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in effigy when the spirit is viewed in the light of heaven.'
But we must abstain from further quoting our quaint old author, of whose writings, howerer, passages in Dr. Macleod's book, wbich seem to him to be most original, continually remind us; and we will hasten on to indicate very briefly the contents of Dr. Macleod's volume. These occur in six parts. In the first we have · The Sealed Book ; or, the Book of Prelusive Judgment;' in the second, The Open Book; or, the Book of the Judging Word.' The third is entitled · Discipline; or, Revelations of Wrath on the Way of Life;' and the fourth, 'The Books; or, the Memories of the Judged.' "The Book of Life' is dealt with in part fifth, and the sixth part is a sort of appendix on memory and conscience. The whole six parts constitute a treatise, with illustrations and corroborative quotations, expansive of .Coleridge's suggestive hint,' expository of passages in the Book of Revelations, and supplying abundant considerations of solemn weight for the discouragement of sin and the promotion of religion. Dr. Macleod's vocabulary is varied and rich; his style vigorous, condensed, and vivid. The Downhill of Life: Its Exercises,
Temptations, and Dangers, with the Effectual Method of Rendering the Descent Safe and Easy, and its Termination Triumphant. By the Rev. T. H. Walker, Author of 'A Companion for
the AMicted,' &c. London: S. W. Partridge, Pater
noster Row. A BOOK intended to be useful, in a religious point of view, to those who are entering on the later stages of human life. The matter is divided into five chapters. In the first the descent into years is described ; its temptations and dangers are pointed out in the second; the path of security is shown in the third; and the remaining chapters aro occupied with consolations and supports, and joyous prospects and anticipations. The Age of Man Geologically Considered
in its Bearing on the Truths of the
Kirk wrestles with no mean opponent, for it is Sir Charles Lyell against whom he plants himself shoulder to shoulder, and he does his best (and his best is no child's hug) to give his antagonista throw. The animus for the contest is supplied by his zeal for the Christian revelation, which he iinagines to be endangered by anything tending to prove that the human race has lived on the earth more than a given number of years. His assumption is, that nuinbers in the Old Testament have no ulterior meaning. He concludes that the nine hundred and sixty-nine years of Methuselah must mean so many literal years, although he allows that the six days of creation cannot be six literal days. And in dependance on a chronology founded by men on a mere literal interpretation of the series of figures in Genesis, be conceives that the truth of Revelation will have to stand or fall just as that mere man-made computation shall be disproved or established. It, therefore, seems matter of vital importance to him to show the baselessness of alleged facts, and the illegitimacy of inferences from genuine ones, so that nothing may be held to confute the assumption that the human race did not live on this planet further back than some seren thousand years. For, as to this point of duration, Professor Kirk, forsaking the Hebrew, prefers the Septuagint, because this allows widest scope for the facts of geology to swing in. With Sir Charles Lyell, therefore, who has gathered into a bundle the scattered discoveries out of which doubts of man's so late origin havo flown abroad, Professor Kirk measures his dialectic strength and skill. Ho follows him through bogs and beds of peat, takes a roll with him through inud, plunges with him into lakes, and down to the remains of the old lakedwellings ; pursues him into his beds of gravel and sand; slides with him over the thick-ribbed ice through the glacial period; rises with him in the earth's upheavals, and sinks with its subsidences; disappears in caverns, and roots up the deposits in the bottoms of the caves; gives him no peaco even amongst the trees; brandishes and rattles over his head the bones of extinct inammalia, buries him in seashells, pelts him with skulls, and, in fact, reduces poor Sir Charles to extremities in more instances than one, giving him a clever fall, and then
Ernest Graham: A Doctor's Story.
Pp. 354. London: Wm. Tweedie, 337, Strand.
This is another of the many excellent
Designed for Teachers, Preachers, and
We have more than once noticed with pleasure this excellent Commentary, on its original appearance in numbers. Complete, as it now is, it forms a goodly volume of 480 pages. As a commentary on the natural sense of the first gospel, for the use of Sunday school teachers, it is a decided improvement upon Barnes ; and its character is such as to adapt it to be a welcome aid to preachers and educated readers generally. An Inquiry into the Reasons and Results
of the Prescription of Intoxicating Liquors in the Practice of Medicine. By Dr. F. R. Lees, F.S.A. Edin.; Author of "The Illustrated History of Alcohol,' • Alliance Argument on Prohibition,' The Science of Symbols; a Fragment of Logic,' &c.
