« הקודםהמשך »
the saying is substantially true. If two per- into the restaurants. At breakfast, or lunch. while you can call a policeman and command sons are traveling together, and wish to have eon, or dinner, you pay sixpence for service a shilling a coach to themselves, they have merely to in the bill, and sixpence-frequently a shil. Show - places like Eton Hall, Blenheim, intimate as much to the guard and put a ling—to the waiter who brings you the bill ! Warwick Castle, Chatsworth, can be seen for piece of silver in his hand, and the thing is In the United States we think the obliga- a pecuniary consideration. The opulent no. accomplished. If you are going from London tion, if any, is on the side of the person re- blemen who own them are very kind to open to Edinburgh, or intend to take any other ceiving money, The English seem to think them to the public, but visitors must fee the night-ride, you can have a coach alone by the obligation rests with him who pays. servants. The noblemen are not rich enough paying the proper fee. In this way you can Thousands of gratuities are given every day to render the gratuity unnecessary. No Eng. enter a second-class compartment, which has in England for no better reason than because lisbman could be so rich as that. Such affluno divisions of seat, stretch out at full length, the English find somebody kind enough to ence is not to be measured by British money. wrap yourself in rug and shawl, and get a take their shillings. They often tip a funky I remember, years ago, when I first visit. good night's rest. Before sleeping-coaches who has done absolutely nothing: whom, in- ed the Bodleian Library. After I had been were introduced into Europe, all experienced deed, they have not seen until he condescends through it, notwithstanding a well-dressed, travelers chose such method.
to accept their cash. Not infrequently they intelligent man, who had opened two or three I understand matters have gone so far pay service three times—I confess my own doors, kept suspiciously near me, I hesitated that persons often bny second, even third- i guilt in this—by giving it at the inn where to offer him any thing. I thought books reclass tickets, and obtain first-class accommo- they may not take their meals (service is al- fine the mind; the very presence of immordations by bribing the guard of the train. ways charged without any reference to its tal works softens, broadens, spiritualizes. The bribe is much less than the regular renderings); by giving it to the restaurant Men privileged to breathe this atmosphere tariff, hence its economy and liberal employ- where they eat; and by giving it to the wait- must be lifted above pecuniary considerament.
er who has served them. The nuisance is tion. Still, the fellow was at my elbow, and Railway-attachés seldom if ever ask for growing so rapidly that the time may not be his every feature resembled a financial point gratuities openly. But they do negatively, distant when all respectable persons will be of interrogation. Waveringly I placed a and in a manner difficult to resist. Positive expected to pay six times for one service. shilling in his band. He glanced at it, and demand is wellnigh superfluous, so well set- Marvelous is the potency of a shilling, or seemed surprised. I turned crimson, and tled is the custom, so fixed the price, so per- its multiplication, everywhere in England. begged bis pardon. I blushed again—the secfect the silent understanding between the pa- You need have no apprehension of offending ond time for him as he said, " Couldn't tron and the client. This methodic, whole- any Briton by the presentation of silver. you make it half a crown, sir?" sale tipping has not been introduced by for- Some may not ti ke silver; but they will take Since then I have learned England and eigners or strangers, who in the beginning are gold, and, if not gold, they must be pervious the English better. wholly unacquainted with it, but by the native to bank-notes. Occasionally you may blun. The persuasive power of the shilling in and resident population, and is sustained and der, as an American is reputed to have done England has its advantages, particularly for strengthened by them. Why do they practise when the wife of his Oxford friend kissed strangers and tourists whose time is limited. it? Do they like to pay twice for the same him on his departure for the Continent, and It unlocks doors, removes difficulties, cuts thing? Not at all. They practise it partial- he rewarded her with a glittering sovereign. red tape, reduces friction. But it has its ly because they deem it essential to conven- This, however, lacks confirmation.
disalvantages, also, notably for the English ience and comfort, but mainly because others People in the street, policemen at the cor- themselves. Willingness to take money for practise it. As true Englishmen they must pers, ushers at the theatres, tradesmen, cus- aught but honest work is a bad sign. It follow in the lead of their fellows: they have todians of all sorte, subordinates, and super- mars manliness, impairs independence, dulls not the moral courage to depart from popular intendents—men, women, and children-scan sensibility, integrity, honor. It is one of usage. They all acknowledge it to be wrong your face for a shilling, and are uneasy until the many inconsistencies of British characin principle; that it is a serious tax on the they clutch it. The British are a sterling ter; contradicts much of its sterling worth. purse; that a great many feel obliged to pay people in more than one sense. They may We frankly confess that we pursue the al. fees when they can't afford to; and still they not care for their pound of flesh ; but they mighty dollar too ardently. It is the mote continue the habit, defending themselves by insist on the pound that is composed of twen- in the American eye. But until the English asking, “How are we to get rid of it?" It ty shillings of silver.
