« הקודםהמשך »
the ten commandments. A. M. 2553 that time, to show you the word nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor
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B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. of the Lord: for fye were afraid any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger An. Ex. Isr. 10.
• Sebat. by reason of the fire, and went that is within thy gates; that not up into the mount;) saying,
thy man-servant and thy maid-servant may 6 & I am the Lorý thy God, which brought rest as well as thou, thee out of the land of Egypt; from the house 15 ' And remember that thou wast a servant of 5 bondage.
in the land of Egypt, and that the LORD thy 7 i Thou shalt have none other gods before God brought thee out thence s through a
mighty hand, and by a stretched-out arm:
9 Thou shalt not bow down thyself untou that thy days may be prolonged, and that it
10 - And showing mercy unto thousands of 19 *Neither shalt thou steal.
against thy neighbour.
his maid-servant, his ox, or his ass, or any 12 Keep the Sabbath day to sanctify it, as thing that is thy neighbour's.. the LORD thy God hath commanded thee. 22 These words the LORD spake unto all
13 P Six days thou shalt labour, and do all your assembly in the mount out of the midst thy work :
of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick dark14 But the seventh day is the 4 Sabbath of ness, with a great voice : and he added no the LORD thy God : in it thou shalt not do more. And a he wrote them in two tables of any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, stone, and delivered them unto-me. nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, 23 b And it came to pass, when ye heard
"Exod. xix. 16; xx. 18; xxiv. 2. -Exod. xx. 2, &c.; Lev. •Chap. iv. 34, 37. Exod. xx. 12; Lev. vx. 3; chap. xxvi. 1; ch. vi. 4; Psa. lxxxi. 10.- h Heb. servants. Exod. xxvii. 16; Eph: vi: 2, 3; Col. vi. 20. Chap. iv. 40. xx. 3. Exod. xx. 4.- Exod. xxxiv. 7. m Jer. xxxii. 18; Exod. xx: 13; Matt. x. 21. -w Exod. xx. 14; Luke yvui. Dan. ix. 4.- Exodus xx. 7 ; Lev. xix. 12; Matthew v. 33. 20; James ii. ii. - Exod. xx. 15; Rom. xiii. 9.- Exod. * Exod. xx. 8. Exod. xxiii. 12; xxxv. 2; Ezek. XX. 12.
- Exod. xx. 17; Mic. ii. 2; Hab. ir. 9; Luke xii. 15; 4 Gen. ii. 2; Exod. xvi. 29, 30; Heb. iv. 4. — Clap. xv. 15; Rom. vii. 7; xii. 9. -a Exod. xxiv. 12; xxxi. 18; chap. iv. xvi. 12; xxiv. 18, 22.
Lo Exod. xx. 18, 19. Verse 6. I am the Lord thy God] See these-com- that it might be kept in remembrance of the rest which mandments explained in the notes on Exod. xx. remains at the right hand of God.
Verse 15. And remember that thou wast. a servant] Therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to In, this and the latter clause of the preceding verse keep the Sabbath day.) Here is a variation in the Moses adds another reason why one day, in seven manner of expression, Sabbath day for seventh, owing, should be sanctified, viza, that the servants might rest, it is supposed, to a change of the day at the exodus and this is urged upon them on the consideration of from Sunday to Saturday, effected upon the gathering their having been servants in the land of Egypt. We of the manna, Exod. xvi. 23. The Sabbath now besee therefore that God had three grand ends in view came a twofold memorial of the deliverance, as well as by appointing a Sabbath. 1. To commemorate the of the creation ; and this accounts for the new reason creation, 2. To give a due proportion of rest to man assigned for its observance : “ Therefore the Lord and beast. When in Egypt they had no rest ; their thy God commanded thee to keep the Sabbath day." cruel task-masters caused them to labour without in- See. Dr. A. Bayley's Heb. and Eng. Bible, and the termission : now God had given rest, and as he had note on Exod. xvi. 23. showed them mercy, he teaches them to show mercy Verse 21. His field] This clause is not in the to their servants : Remember that thou wast a servant. tenth commandment as it stands in Exod. xx. 17. 3. To afford peculiar spiritual advantages to the soul,! Verse 23, &c. And it came to pass, when
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The people greatly fear, and
beseech Moses to speak to them. the voice out of the midst of the words of this people, which they
A. M. 2553. An. Ex. Isr. 40. darkness, (for the mountain did have spoken unto thee: they An. Ex. Ist. 40. burn with fire,) that ye came have well said all that they have
Sebat. near unto me, even all the heads of
your tribes, spoken. and your elders ;
29 ko that there were such a heart in 24 And yë said, Behold, the Lord our God them, that they would fear me, and keep all hath showed us his glory and his greatness, my commandments always, m that it might be and we have heard his voice out of the midst well with them, and with their children for ever! of the fire : we have seen this day that God 30 Go say to them, Get you into your tents doth talk with man, and he a liveth.