London : Trübners, 60, Paternoster Row.
This little work,' the author says, 'was originally announced under the illustrative title of “Doctors, Drugs, and Drink,'' because, in simple truth, these words denote the proper and peculiar subjects to be discussed.' 'I mean to prove,' he adds, “and I think I shall prove, three things:- First, that doctors are not authoritative teachers; second,
grimly sitting down on him. There are, indeed, several points on which Sir Charles, set right by Professor Kirk, will have to revise his conclusions.
Notes on Epidemics: For the Use of the
Public. By Francis Edmund Anstie, M.D., F.R.C.P., Senior Assistant "Pbysician to the Westminster Hospital. Pp. 179. London: Jackson, Walford, and Hodder, 27, Paternoster Row.
The main object of Dr. Anstie in this work is to supply information to assist the non-medical public to do their part in the work of preventing epidemic diseases. For the purpose,' he says, very justly, of ensuring that early isolation of patients which is absolutely necessary, if infectious diseases are to be cut down at the roots, it is necessary that a knowledge of the value of the principal premonitory symptoms should be widely diffused among the public.' Accordingly, he has endeavoured to supply this need in the work before us, and has done it in a brief yet very intelligible manner.
· As far as possible,' he adds, the descriptions have been limited to simple physical facts, and I have gladly availed myself of one important set of phenomena which especially bear this character---namely, the changes of animal temperature as tested by the thermometer, which have lately been found to furnish most valuable information.'
In the four chapters of this useful little book, Dr. Anstie, after preliminary remarks, gives a very clear account of the premonitory symptoms of epidemic diseases; he describes with careful discrimination the fevers of destitution, relapsing fever and typhus; then the epidemic diseases, typhoid fever, cholera, and epidemic diarrhea, which are dependent on ipsanitary conditions not including destitution; and, lastly, the infectious epidemics which are comparatively independent of defective sanitary arrangements. He offers the public no advice as to the medical treatment of these various diseases, leaving that to be done by the physician when called in; but in endeavouring to place in their hands a simple and perspicacious account of the various maladies, he has produced a little book which we can recommend as of great value to such as find it desirable to be able to distinguish between different epidemics as they arise in the household.
that drugs are not the valuable curatives acceptance amongst the public had its they are supposed to be ; third, that aim been limited to this. It is intoxicating drink is neither food nor in applying himself to bis third point, physic; but, on the contrary, is hurtful -that intoxicating drink is neither both in health and disease.'
food nor physic, that Dr. Lees signally In his preface, Dr. Lees further ex. merits the gratitude of the public. He plains that he has written these chapters ransacks the whole world of illustration in the interest of the great Tempe- to assist his great argument; he detects rance Reform, after exercising much lurking antagonists, or challenges open patience, and even painful reticence, in ones, in all manner of authors; be cuts the hope that the medical profession and thrusts at them with bright, sarcastic would break the bonds of convention, blade and point; and he so elaborately and speak and act as freely and patrioti- reasons out his position, that the reader, cally on the question of drinking as however much inclined to fancy that they had done on sanitary reform. With alcohol must be good physic at any rate, half-a-dozen brilliant exceptions, he if it is not food, will find this fancy of says, he bas been bitterly disappointed. bis inclined to take its wings and fly Complaints are continually reaching away, leaving room for revised conclus him from every part of Great Britain sions to occupy its place. The work, and Ireland, from India, Africa, Aus- we have no doubt, will do very much tralia, and North America, that the good in fortifying the temperance public drink is chiefly sustained by medical against the interested or mistaken preopinions, and that weak-minded tem- scription of alcohol by medical men. perance people are being seduced from their practice, often to their utter Footsteps of a Prodigal; or, Friendly ruin, by the careless or the insistent Advice to Young Men. By William prescription of intoxicating physic. • G. Pascoe. London : Elliot Stock, Hence this book. 'I could no longer 62, Paternoster Row. decline,' he adds, 'to meet this disastrous evil, or refuse to assail the The parable of the Prodigal Son, as three-fold superstition in which it is commonly understood, is here made the entrencbed; especially when the tem- basis of a series of eight lectures to perance societies that solicited me to
young men. The author says he has publish the work also enabled me to do not written for theologians, but with an so effectually by their guarantee of earnest desire to bring out and apply twenty thousand copies.'
