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27.- Sweet incense.” Heb. “ The incense of sweet

spices.” The sweet incense used in the Hindoo temples is composed of the following articles:- Frankincense, Kungelium (two kinds of rosin), Sarsaparilla, Periploca Indica, Curcuma Zedoria, Cyperus Tixtilis, Kondo Sange-Lingam, of which the Materia Medica says, “This is a sweet-smelling yellowcoloured root, with which the natives prepare a fragrant liniment for the head.” Also the root of the lime tree.

LEVITICUS.

Chap. I. verse 15. — “Wring off his head.” Hebrew,

“ Pinch off the head with the nail.” The Hindoos, in offering a fowl, always cut off the head.

II. 13. — “And every oblation of thy meat offering shalt

thou season with salt.” Dean Spencer, as quoted by. D’Oly and Mant, says, “ Many of the ceremonial laws of the Hebrews have reference to the idolatrous opinions of the neighbouring nations and their corresponding rites, for they were given in opposition to them.”

The preceding verse, and the one now transcribed, may be of the description alluded to. The heathen never use salt in any of their offerings. The Hebrews offered bullocks and heifers; but a Hindoo would as soon offer his child as a heifer. Neither can any female be offered by the heathen.

IV. 4. — “ Shall lay his hand upon the bullock's head.” It is a fact that when a man makes an offering of a goat or a ram, he puts one leg over it (as on horseback), puts his hand on the head, while the priest repeats the mantherams or prayers; after which the head is struck off at one blow.

22. — “ Hath sinned through ignorance.” It is truly amusing to hear a man after he has been detected in a crime, declare it was all arreyāmey, all ignorance. The thief before the judge says, “ Forgive me, my lord, it was done in ignorance; my lord, let ignorance plead for mercy."

V. 2.-" If a soul touch any unclean thing, whether it be & carcase of an unclean beast, or a carcase of un

clean cattle he shall be unclean." Should a

person of high caste touch those who are of low caste, or the dead body of any animal, he is unclean, and must go through the prescribed ceremonies, before he can be pure. A man of the Saiva, and some other sects, by touching a dog, pig, ass, or buffalo, becomes unclean.

7. — “ If he be not able to bring a lamb.” Hebrew,

“ His hand cannot reach to the sufficiency of a lamb." The Tamul has this, " to his hand a lamb if not.”

VI. 13.-" The fire shall ever be burning.” The fire used in the great sacrifice of the Yagam must be taken from the fire of some former offering of the same kind, or produced afresh by the rubbing together of two pieces of wood; any other would amount to that which is called

strange fire." Lev. x. 1.

A lamp is continually burning in the temple; but should it by accident be extinguished, it is relighted by fire procured in the way alluded to, or in an emergency from the house of a high caste man, which, however, has to be made holy before used for sacred purposes.

The sacrifice called Yāgam is very expensive, and believed to be most effectual in procuring the things desired by the offerers. From the fire of this offering, the individual who makes it takes a portion, which is sacredly kept to light his funeral pile.

VII. 13. — “Shall offer for his offering leavened bread.” The cakes, or bread, offered in the ceremonies of the Hindoos, are always unleavened. For domestic purposes, on

Some years ago Rāma Swamy Aiyar made the offering of the Yagam, at Sedambaram, which cost 20,000 pieces of gold.

the contrary, leaven is procured by allowing a little of the dough to become sour.

VIII. 31. — “ Boil the flesh at the door of the taber

nacle there eat it.” The Hindoos would almost as soon eat the flesh of a living animal as that which has been boiled. It is always roasted, or made into curry, or prepared with spices. They are astonished at Englishmen eating a boiled fowl, or boiled fish. They say the natural scent of the animal cannot thus be taken away. The Moormen tell, as a very wonderful thing, that boiled flesh is sold at Mecca.

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XI. 33.—“And every earthen vessel whereinto any

of them falleth shall be unclean, and ye shall

break it." This refers to any unclean or dead animal falling into or touching an earthen vessel.

Most of the cooking utensils of the Hindoos are of earthen ware. Should an unclean, or dead animal, or insect, touch or fall into them, they must be broken. Nay, should a person of low caste get a look at the cooking vessels of a Brahmin, or one of the Saiva sect, they will immediately be broken; and no small portion of abuse be poured upon the offending individual. Should an unfortunate dog, in his prowlings, find his way into the kitchen, and begin to lick the vessels, woe be to him! for he will not only have hard words, but. hard blows; and then follows the breaking of the vessels. On this account, the Brahmins, and others, conceal their earthen ware when not in use.

XII. 2. - “ If a woman have conceived seed, and born a

man-child, then she shall be unclean seven days.” 4. “ She shall then continue in the blood of her purifying, three and thirty days : she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purifying be fulfilled.” 5. “If she bear a maid child, then she shall be unclean two weeks. 6. “ When the days of her purifying are

fulfilled - she shall bring -- a burnt offering.” After the birth of a child, the mother of the Brahmin caste is unclean eleven days; of the royal family, sixteen; of the merchant caste, twenty-one; of the Vellalah and other castes, thirty-one days.

No difference is made in the time of purification for a male or female child.

As were the Hebrew women, so are these; they cannot touch any hallowed thing, nor even the vessels used for domestic purposes.

When the days of her purification are over, she takes or sends an offering to the temple.

XIII. 45.- “ The leper shall put a covering upon

his upper lip." The prophet Ezekiel, in reference to the death of his wife, was ordered not to “cry,” neither to cover the lips; (the margin bas “ upper lip ”). The prophet Micah (iii. 7. describes the confusion and sorrow of those who had by their wickedness offended the Lord. “Then shall the seers be ashamed, and the diviners confounded : yea, they shall all cover their lips, for there is no answer of God." Margin again has, “ upper lip."

All these passages refer to the sorrow of those concerned. A person in deep distress puts his hand over his mouth, and hangs down his head, as if looking on the ground. When a man suddenly claps his hand on his mouth, it denotes great sorrow or surprise. To put the fingers in a line with the nose, conveys the idea of silence and submission.

“ Why is your hand on your mouth ? ” — “Not for joy.” “ But why?”—“My son, my son, my wicked son! He has gone with the evil ones to the distant country.” “Ah, friend, why is your hand there?” -“ Alas, the tigers got

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