have cast the beam of the omnipotent shil. ought to be broken up, they admit; but no- The English policeman is generally oblig- ling from their own, they should extend to body is willing to make a move to that end. ing, but how much of his obligingness is due us the charity of silence. The charge of service in European hotels to his scent of remuneration it is needless to
Junius IIENRI BROWNE, was originally made to prevent servants from inquire. He rarely asks in words for money, importuning travelers ; in other words, to de. but he will receive it with amazing alacrity. prive them of any excuse for begging for fees He is always prepared to take any thing, THE PERUVIAN AMAZON after the regular bill had been paid. To a from a sixpence to a sovereign, ever so many
AND ITS TRIBUTARIES. certain extent this has been effective on the times duplicated. Entrance to more than Continent, though it is wholly inoperative in half the places in London, where an order is NOTES FROM A JOURNAL OF TRAVEL. Britain. In England, especially servants ex- supposed to be indispensable for admission, pect fees, and ask for them with their whole ex- can easily be had by“ tipping a bobby.” To
V. pression, quite as much as before service was the House of Peers, for example, where notha regular charge. If questioned, they say-ing less than the autograph of one of the June 15th.—Before daylight this morning no doubt truly-tbat they do not get the ser- lords, spiritual or temporal, is said to secure we got under way, the Indians all mani. vice, and by a queer logic reason that, be. | ingress, half a crown to a policeman has been festing great dissatisfaction, and protesting cause the inn - keeper deceives or imposes for years the regulated price. The same or against going farther. They discover, very upon his patrons, the patrons should in turn less will serve for closed palaces, historic suddenly, that they have ailments of various be imposed upon by his servants. Nearly all | houses, art-galleries, or curious collections. kinds, pleading sore hands and feet from ex. Englishmen pay the proprietor for service, When in England, never be intimidated by posure to sun and water, though they have and pay it over again to the servants. They shut doors and flaring notices of inaccessible- known nothing else all their lives. One old declare it a licensed extortion; but then ere. ness. Seek a policeman and produce your fellow is pitiable to see. He is in such terrybody does it, you know, and they bate to shilling. These will prove your “open sesa- ror of the Campas that you can actually see be odd-another way of saying they fear to
If you sec a vast crowd before you him trembling as he stands out in bold rebe thought mean. They have fully as great anywhere, and you fancy you are not going lief as popero of one of the canoes. Many timidity on this subject as we financially-sen- to get in, appeal to a policeman with silver, years ago he was one of a party under the sitive Americans ourselves. In London and and straightway you will have precedence. leadership of a priest, who attempted to reother large English cities service has crept Never despair of any thing in England enter the Campa country. They were at
tacked by the Indians; and this old fellow getting her off; so, in a second, they were were no mosquitoes or sand-flies; and there and one other were the only ones so fortu. overboard and at work. They got it off, is an old Indian proverb that where the nate as to escape alive, he bringing away a however, so as to come in just behind the mosquitoes will not live the country is upCampa arrow in his body, the scar of which rear-guard canoe. We continued our voy- healthful. This proved to be so, all of us is now plainly visible.
age, nothing more of interest occurring; and getting chills or some sickness, the result At ten A. M. we arrived at the head of in one day, going down-stream, we accom. of malaria, that clung to us as long as we canoe-navigation on the Pichis, in latitude plished what it had taken three days to do remained in South America. 10° 22' 55" south ; longitude, 74° 49' west of in ascending. Why we were not attacked we June 19th.—There is one point, the posiGreenwich ; elevation above sea-level, 213.359 cannot understand. We heard the Indians tion of which we are anxious to establishmetres; distance from the Brazilian frontier in the bushes, saw their tracks, and saw Port Prado, on the river Palcazu; and this at the mouth of the river Yavari, thirteen hun. where their balsas bad been moored within morning a call was made for volunteers from dred and fifty-six miles, and from the mouth of the last duy or two. We supposed, how- among our Indians. At ten A, M., with two the Amazon (following the course of the river), ever, that it was because we did not remain canoes manned by the most unwilling set of thirty-five hundred miles; and, in a direct line, long enough for them to collect in sufficient volunteers I ever saw, we set off; and by only one hundred and ninety miles from the numbers; for numerically we made quite a nightfall accomplished ten miles. The Pal. Pacific coast. The river here was so rapid show.