again. 25 Now therefore why should we die? for 31 But as for thee, stand thou here by me, this great fire will consume us: if we f hear and I will speak unto thee all the commandthe voice of the Lond our God any more, ments, and the statutes, and the judgments, then we shall die.
which thou shalt teach them, that they may 26 For who is there of all flesh, that hath do them in the land which I give them to posheard the voice of the living God speaking sess it. out of the midst of the fire, as we have, and 32 Ye shall observe to do therefore as the lived ?
LORD your God hath commanded you : °ye 27 Go thou near, and hear all that the LORD shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the our God shall say: and b speak thou unto us left, all that the Lord our God shall speak. unto 33' Ye shall walk in Pall the ways which thee'; and we will hear it, and do it. the LORD your God hath commanded you,
28. And the Lord heard the voice of your that ye may live, 9 and that it may be well words, when ye spake unto me; and the Lord with you, and that ye may prolong your days said unto me, I have heard the voice of the in the land which ye
• Exod. xix. 19.- Chap. iv, 33 ; Judg. xvi. 22.- Chap. Chap. xi. 1.-wm Chap. iv, 40.- un Gal. iii. 19. Chap xviii. 16. Heb. add-to hear - Chap. iv. 33. h Exod. xvii. 20 ; xxviii. 14; Joshua i. 7; xxii. 6; Proverbs iv. 27. xx. 19; Heb, xü. 19.
Chap, xviii. 17. Chap. xxxi. 29; p Chap. x. 12; Psa, cxix. 6; Jer. vii. 23; Luke i. 6.- –4 Chap Psa. Ixxxi: 13 ; Isa. xlviii. 18; Matt. xxiii. 37; Luke xix. 42. iv. 40; Exod. xx. 12.
ye heard the voice] See the notes on Exod. xx. never gave a commandment to man which he did not 18, &c.
design that he should obey. He who selects from the Verse 29. O that there were such a heart in them] Divine testimonies such precepts as he feels but little Or rather, '777 0234.777 jou yo mi yitten vehayah le- inclination to transgress, and lives in the breach of babam zeh, Who will give such a heart to them, that others, síns against the grand-legislative authority of they may fear, &c. They refuse to receive such a God, and shall be treated as a rebel. heart from me; who then can supply it ?. If they had That ye may live] jinn ticheyun, that ye may ennot been such perfectly free agents as could either use joy life, (for the paragógic | nun, at the end of the or abuse their liberty, could God have made the com- word, deepens the sense,) that it may be well with you, plaint or expressed the earnest desire we find in this fosh siwi vetob lachem, and good shall be to you—God verse ? He made the human will free; and in spite of will prospet you in all things essential to the welfare all the influence of sin, and Satan, he preserves its of your bodies, and the salvation of
souls. · liberty. Had man no free will, he could neither, be That ye may prolong your days in the land] That punished nor rewarded, because a mere machine, and ye may arrive at a good old age, and grow more and consequently no more accountable for his actions than more meet for the inheritance among the saints in light. the fire for its consuming quality, or the stone for itsOn this very important versę we may remark, a gravity; the one having burned the house of the long life is a great blessing, if a man live to God, berighteous, the other having crushed the innocent to cause it is in life, and in life alone, that a preparation death. See thề note on chap. Axixi 4.