the great lessons contained in the chief To establish his first point, Dr. Lees of our Saviour's parables ; so that young quotes a variety of medical authors, who men especially may be won to a life of themselves confess that, 'medicine is a godliness. He expounds the parable chaos, and he adduces cases showing with earnestness and with copiousness what blunders they frequently make. of illustration, and produces a course He afterwards argues that the drugs and of lectures which he intimates he has other supposed remedial agencies used by reason to think bad happy results on medical men often do much more harm
some during their delivery by himself. than good. He includes both the great They would, we have no doubt, prore schools--allopathic and homæopathic- very widely useful if they fell into the in this sweeping censure ; but his state- hands of a large number of readers. ments and reasoning tell with little force, to ourthinking, unless against the former. Slories for Sunday Scholars. No. 9: The real object of the author was to The Best Sunday Scholar. Price One prore, not that all drugs are medicinally Penny. London : Elliot Stock, 62, useless, but that alcohol is; and the Paternoster Row. book would have had much wider
ART. I.-SELF-CULTURE: USES OF BOOKS.
1. A Course of English Reading.
By the Rev. James
2. Cassell's Popular Educator. 3. Todd's Students' Manual. With Preface by the Rev. T.
4. Self-Help. By Samuel Smiles.
5. Mental Discipline. By (the late) Rev. Dr. Burder.
VERY human being is endowed by the Creator with
affections and with faculties, the very nature of which indicates that they were intended for development, culture, expansion. Yet observation of human life needs not be very extended to afford evidence that this latter very obvious deduction, in but too many instances, is practically disregarded. How much of no-training, or wrong-training, of the affections and faculties exists among men! It is, however, on their right and proper training that the attainment of the highest good and the most nearly perfect happiness of earthly existence depends. Of this training, the necessity for which the nature of our faculties implies, there are two distinct processes. The first is that which the human being receives from others; the second, and most important, is that which he receives from himself. It is this self-training which will form the principal subject of this article.
The idea of self-culture is simple, but it is noble and worthy. He within whose breast it has stirred may be said already to have set about the work; and however great his disadvantages, the man earnestly intent thereon will seldom fail to accomplish worthy results. All true self-culture must be based upon a recognition of the essential grandeur and dignity of our human Vol. 9.–No. 35.
nature. This common humanity of ours—with its greatness and its littleness, its strength and its weakness, its capacity for nobleness and its tendency to degradation—is still the grandest temple of God's holy Spirit in His known universe; and if any one ask us to enter that temple in an irreverent and scoffing mood, we must decline to bear him company. Reverence for man simply as man, for the mighty capacities of his intellect and the universal range of those affections of his which stretch through eternity, is a cardinal principle of Christianity. This principle it is which, working like leaven in the social mass, forms one main cause of those political and social upheavings that so especially distinguish our times. This principle it is which will ultimately put down slavery, war, and the liquor-traffic; and remove or minimise human ignorance, misery, and degradation of every kind. This principle of reverence for the dignity and capacities of our nature must form a basis of all true self-culture.
Self-culture is religious, moral, and intellectual. Religion includes all morals; and the enlightenment of the moral sense is one of the most important objects to be attained by selfculture. By the moral sense we mean that principle within us which distinguishes between right and wrong, and makes one course of action the subject of self-approbation, and another of self-reproach. However curiously we may speculate respecting the moral sense, it is at least undeniable that, like every other principle within us, it depends in a very great degree for its strength and vitality on culture and exercise. There exists no stronger proof that the moral sense is capable of cultivation, than the progress of moral and social reform.
The very fact (remarks a thoughtful writer) that a community slumbers for ages over vices of the most pernicious and fatal character, and then throws them off as something too loathsome to be endured, is a sufficient demonstration that the moral sense, not only of individuals, but of nations, is in the process of education—that the law of God, though written on the heart, requires the lamp of knowledge to make it legible to the mind and authoritative upon the conduct. We fully endorse this remark, and we should be glad to find the instructors of young men more frequently urging the duty of intellectual self-culture on the broad ground that it is auxiliary to moral and religious culture. Intellectual culture is a work to be done, not merely in justice to the very nature of our mental faculties, but because an enlightened and vigorous mind sympathetically conduces to the healthful development of our religious and moral nature. The world in our days scouts the notion that ignorance is the mother of devotion.