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2. “ Though a man may be wicked, yet if he adjust his thoughts, fast, and bathe, he may sacrifice to God.”

XXVI. i. Mencius said, “ All who speak about the natures of things, have in fact only their phenomena to reason from, and the value of a phenomenon is in its being natural.

2. “What I dislike in your wise men is their boring out their conclusions. If those wise men would only act as Yu did when he conveyed away the waters, there would be nothing to dislike in their wisdom. The manner in which Yu conveyed away the waters was by doing what gave him no trouble. If your wise men would also do that which gave them no trouble, their knowledge would also be great.

3. “ There is heaven so high; there are the stars so distant. If we have investigated their phenomena, we may, while sitting in our places, go back to the solstice of a thousand years ago.

XXVII. 1. The officer Kung-hang having on hand the funeral of one of his sons, the Master of the Right went to condole with him. When this noble entered the door, some called him to them and spoke with him, and some went to his place and spoke with him.

2. Mencius did not speak with him, so that he was displeased, and said, “ All the gentlemen have spoken with me. There is only Mencius who does not speak to me, thereby slighting me.”

3. Mencius, having heard of this remark, said, “ ACcording to the prescribed rules, in the court, individuals may not change their places to speak with one another, nor may they pass from their ranks to bow to one another. I was wishing to observe this rule, and Tszegaou understands it that I was slighting him :—is not this strange ?

XXVIII. 1. Mencius said, “ That whereby the superior man is distinguished from other men is what he

preserves in his heart;-namely, benevolence and pro priety.

2. “ The benevolent man loves others. The man of propriety shows respect to others.

3. “He who loves others is constantly loved by them. He who respects others is constantly respected by them.

4. “ Here is a man, who treats me in a perverse and unreasonable manner. The superior man in such a case will turn round upon himself— I must have been wanting in benevolence; I must have been wanting in · propriety :-how should this have happened to me?'

5. “He examines himself, and is specially benevolent. He turns round upon himself, and is specially observant of propriety. The perversity and unreasonableness of the other, however, are still the same. The superior man will again turn round on himself—'I must have been failing to do my utmost.

6. “He turns round upon himself, and proceeds to do his utmost, but still the perversity and unreasonableness of the other are repeated. On this the superior man says, “This is a man utterly lost indeed! Since he conducts himself so, what is there to choose between him and a brute? Why should I go to contend with a brute ? '

7. “ Thus it is that the superior man has a life-long anxiety and not one morning's calamity. As to what is matter of anxiety to him, that he has.He says, ‘Shun was a man, and I also am a man. But Shun becarne an example to the empire, and his conduct was worthy to be handed down to after ages, while I am nothing better than a villager.' This indeed is proper matter of anxiety to him. And in what way is he anxious about it? Just that he may be like Shun: then only will he stop. As to what the superior man would feel to be a calamity, there is no such thing. He does nothing which is not according to propriety. If there should befal him one morning's calamity, the superior man does not account it a calamity.”

XXIX. 1. Yu and Tseih, in an age of tranquillizing government, thrice passed their doors without entering them. Confucius praised them.

2. The disciple Yen, in an age of confusion, dwelt in a mean narrow lane, having his single bamboo-cup of rice, and his single gourd-dish of water; other men could not have endured the distress, but he did not allow his joy to be affected by it. Confucius praised him.

3. Mencius said, “Yu, Tseih, and Yen Hwuy agreed in the principle of their conduct.

4. “ Yu thought that if any one in the empire were drowned, it was as if he drowned him. Tseih thought that if any one in the empire suffered hunger, it was as if he famished him. It was on this account that they were so earnest.

5. “ If you and Tseih, and the philosopher Yen, had exchanged places, each would have done what the other


6. “ Here now in the same apartment with you are people fighting :-you ought to part them. Though you part them with your cap simply tied over your unbound hair, your conduct will be allowable.

7. “If the fighting be only in the village or neighbourhood, if you go to put an end to it with your cap tied over your hair unbound, you will be in error. A1though you should shut your door in such a case, your conduct would be allowable.”

XXX. 1. The disciple Kung-too said, “ Throughout the whole kingdom every body pronounces Kéwang unfilial. But you, Master, keep company with him, and moreover treat him with politeness. I venture to ask why you do so ?”

2. Mencius replied, “ There are five things which are

said in the common practice of the age to be unfilial. The first is laziness in the use of one's four limbs, without attending to the nourishment of his parents. The second is gambling and chess-playing, and being fond of wine, without attending to the nourishment of his parents. The third is being fond of goods and money, and selfishly attached to his wife and children, without attending to the nourishment of his parents. The fourth is following the desires of one's ears and eyes, so as to bring his parents to disgrace. The fifth is being fond of bravery, fighting and quarrelling so as to endanger his parents. Is Chang guilty of any one of these things ?

3. “ Now between Chang and his father there arose disagreement, he, the son, reproving his father, to urge him what was good.

4. “To urge one another to what is good by reproofs is the way of friends. But such urging between father and son is the greatest injury to the kindness, which should prevail between them.

5. “Moreover, did not Chang wish to have in his family the relationships of husband and wife, child and mother ? But because he had offended his father, and was not permitted to approach him, he sent away his wife, and drove forth his son, and all his life receives no cherishing attention from them. He settled it in his mind that if he did not act in this way, his would be one of the greatest of crimes.—Such and nothing more is the case of Chang.”

XXXI. 1. When the philosopher Tsang dwelt in Wooshing, there came a band from Yue to plunder it. Some one said to him, The plunderers are coming :why not leave this ?” Tsang on this left the city, say. ing to the man in charge of the house, “ Do not lodge any persons in my house, lest they break and injure the plants and trees.” When the plunderers withdrew, he sent word to him, saying, “ Repair the walls of my house. I am about to return.” When the plunderers retired, the philsopher Tsang returned accordingly. His disciples said, “Since our master was treated with so much sincerity and respect, for him to be the first to go away on the arrival of the plunderers, so as to be observed by the people, and then to return on their retiring, appears to us to be improper.” Shinyew Hing said, “ You do not understand this matter. Formerly, when Shin-yew was exposed to the outbreak of the grass-carriers, there were seventy disciples in our master's following, and none of them took part in the matter.

2. When Tsze-sze was living in Wei, there came a band from Tse to plunder. Some one said to him, “ The plunderers are coming ;- why not leave this ?”. Tsze-sze said, “ If I go away, whom will the prince have to guard the State with ?”

3. Mencius said, “ The philosopher Tsang and Tszesze agreed in the principle of their conduct. Tsang was a teacher;- in the place of a father or elder brother. Tsze-sze was a minister ;-in a meaner place. If the philosophers Tsang and Tsze-sze had exchanged places, the one would have done what the other did.”

XXXII. The officer Ch‘oo said to Mencius, “ Master, the king sent persons to spy out whether you were really different from other men.” Mencius said, “ How should I be different from other men! Yaou and Shun were just the same as other men.”

XXXIII. 1. A man of Ts'e had a wife and a concubine, and lived together with them in his house. When their husband went out, he would get himself well filled with wine and flesh, and then return, and, on his wife's asking him with whom he ate and drank, they were sure to be all wealthy and honorable people. The wife informed the concubine, saying, “ When our good

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