for eternal glory may be acquired. Those who wish Verse 32, Ye shall observe to do] He who marks to die soon, have never yet learned to live, and know not the word of God is never likely to fulfil the will not the value of life or time. Many have a vain hope of God:
that, they shall get either in death, or in the other Ye shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the world, a preparation for glory. This is a fatal error. left.) The way of truth and righteousness is a right Here, alone, we may acquaint ourselves' with God, and line ; a man must walk straight forward who wishes receive that holiness without which none can see him. to go to glory; no crooked or devious path ever led Reader, be thankful to him that thou art still in a to God or happiness.
state of probation; and pray that thou mayest live for Verse 33. Ye shall walk in all the ways, 8c.) God eternity.
The great design of God
in giving his laws
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שמע ישראל יהוה אלהינו [Verse 4. Hear
CHAPTER VI. The great design of God in giving his laws is, that the people may fear and obey him, that they may continue
in peace and prosperity, and be mightily increased, 1-3. The great commandment of the law, 4, 5, which shall be laid up in their hearts, 6 ; taught to their children, 7; and affixed as a sign to their hands, heads, doors, and gates, 8, 9. How they are to act when they shall come into the promised land, 10–19. How they shall instruct their children, and relate the history to them of God's wonderful aots, 20–25.
NOW these are " the command- |life ; d and that thy days may be
ments, the 'statutes, and the prolonged.
judgments, which the Lord your 3: Hear therefore, o Israel, God commanded to teach you, that ye might and observe to do it; that it may be well do them in the land whither ye bgo to pos- with thee, and that ye may increase mightily, sess it :
as the LORD God of thy fathers hath pro 2 . That thou mightest fear the Lord thy mised thee, in the land that floweth with milk God, to keep all his statutes and his com- and honey. mandments, which I command thee, thou, and 4 Hear, 0-Israel: The LORD our God is thy son, and thy son's son, all the days of thy one Lord: · Chap. iv. l; v.31; xii. 1.
- Heb. pass over.
: Genesis xv. 5; wie 17. xx. 20; chap. x. 12, 13; Psa. cxi. 10;' cxxviii. 1; Eccles. 'Exod. 1. 8. -8 Isa. xlp. 8; Mark xii. 29, 32; John xrü. 3;
I Cor. viii. 4, 6.
conduct men to heaven. . But let it be fully underVerse 1.
Now these are the commandments, c.} stood that no man can walk in the way of obedienee See the difference between commandments, statutes, but by, and under the influence of the grace of God. judgments, &c., pointed out Lev. xxvi. 15. .
, Đo them] That is, live in the continual practice of them ; . for by this they were to be distinguished from The nin' shem A Yisrael, Yehovah Eloheinu, Yehoall the nations of the world, and all these were to be vahachad. These words may be variously rendered in force till the Son of God should come. Whither ye into English ; but almost all possible verbal varieties go, O'ndy oberim, whither ye pass over, referring to in the translation (and there can be none other) amount the river Jordan, across which they must pass to get to the same sense : “Israel, hear! Jehovah, our God, into Canaan.
is one Jehovah ;"or, “ Jehovah is our God, Jehovah Verse 2. That thou mightest fear the Lord] Re-is one ;” or, “ Jehovah is our God, Jehovah alone;": spect his sovereign authority as a lawgiver, and ever or, “ Jehovah is our God, Jehovah who is one;" 07, feel thyself bound to obey him. No man can walk " Jehovah, who is our God,- is the one Being.". On either conscientiously or safely who has not the fear this verse the Jews lay.great stress ; it is one of the of God continually before his eyes. When this is foar passages which they write on their phylacteries, gone, more than a guardian angel is Aed.
and they write the last letter in the first and last words Thou, and thy son, and thy son's son] Througbi all very large, for the purpose of exciting attention to the thy successive generations. Whoever fears God will weighty truth it contains. It is perhaps in reference endeavour to bring up his children in the way of to this custom of the Jews that our blessed Lord righteousness, that they also may fear God, and that alludes, Matt. xxii. 38;. Mark xii: 29, 30, where he pure and undefiled religion may be preserved in his says, This is the first and great commandment ; and family through all its generations, not only in word, this is nearly the comment that Maimonides gives on but in practice also.
