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said in the common practice of the age to be unfilial. The first is laziness in the use of one's four limbs, without attending to the nourishment of his parents. The second is gambling and chess-playing, and being fond of wine, without attending to the nourishment of his parents. The third is being fond of goods and money, and selfishly attached to his wife and children, without attending to the nourishment of his parents. The fourth is following the desires of one's ears and eyes, so as to bring his parents to disgrace. The fifth is being fond of bravery, fighting and quarrelling so as to endanger his parents. Is Chang guilty of any one of these things?” 3. “Now between Chang and his father there arose disagreement, he, the son, reproving his father, to urge him what was good. 4. “To urge one another to what is good by reproofs is the way of friends. But such urging between father and son is the greatest injury to the kindness, which should prevail between them. 5. “Moreover, did not Chang wish to have in his family the relationships of husband and wife, child and mother? But because he had offended his father, and was not permitted to approach him, he sent away his wife, and drove forth his son, and all his life receives no cherishing attention from them. He settled it in his mind that if he did not act in this way, his would be one of the greatest of crimes—Such and nothing more is the case of Chang.” XXXI. 1. When the philosopher Tsang dwelt in Wooshing, there came a band from Yue to plunder it. Some one said to him, “The plunderers are coming:— why not leave this?” Tsang on this left the city, saying to the man in charge of the house, “Do not lodge any persons in my house, lest they break and injure the plants and trees.” When the plunderers withdrew, he sent word to him, saying, “Repair the walls of my house. I am about to return.” When the plunderers retired, the philsopher Tsang returned accordingly. His disciples said, “Since our master was treated with so much sincerity and respect, for him to be the first to go away on the arrival of the plunderers, so as to be observed by the people, and then to return on their retiring, appears to us to be improper.” Shinyew Hing said, “You do not understand this matter. Formerly, when Shin-yew was exposed to the outbreak of the grass-carriers, there were seventy disciples in our master's following, and none of them took part in the matter. 2. When Tsze-sze was living in Wei, there came a band from Tse to plunder. Some one said to him, “The plunderers are coming;-why not leave this?” Tsze-sze said, “If I go away, whom will the prince have to guard the State with ?” 3. Mencius said, “The philosopher Tsang and TszeSze agreed in the principle of their conduct. Tsang was a teacher;-in the place of a father or elder brother. Tsze-sze was a minister;-in a meaner place. If the philosophers Tsang and Tsze-sze had exchanged places, the one would have done what the other did.” XXXII. The officer Ch'oo said to Mencius, “Master, the king sent persons to spy out whether you were really different from other men.” Mencius said, “How should I be different from other men Yaou and Shun were just the same as other men.” XXXIII. 1. A man of Tsoe had a wife and a concubine, and lived together with them in his house. When their husband went out, he would get himself well filled with wine and flesh, and then return, and, on his wife's asking him with whom he ate and drank, they were sure to be all wealthy and honorable people. The wife informed the concubine, saying, “When our good man goes out, he is sure to come back having partaken plentifully of wine and flesh. I asked with whom he ate and drank, and they are all, it seems, wealthy and honourable people. And yet no people of distinction ever come here. I will spy out where our good man goes. Accordingly, she got up early in the morning, and privately followed wherever her husband went. Throughout the whole city, there was no one who stood or talked with him. At last, he came to those who were sacrificing among the tombs beyond the outer wall on the east, and begged what they had over. Not being satisfied, he looked about, and went to another party:-and this was the way in which he got himself satiated. His wife returned, and informed the concubine, saying, “It was to our husband that we looked up in hopeful contemplation, with whom our lot is cast for life;—and now these are his ways " On this, along with the concubine she reviled their husband, and they wept together in the middle hall. In the mean time the husband, knowing nothing of all this, came in with a jaunty air, carrying himself proudly to his wife and concubine.

2. In view of a superior man, as to the ways by which men seek for riches, honours, gain, and advancement, there are few of their wives and concubines who would not be ashamed and weep together on account of them.


CHAPTER I. 1. Wan Chang asked Mencius, saying, When “Shun went into the fields, he cried out and wept towards the pitying heavens. Why did he cry out and weep?” Mencius replied, “He was dissatisfied, and full of earnest desire.”

2. Wan Chang said, “When his parents love him, a son rejoices and forgets them not. When his parents hate him, though they punish him, he does not murmur. Was Shun then murmuring against his parents 2'" Mencius answered, “ Ch'ang Seih asked Kung-ming Kaou, saying, “As to Shun's going into the fields, I have received your instructions, but I do not know about his weeping and crying out to the pitying heavens and to his parents.” Kung-ming Kaou answered him, ‘You do not understand that matter’. Now, Kung-ming Kaou supposed that the heart of the filial son could not be so free of sorrow. Shun would say, “I exert my strength to cultivate the fields, but I am thereby only discharging my office as a son. What can there be in me that my parents do not love me?’

3. “The emperor caused his own children, nine sons and two daughters, the various officers, oxen and sheep, storehouses and granaries, all to be prepared, to serve Shun amid the channeled fields. Of the scholars of the empire there were multitudes who flocked to him. The emperor designed that Shun should superintend the empire along with him, and then to transfer it to him entirely. But because his parents were not in accord with him, he felt like a poor man who has nowhere to turn to. 4. “To be delighted in by the scholars of the empire, is what men desire, but it was not sufficient to remove the sorrow of Shun. The possession of beauty is what men desire, and Shun had for his wives the two daughters of the emperor, but this was not sufficient to remove his sorrow. Riches are what men desire, and the empire was the rich property of Shun, but this was not sufficient to remove his sorrow. Honours are what men desire, and Shun had the dignity of being emperor, but this was not sufficient to remove his sorrow. The reason why the being the object of men's delight, the possession of beauty, riches, and honours, were not sufficient to remove his sorrow, was that it could be removed only by his getting his parents to be in accord with him. 5. “The desire of the child is towards his father and mother. When he becomes conscious of the attractions of beauty, his desire is towards young and beautiful women. When he comes to have a wife and children, his desire is towards them. When he obtains office, his desire is towards his sovereign:—if he cannot get the regard of his sovereign, he burns within. But the man of great filial piety, to the end of his life, has his desire towards his parents. In the great Shun I see the case of one whose desire of fifty years was towards them.” II. 1. Wan Chang asked Mencius, saying, “It is said in the Book of Poetry, “In marrying a wife, how ought a man to proceed? He must inform his parents.’ If the rule be indeed as here expressed, no man ought to have illustrated it so well as Shun. How was it that Shun's marriage took place without his informing his parents * Mencius replied, “If he had informed them,

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