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CHA P. IV.

Of VERBS and PARTICIPLES.

RULE I.

V , ,

ERBS Reciprocal, or that take myself,

Pronoun to be before them, and the Verb have is ·
changed into the Verb am.
Ex. I make haste, mi affretto.

He kills himself, si ammazza.
He has wondered, s'è maravigliato.
To raise himself, (in the Infinitive] levarfi.

RULE II.

My, thy, his, her, our, your, their, before a Part of the Body, or the Word Mind, are turned by myself, thyself, himself, &c. and the Article the or to the is put before the Part expreffed. Ex. I wash my Hands, mi lavo le mani.

The Wine makes his Head ake, il vins gli

mal al capo.

I kiss your Hands, vi, or, le bacio le mani.
He has put to his Mind, sa meso nell ima-

ginatione.

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RULE III. The Italians make ufe of the Verb Reciprocal, instead of the Verb Passive, which is put in the third Person, either Singular or Plural, as the Noun requires. Ex. Things are doing slowly, le cose si fanno piano. Books are sold, fi vendono libri, or, i libri

vendono.

RULE IV.
It is, it was, it has been, are turned by è, era,
, and the other third Persons of the Verb fono.
Ex. It is Time, è tempo.

It is the Time, è il tempo.
It was five o'Clock, erano le cinque hore.
It is we, fiamonoi.

RU LE V. He is a, she is a,, are expressed by è un M. è una F. and by the third Persons of the Verb fono I am. Ex. He is, a Man of Business, è huomo d'affari.

She is a fine brown Woman, è bella bruna.

RU LE VI.

They are, is expressed by fono, the third Person Plural of the Verb essere to be. Ex. They are Soldiers, fono foldati.

They are good for nothing, non sono buone.

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RULE VII.

It is, in speaking of the Weather, is expressed by fà, the third Person Singular of the Verb fare, and in a Question ; but otherways, if the Noun: comes before the Verb, it is or are, are è or fono, Ex. It is cold, freddo.

The Weather is hot, il tempo è caldo.
What Weather is it? che tempo fa?
The Streets are dirty, le strade sono sparche.

RULE VIII.

Am, and its Tenses, before these four Qualities: of the Body, hot, cold, dry, hungry, are expressed by the Verb havere to have; dry is turned by thirst sete F. and hungry by hunger fame F. Ex. I am cold, freddo.

I am dry, sete.

RULE IX.

The Italians make use of the Verb andare to go, and the Verb following to be rendered by the Gerund in do, for Verbs of Motion, and the Verb andare is put in the fame Tense that the Gerund ought to be. Ex. I will accompany him, anderò accompagnan

dolo.

Stare

Stare to stand, is in like manner made use of for Words of Rest, with the Gerund in do, or an Infinitive with à or ad before it.

Ex. He studies, stà studiando, or, stà à studiare.

RUL E X. The Verb ought is rendered by dovere. Ex. I ought, or, must go, devo, or, debbo andare.

RU LE XI.
The Verb may or can, is rendered by potere.
Ex. May I speak ? poso jo parlare ?

That you may, lo potete.

RU LE XII.

The Particle mould, in laying an Obligation or Duty, is turned by ought ; doverei, doveresti, doverebbe, doverenimo, doverefte, doverebbero. Ex. You should go to see him, doverefte andar à

vederlo

..

RULE XIII.

Might, implying a Power, is expressed by potero, poterei, potessi. Ex. He prayed me he might come, me pregò che

potesse venire.

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R U L E XIV. The Definite Tense of Verbs, which is the third Tense of the Indicative Mood, is used in expressing an Action past, and in relating a Story. Ex. I saw him yesterday, lo viddi hieri.

The King took Namur, il pigliò Namurco.

RULE XV.

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The Indefinite Tense is turned by the Verbs have or am, and the Participle Common, when we express an Action from Morning to Midnight; and when this or these are before a Part of Time.

Ex. I saw him to-day, l'hò veduto hoggi.

RULE XVI.

To, before an Infinitive, is expressed by di, after a Noun, or a Verb governing the Genitive or Ablative Case in Latin : And when we can turn to by of or from, and the Infinitive into a Participle in ing. To is also da after a Verb that governs an Ablative Care. Ex. He is worthy to speak, or, of speaking, è digno

di parlare. She hinders me to go, or, from going, m' im.

pedisce di andare. I am glad to see you, gran gufto di vederla.

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