this place; "Hear, O Israel; because in these words the Verse 3. Hear therefore, O Israel; and observe to property, the love, and the doctrine of God are contained." do it] Literally, Ye shall hear, O Israel, and thou Many think that Moses teaches in these words the shalt keep to do them. 1. God is to be heard; rio doctrine of the Trinity in Unity. It may be so; but obligation without law tó found it on, and no law in 'if so, it is not more clearly done than in the first verse religion but from God. . 2. The commandment must of Genesis, to which the reader is referred. When be understood in order to be obeyed. :3. It must be this passage occurs in the Sabbath readings in the observed—attentively considered, in order to be under- synagogue, the whole congregation repeat the last stood. And, 4. It must be performed, that the end word hi achad for several minutes together with the for which it was given may be accomplished, viz., that loudest vociferations : this I suppose they do to vent God may be glorified, and that it may be well with a little of their spleen against the Christians, for they the people. What is here spoken applies powerfully to suppose the latter hold three Gods, because of their every part of the moral law; God has given it as a doctrine of the Trinity; but all their skill and cunning rule of life, therefore obedience to it is indispensably can never prove that there is not a plurality expressed necessary, not to the purchase of salvation, for no in the word 199758 Eloheinu, which is translated our human merit can ever extend to that, but it is the way | God; and were the Christians, when reading this by which both the justice and mercy of God choose to Iverse, to vociferate Eloheinu for several minutes as
The commandments are
never to be forgotten. A. M. 2553. 5 And thou shalt love the . And thou shalt write them A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr . 40. Lord thy God i with all thine upon the posts of thy house, and An. Ex. Ier. 40.
Sebat. heart, and with all thy soul, and on thy gates. with all thy might.
10 And it shall be, when the LORD thy 6 And kthese words, which I command God shall have brought thee into the land thee this day, shall be in thine heart: which he sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham,
7 And 'thou shalt * teach them diligently to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give thee great and unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when goodly cities, P which thou buildedst not, thou sittest in thine house, and when thou 11 And houses full of all good things, which walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, thou filledst not, and wells digged, which thou and when thou risest up.
diggedst not, vineyards and olive-trees, which 8'* And thou shalt bind them for a sign thou plantedst not; " when thou shalt have upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets eaten and be full ; between thine eyes.
12 Then beware lest thou forget the LORD, Chap. x. 12; Matt. xxii. 37; Mark xii. 30; Luke x. 27. Psa. lxxviii. 4, 5, 6; Eph. vi. 4. Heb. whet or sharpen. i 2 Kings xxin. 25. ck Chap. xi. 18; xxxii. 46; Psa. xxxvii. 31 ; Exod. xiii. 9, 16;ch. xi.18; Prov. i11.3, vi. 21 ; vii. 3. –0 Ch. xi. xl. 8; cxix. 11, 98; Prov. 111. 3; Isa. li. 7.- Ch. iv. 9; xi. 19; 20; Isa. lvii.8.-Josh. xxiv. 13; Psa: cv. 44. —- Ch. viii. 10, &c. the Jews do achad, it would apply more forcibly in And when thou walkest by the way) Thou shalt be the way of conviction to the Jews of the plurality of religious abroad as well as at home, and not be ashamed persons in the Godhead, than the word achad, of one, to own God wheresoever thou art. against any pretended false tenet of Christianity, as When thou liest down, and when thou risest up.) every Christian receives the doctrine of the unity of Thou shalt begin and end the day with God, and thus God in the most conscientious manner. It is because religion will be the great business of thy life. O how of their rejection of this doctrine that the wrath of good are these sayings, but how little regarded ! God continues to rest on them ; for the doctrine of the Verse 8. Thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine atonement, cannot be received, unless the doctrine of hand] Is not this an allusion to an ancient and genethe Godhead of Christ is received too. Some Chris- ral custom observed in almost every part of the world? tians have joined the Jews against this doctrine, and When a person wishes to remember a thing of imporsome have even outdone them, and have put them- tance, and is afraid to trust to the common operations selves to extraordinary pains to prove that d'obs of memory, he ties a knot on some part of his clothes, Elohim is a noun of the singular number! This has or a cord on his hand or finger, or places something not yet been proved. It would be as easy to prove out of its usual order, and in view, that his memory that there is no plural in language.