cazu only differs from the Pichis in having and shallow that it was necessary for the men June 18th.–At two P. m., yesterday, we higher banks and a stronger current. to get out and haul the canoes up over the reached the mouth of the river Trinidad, a Port Prado, June 21st.-Last night we arrocks. Among these rocks we found numer. tributary of the Pichis, and which we had rived within a few hundred yards of this ous specimens of coral and sea-shell; and passed on Trinity Sunday on our ascent, and place; but it was so dark we were afraid just ahead of us loomed up the eastern which we intended to explore as
to attempt a passage of the rapids. These spurs of the Andes. As the canoes could back. When the order was given to turn are formed by the pouring in of the waters float po farther, this terminated our explora. | up into this river, there was almost open of the river Pozuzo at right angles to the tion of this river. We named this point mutiny among our Indians. At four P. M. direction of the Palcazu; and so all hands Port Tucker, in honor of the chief of the we stopped for the night, the current being slept on a playa of round rocks not four expedition, and determined to remain here so strong that we had made only four miles inches out of the water, and the river slightly until the next day, before starting on our in that time.
rising. Some of our men waded to the near. downward voyage. The average current of Under the cover of darkness five Indians est bank to collect firewood for the night, the river Pichis we determined to be two and deserted, thinking it better to try to navi. and reported having stirred up a jaguar. one fifth miles per hour. This average seems gate two hundred miles on a raft through the Port Prado, in latitude go 55' 22' south, to be small for a rapid stream ; but the diffi- country of the Casbibos, and trusting to the longitude 75° 17' 45' west of Greenwich, is culty in ascending arose from the fact that fish that they might catch for subsistence, at the head of navigation for light draught there were beds of round stones and gravel than to again run the gantlet of the Cam- steamers on the Palcazu. It is the point to at intervals of every two or three miles, over pas. Our numbers were so reduced by this which the people of Huanoco and all the is. which flowed a very rapid current, and be- last desertion, and the remaining Indians so terior mountain-country bave been for so long tween which a comparatively slow one inter- worn out, that it was impossible to get the a time looking as the terminus of a railroad vened, thus making the above average. boats up higher, and so the exploration of that would connect them with the ocean and
June 16th.—When we awoke this morn- this river had to be abandoned, and all our furnish a market for their many valuable ing we could hardly recognize our Indians.energies directed to regaining our old camp products. During the night they had all painted; some at the confluence of the Pichis and Palcazu. It is just at the mouth of the river Marro to protec: themselves from the effects of the This we reached at five P. m., to find that our and half a mile from the mouth of the Pozu. sun and water, and some to protect them- old ranches had been washed away by a rise zo. Judging from their mouths, these are selves from the Campas.
The manner of of water. Thus erded the exploration of the bold mountain-streams, their high, abrupt painting to keep off the Campas was very
The vegetation along the banks being strewed with immense bowlders simple. It consisted in a streak of blue vege- banks is almost identical with that of the brought down from the Andes, and their table paint, passing through the mouth and Ucayali and Pachitea, the trees being only courses obstructed by numerous rapids. For terminating at the ears, thus giving the wear. remarkable for their general worthlessness several months during the year, on account er the appearance of having a bridle-bit in as fuel for steamers and for timber. On of the bowlders and débris, washed down his mouth. I do not know wherein consist- all these upper rivers we have met with only from the mountains, the Palca zu itself, eveo ed the charm, but it was firmly believed by three or four varieties of trees that serve as after its volume has been increased by the those who had thus painted themselves that fuel for steamers, and these varieties are not two afore - mentioned streams, is unnasiga. they could not be struck by a Campa arrow. very numerous close to the banks.
ble for light-draught steamers. Every fer At half-past seven A. M. we embarked, and, mile or so back from each bank, the trees iniles the stream spreads out, and ripples over much to the joy of our Indians, commenced are not so tall, so large, or so close together, immense beds of round stones and grave; the descent of the river.
