Numb, x. 2, 3.

# Ib, x. 4.

secondly,

secondly, to express joy and exultation on solemn festivals * ; or, lastly, to give signal when the camp was to move, or the host to go forth to battle t; on which occasion, the trumpets were to “sound an alarm," after a manner not used on other occasions. It was the signal of hostile invasion g; it was fearful:-“Shall " the trumpet be blown in the city, and the people “ not be afraid || ?” Of such kind we may account the seven trumpets of the angels. They are not the trumpets of the new moons and feast days T; there is no joy and festivity in them; they are not for the quiet and peaceful calling of the assembly; they sound an alarm; an alarm of war; and woe! woe! woe! accompanies their notes (ver. 13.): they foretel to the Church of Christ the invasions of its enemies, and are so many signals on the approach of each antichristian foe. And from the preparatory vision, in which incense and fire from the altar in heaven, are cast down to earth, produeing violent commotions, we have reason to expect that Religion, or the pretence and abuse of it, is intimately connected with this warfare. This expectation will be confirmed by our observing, that the representation under every trumpet appears to have some reference to, or connection with, the preparatory vision. At the sounding of almost every one of which, somewhat is seen to fall from heaven to earth, as the incense and fire had fallen, and to occasion the commotions which ensue.

Ver. 7. And the first sounded.] The prophetic history of the four first trumpets is dispatched in few words, containing few images; so that much particular information cannot be safely collected from them. Like the first four vials, they seem to have a general character. The attack, whose alarm is sounded, falls in a fourfold division: first, on the land; for, thus it seems to me that you should be translated ; not in its general signification of the earth, as containing the land, sea, rivers, &c.; but in its particular sense, as opposed to the sea, &c. * : secondly, on the sea : thirdly, on the rivers and springs : fourthly, on the heavenly luminaries,--the sun, moon, and stars; that is, on the whole of God's creation. For in the xivth chapter of this book, verse the seventh, God is described as the Creator of all things, under these divisions : “ the heaven; and the earth; and the sea; "and the springs of waters.” The same divisions of the visible world (three of them often, sometimes four,) ate to be seen in other passages of Scripture t. This mode of division is ancient, and passed to the Greek and Roman poets. Virgil, after his Greek masters, describing the creation; says:

• Numb. X. 10.

+ lb, x. 5, &c.

| Deut. x. Jer. iv. 5, 19, 21. vi. 1, 17. # Amos iii. 6. Psalm lxxi. 3. 5

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Principio cælum et terras, camposque liquentes,
Lucentemque globum lunæ, titaniaque astra,
Spiritus intùs alit
..

ÆNEID. vi. 724! In confirmation of which we may observe, that in ch. xvi. all the seven angels are ordered to pour their vials on the earth, as rão gar: and yet only one of them obeys the order literally and specially, us th go: because, in pouring their vials on the sea, rivers, &c. they fulfil the order in the general sense in which the word carth was“ applied. The word is first used, generally, to signify the whole extent of the earth, as containing the land, sea, rivers, &c.; then particularly to mear that part of it only which we call the land.

+ See Isaiah li. 15, 16. Hosea iv. 3. Nahum i. 4, 5. Hab. iii. 8, 11. Zeph. i. 3. Hagg. ii. 6. Phil. ü. 10.

Know, first, that heav'n and earth's compacted frame,
And flowing waters, and the starry flame,
And both the radiant lights, one common Soul
Inspires and feeds, and animates the whole. · DRYDEK.

.

In the fourfold enumeration before us, the rivers and springs are kept separate from the other waters, for a particular purpose of illustration, which will be seen. Hereby also is inade that fourfold division, which containing every part of the square, implies universality and completion *.. For, as th

For, as the vision of the four horses, at the voices of the four Cherubim,. passing completely around every side or angle of the throne, is seen to exhibit a.sketch of the Christian. degeneracy in all its parts, from its first purity to its utmost corruption ;

* White Jerse, we

Eirst Cherub.

Livid-green Horse, at Marta Saraj

Fourth. Cherubs'.' τετραδι

fire-coloured Horse,

Second Cherub.

tekinn Black Horse,

Third Cherub. -so, the four first trumpets seem to compose a whole, and, under a fourfold division, to represent all the parts of the Christian world as affected by the commotionst:

First Trumpet,

Land.

Fourth Trumpet, Heavenly Luminaries.

Τετρας'

omnium perfectissimus.

Second Trumpet,

Sea.

A

Third Trumpet,

Rivers, &ca. * See note, ch. iy. 6.

I say the Christian a world; for thus appear to me, those " new “ heavens," and that " new earth," described by the Prophets, and the Apostles, to be created after God in righteousness.” Isaiah li. 16. Epti ir. 24. A A

And,

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