may be whetted to recollection, and his eye affect his Verse 5. Thou shalt love the Lord, fc.] Here we heart. God, who knows how slow of heart we are to see the truth of that word of the apostle, 1 Tim. i. 5: understand, graciously orders us to make use of every Now the end of the COMMANDMENT is Love out of a help, and through the means of things sensible, to rise pure heart, &c.
See the whole of the doctrine con- to things spiritual. tained in this verse explained on Matt. xxii. 36-40. And they shall be as fronllets) noow totaphoth seems
Verse 6. Shall in thine heart] For where else to have the same meaning as phylacteries has in the can love be? If it be not in the heart, it exists not. New Testament; and for the meaning and description And if these words be not in the heart---if they are not of these appendages to a Jew's dress and to his reliesteemed, prized, and received as a high and most gion, see the notes on Exod. xiii. 9, and on Matt. xxiii. glorious privilege, what hope is there that this love 5, where a phylactery is particularly described. shall ever reign there?
Verse 9. Write them upon the posts of thy house, Verse 7. Thou shalt teach them diligently) Dodge and on thy gates.] The Jews, forgetting the spirit and shinnantam, from pv shanan, to repeat, iterate, or do design of this precept, used these things as superstia thing again and again ; hence to whet or sharpen tious people do amulets and charms, and supposed, if any instrument, which is done by reiterated friction they had these passages of Scripture written upon slips or grinding. We see here the spirit of this Divine of pure parchment, wrapped round their foreheads, tied injunction. God's testimonies must be taught to our to their arm, or nailed to their door-posts, that they children, and the utmost diligence must be used to make should then be delivered from every evil! And how them understand them. This is a most difficult task; much better are many Christians, who keep a Bible and it requires much patience, much prudence, much in their house merely that it may keep the devil out ; judgment, and much piety in the parents, to enable and will have it in their rooms, or under their pillows, them to do this good, this most important work, in the to ward off spirits and ghosts in the night? How inbest and most effectual manner. See at the end of genious is the heart of man to find out every wrong this chapter.
way, and to miss the right! And shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine Verse 12. Beware lest thou forget the Lord] · In house] Thou shalt have religion at home, as well as earthly prosperity men are apt to forget heavenly in the temple and tabernacle.
things. While the animal senses have every thing VOL. I. ( 49 )
Directions for the people
DEUTERONOMY. when they come into Canaan. A. M. 2553. which brought thee forth out of |, 16 y Ye shall not tempt the
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B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. the land of Egypt, from the Lord your God, 2 as ye tempted An. Ex. Isr. 40. Sebat. house of bondage.
him in Massah. 13 Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, 17 Ye shall a diligently keep the commandand serve him, and shalt swear by his name. ments of the LORD your God, and his testi
14 Ye shall not go after other gods, of monies, and his statutes, which he hath comthe gods of the pepole which are round about manded thee. you;
18 And thou b shalt do that which is right 15 (For w the LORD thy God is a jealous and good in the sight of the Lord: that it God among you ;) * lest the anger of the Lord may be well with thee, and that thou mayest thy God be kindled against thee, and destroy go in and possess the good land which the thee from off the face of the earth.