as in our virgin forests in the United States, and over these inclines we bad, at this stage In a short time we were borne by the and resemble enormous weeds more than of the water, great difficulty in drawing our swift current down to the confluence of the any thing else I have ever seen. I have seen
Along the banks, however, the Herrera-yacu, where we stopped to breakfast a tree three feet in diameter and eighty feet marks on the trees indicate the water as barand to verify observations. We found the high exaetly resembling a stalk of purslane, ing been, during the rainy season, at least presents, which we had left here for the In
or, as it is commonly called, pursley. For twenty feet higher than at present. dians, untouched; and this our Indians re- the most part the undergrowth consists of As in the Pichis, there is, between these garded as rather a bad sign. Here we cleared varieties of palms, with creepers and weeds. gravelly beds, but little current, the average for action, and made every thing ready, as There were many signs of animal life on the being three and a half miles per hour. Port we bad to pass the outpost settlement. The Pichis, but few varieties. We saw innumer- Prado is distant from the Brazilian froncurrent was strong, and we went at the rate able tracks of tapirs and ronsocos. We
tier, at the mouth of the Yavari River, thirof four or five knots per hour. When we saw several large snakes also, but none re- teen hundred and seven and a half miles ; its neared the point where we expected the In- sembling the boa. Two varieties of turkey elevation above sea-level is 242,315 metres. dians, we heard a tambour in the woods, and and two of duck were the only fowl we saw The general characteristics of the scenery knew that they were astir. Here there were fit for eating. After leaving the hills the are boldness and ruggedness, and from the rapids in the river, and the foremost canoe river runs through a low basin, and I sup- port are visible many mountain-spurs and tall went aground. It was impossible to stop, pose that, for a large portion of every year, peaks. One of these, a very lofty and beautiand one by one each canoe shot past like an the banks for miles and miles back are under ful mountain, seemed to be recognized by our arrow. The Indians of the grounded canoe water, thus rendering it impossible for other Indians as a landmark, and was called by them knew that their salvation depended upon animals than those mentioned to exist. There “El Miradero,” or “the Watch-tower.” This
is the point at which the padres, in their visits We made them some small presents, and he got to Yquitos. He shows that he was to Ocopa, abandon their canoes and strike learned their mission and plays. They were bred in the forest of South America, for, if out into the forest. For the maintenance of the advance-guard of the Conibos of the Uca. | he sees a rat eating any thing, he will creep their Indian crews that have to remain here yali, and were going against the Cashibos, to up behind it, and, before it knows what is the until their return, they have set out some steal their women and children. Three or plantains and other fruits; but these before four times during every year, these parties | enough against the ground to kill it. they are ripe are generally stolen by a small, are organized, and make expeditions for this Among some of the interior tribes human weak, wandering tribe called the Lorenzos. purpose. But this was on a larger scale than beads are another article of traffic, in oppo
We found here a party of Christianized usual. This advance-guard consisted of fif- sition to law. They are those of captives Indians waiting for the return of a priest teen or twenty men, with their wives. Not taken in war, and afterward put to death, from Ocopa. We noticed also an enormous allowing themselves to be seen, they were to By some process, known only to themselves, old canoe, with the name “ Pio IX.” burnt proceed well up into the country of the Ca- the heads are shrunk, leaving the features on its side. This canoe must assuredly have shibos, pull their canoes out of the water, perfect, and the hair of the usual length and made the lengthy voyage, and have gotten and hide them away; then take a position color. The skin becomes dry and hard, like over the mal-pasos by a miracle only. Many in the woods, and live for weeks, and prob. parchment, though looking perfectly natural. of these Indians were suffering with tertiana ably months, trying to spy out, and find where it is said that pins are driven through the
- chills and fevers — and were completely | the Cashibos were best situated for attack. lips, to prevent their talking while underprostrated by it.
As soon as all was ready, they would com- going torture, and also to enable the head to June 22d.- At an early bour we got under municate with the main body, which was col. be hung erect. This custom of preserving way, and at three P. M. joined our companions lecting from all directions at the mouth of the the heads is still practised, though they canand sick men whom we had left at the mouth Pachitea.
not be induced to divulge the secret. The of the Picbis. To-morrow we start for the The mode of capturing their brother-sav. | tradition, however, is this : the bones are steamers. This morning, before setting out, ages is this : The Casbibos, during low-wa- taken out, and the cavity thus formed is filled when breakfast was announced, we were all ter season, come down from the hills and with hot stones, which are shaken about unstruck with a savory smell; and, with more back country to collect turtle and fish on the til the drying and shrinking process is comthan usual alacrity, formed a circle around playas. As soon as they have assembled in pleted. the pot into which the sergeant was scooping. a kind of encampment on the bank, the Coni. June 28th.–After a canoe-voyage of forFor a long time rations had been scarce, and bo spies send word to the main body. This ty-one days, at twelve M. to-day we reached the idea of something fresh was very pleas- steals up, traveling by night, and in the dark. the steamers, and found them anchored just ant. One by one we received our plates of ness a circle of Conibo warriors is formed within the mouth of the Pachitea. Our destew, and one by one each person, after tak. around the Cashibo encampment, and, at a scent of the river was, as a general thing, of ing a few mouthfuls, seemed to lose his rel- given signal, begins to contract toward the not much interest—the only things worth ish for it, until finally about two-thirds of the centre. The Conibo women are waiting, with mentioning which I have not recorded being plates were put down only partially emptied. the canoes all ready in some secluded spot, to an attack on the rear canoe by the Cashibos,
About this time, however, it occurred to embark the warriors, in case of defeat. But resulting in the wounding of one of the latsome one to ask the old major, who was the the Conibos, their bows and arrows being bet- ter; the grounding of a canoe in shooting caterer, what kind of meat he had been for- ter, having the advantage of being the surpris. some rapids, throwing some of us overboard tunate enough to procure. His reply was, ing party, and always taking care to attack in and far out into the water; and the ascen“Moño, señor!” (“Monkey, sir !"). Those superior numbers, are seldom defeated. If the sion of Inca Rock, which resulted in no who were eating at the time seemed suddenly surprise is a success, all old men and old new discoveries, except that the Cashibos satisfied, and without a word the ring around women are put to death, and all young wom- were about there. One thing rather interestthe pot was broken, and each person, ap- en and children kept, the best-looking women ing that we observed was the total destrucparently wrapped in the deepest reflection, for wives for theniselves, the ugly ones and tion of one of their chacaras by the Cashibos, strolled off by himself.
children to be sold to the occasional mer. because, in going up, we had taken a few On this trip our Indians have reveled in chants, who come up the Ucayali to trade plantains from it. Day after to-morrow we young alligators and monkeys; but most of with them. At a Conibo village, where I start back to Yquitos. our party have not become sufficiently In- staid for several weeks, fully one-third of Physically the Indians of the Ucayali and dianized to consider such things delicacies. the inhabitants were Cashibos, and slaves of Pachitea are not so large nor so strong as
June 27th.-Started this morning for the the Conibo braves. These little cannibals the white men of North America or Europe. steamers. Our return down-stream is very are very much sought after by the whites of Of their minds there is no good way of judgmonotonous. We now accomplish, in one the low country, as slaves; and their price ing, but they certainly evince great ingenuity day, the distance it took us three to make, varies from ten to fifty soles apiece. Re- and skill in the manufacture of weapons for when going up, although our Indians workcently, a steamer, having on board almost a war, canoes, and household and cooking uten. very lazily, and had to be called up last night dozen of these little infieles (as the good sils. Those who are friendly and have busi. and threatened with a flogging should they padres call them), of both sexes, arrived in ness relations with the wbite man are in some not do better on the morrow.
Yquitos. They were locked up in a room instances honest, and have great regard for We were paddling along to-day down. on board the boat, and some show made of their word. They are very superstitious and stream, keeping out in the middle of the keeping it secret, as it is against the laws of cruel. They believe firmly in an evil spirit or river, so as to get the full benefit of the cur. the country, although the trade is openly devil, but whether or not they believe in a rent, and making about four or five knots an carried on by the highest officials on this side good one is not certain. Their laws with rebour, when we discovered four canoes crawl- of the Andes. I suppose there are some gard to chastity are very severe. Among the ing along the right bank, and almost hidden thirty or forty of these little savages in Conibos, if a woman bears her husband twins, by the overhanging brushwood. They proved Yquitos, and, as their owners know that they both of the children are killed, because one to be a party of Conibo Indians on the war- will run away as soon as they get big enough, is the child of the devil, and it is impossible path, their women accompanying them. They they get the most they can out of them now. to discover which. Among the Cashibos the had a supply of fresh fish and plantains, a One, a little boy, about ten years old, is same custom prevails, with the additional portion of which they sold us, much to our very intelligent. He has learned to speak enormity that both are buried alive. The joy.