LORD sware unto thy fathers, Heb. bondmen or servants.- Chap. x. 12, 20; xiii. 4; Matt. w Exodus xx. 5; chap. iv. 24.-Chap. vii. 4; xi. 17. iv. 10.; Luke iv. 8. - Psa. Ixiii. 11; Isa. xlv. 23; lxv. 16;y Matt. iv. 7; Luke iv. 12.—Exod. xvii, 2, 7; Nun. x..3, 4; Jer. iv. 2; v.7; xii. 16. - - Chap. viii. 19; xi. 28; Jer. xxv. 6. xxi. 4, 5; 1 Cor. x. 9.-a Chap. xi. 13, 22; Psa. cxix. 4. "Chap. xiii. 7.
b Exod. xv. 26; chap. xii. 28; 'xiii. 18. they can wish, it is difficult for the soul to urge its in any case of promise, &c., gave full and sufficient seway to heaven; the animal man is happy, and the de- curity for the performance; and if done in evidence, sires of the soul are absorbed in those of the flesh. or to the truth of any particular fact, it gave full secuGod knows this well; and therefore, in his love to rity for the truth of that evidence. An oath, thereman, makes comparative poverty and frequent afflic- fore, is an appeal to God, who knows all things, of the tion his general lot. Should not every soul therefore truth of the matter in question : 'and when a religious magnify God for this lot in life? “Before I was af- man takes such an oath, he gives full and reasonable flicted,” says David, “I went astray;" and had it not satisfaction that the thing is so, as stated; for it is been for poverty and affliction, as instruments in the ever to be presumed that no man, unless in a state of hands of God's grace, multitudes of souls now happy the deepest degradation, would make such an appeal in heaven would have been wretched in hell. It is not falsely, for this would imply an attempt to make God much that party in the
of God and the interests of their souls. It must however object of religious worship among every people, whebe granted that extreme poverty is as injurious to re-ther that object be true or false, is ever considered as ligion as excessive affluence. Hence the wisdom as the pattern or exemplar to his worshippers.. Chriswell as piety of Agur's prayer, Prov. xxx. 7–9: tians are termed the followers of God; they take God “Give me neither poverty nor riches, lest I be full and for their pattern, and walk-act, as he does. Hence deny thee, or lest I be poor and steal,” &c.
we see the meaning of the terms in this verse : Ye Verse 13. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God] Thou shall not go after-ye shall not take false gods for shalt respect and reverence him as thy Lawgiver and your patterns.' The Canaanites, Greeks, Romans, &c., Judge; as thy Creator, Preserver, and the sole object were a most impure people, because the objects of of thy religious adoration.
their worship were impure, and they went after them, And serve him] Our blessed Lord, in Matt. iv. 10; i. e., were like their gods. This serves to show us Luke iv. 8, quotes these words thus: And him ONLY that such as our Redeemer is, such should we be; and (avtu povw) shalt thou serve. It appears, therefore, indeed this is the uniform language of God to man: Be that 1735 lebaddo was anciently in the Hebrew text, ye holy, for I am holy, Lev. xxi. 8; Be ye perfect, as as it was and is in the SEPTUAGINT, (avto pova,) from your Father who is in heaven is perfect, Matt. v. 48. which our Lord quoted it. The Coptic preserves the Verse 15. A jealous God). Jehovah has betrothed same reading ; so do also the VULGATE, (illi soli,) and you to himself as a bride is to her husband.
Do not the Anglo-Saxon, (peopa lim anum.): Dr. Kennicott be unfaithful, else that love wherewith he has now disargues, that without the word only the text would not tinguished you shall assume the form of jealousy, and have been conclusive for the purpose for which our
so divorce and consume you. Lord advanced it; for as we learn from Scripture Verse 16. Ye shall not tempt the Lord] Ye shall that some men worshipped false gods in conjunction not provoke him by entertaining doubts of his mercy, with the true, the quotation here would not have been goodness, providence, and truth. full to the point without this exclusive word. It may As ye tempted him in Massah.] How did they tempt be proper to observe that the omitted word 1735 le- him in Massah? They said, Is the Lord among us baddo, retained in the above versions, does not exist or not? Exod. xvii. 1-7. After such proofs as they in the Hebrew printed text, nor in any MS, hitherto had of his presence and his kindness, this wa
ingly provoking. Doubting God's kindness where there Shalt swear by his name.] yawn tishshabea, from are so many evidences of it, is highly insulting to God you shaba, he was full, satisfied, or gave that which Almighty. was full or satisfactory. Hence an oath and swearing, Verse 17. Ye shall diligently keep, fc.) On this because appealing to God, and taking him for witness and the following verse see the note on ver. 3.