Spanish; and says he remembers traveling Cashibos are, I believe, the only known tribe According to their custom, they saluted through the woods once with his father and living on the tributaries of the Ucayali that us by bringing out masato in enormous cala. mother, and some other Indians. They were are cannibals, and, besides being cannibals, bashes, which they passed round from mouth attacked by Conibos, and his father and they eat even their dead.
Their weapons to mouth, and were much surprised at our all the men killed. He, his mother, and all consist in the bow and war-club. Their arnot drinking. However, our Indian crews the other women, were taken prisoners. He rows, from the greater size, have not the swigged it, to the satisfaction of all parties. I knows no more, and cannot remember how same range as those of our North American
A GREAT deal is said at the present day
Indians. Their principal articles of food are For manhood's joys are richer far
years later, when the population had infish, turtle, and game from the woods. The Than backward glance to boyhood secs ; creased to 23,104,000, or by 6,772,000, the first two are obtained with the bow and
Than youth, with all our youthful hopes ; spear, the latter with the blow-gun. Also
We now drink wine upon the lees.
numbers sentenced to the substituted and they have sometimes attached to their huts Yet we to each must always be
equivalent punishment of penal servitude
The same as then, come weal or woe; little patches of bananas, yuca (something Though you are Fame's, the laurel mine,
were 1,493. Therefore, while the population resembling the potato), maize, cotton, and
had increased by 41.46 per cent., the most
You still are “Sam," and I am “ Joe!” sugar-cane.
serious offense, that of murder, had decreased
SALLIE A. BROCK.
by 66.73 per cent. Lord Aberdare says that
the oldest judge now on the bench of English EDITOR'S TABLE. SAM AND JOE.
judges never knew a calendar so light in re. spect of number of prisoners as that of 1874,
with the gratifying exception of the two years MY Y heart is strangely sad to-night;
preceding it. Categorically, almost every The past langs o'er me like a dream; And as a bark with fresh-trimmed sails,
uncertainty appears to exist as to whether class of indictable offense had decreased, with My thoughts are gliding down the stream. offenders against the law have increased or the sad and solitary exception of murder, Ah, those were jocund days, my friend, decreased. A recent address by Lord Aber- which maintains a striking uniformity in reThe old, old days of long ago,
dare before the British Social Science Asso- | gard to the number of persons capitally senThough sometimes shadowed by a cloud, When you were Sam," ," and I was “Joe." ciation takes a very favorable view of the tenced for the crime. The proportion of
present condition of things in this particular, murders to the population bas not greatly I see our homesteads side by side
as compared with those of half a century varied in the United Kingdom in the last filty Gleam white amid the leafy shade;
ago. I hear the brawling of the brook,
At that period pauperism, the greatest years. On the other hand, as a small comI smell the perfumes through the glade;
curse of the poorer classes, and the fertile pensating measure of comfort, it is on reeI feel the dear ones all around
mother of crime, was directly fostered by the ord that the numbers of the criminal classes And some have crossed death's stream, you
laws and by the spirit with which they were of the United Kingdom at large and known know, But sorrows lightly touched our hearts,
administered. The police was inefficient, the to the police, including known thieves and For you were “ Sam," and I am
prisons dens of moral corruption and physi- depredators, receivers of stolen goods, and
cal disease ; reformatories and ragged-schools suspected persons, bave fallen from 56,723 Our tutor's form appears again
were unknown; English laws were so extrav- in 1864 to 43,555 in 1874. These results, His clear, calm eyes, bis frosty hair ; His cheeks all seamed like withered fruit ;
agantly severe as to insure their lax and un- Lord Aberdare says, have been secured His lips on which a smile was rare :
certain application ; punishments were so de. - 1. By an efficient system of police ; Those truthful lips—but time, to bim,
vised as neither to deter nor to reform, and 2. By the deterrent and reformatory na. Was cruel in its ebb and flow; Yet little recked we of his griefs,
to be as expensive as they were ineffectual. ture of the punishment now awarded for For you were “Sam," and I was “ Joe."
So that, in commenting on English prisons crimes ; 3. By reformatory schools specially
and penal settlements, a thoughtful writer of adapted for the correction and reformation Of discipline we ill approved,
the last generation (James Mill) could say, of the more hardened youthful offenders, And ill approved of Latin verse;
without exaggeration : “In regard to the but possessing none of the characteristics With classic Greek held bad commune, Of Hebrew text our bate was worse ;
reformation of the offender there is but one of the jail except the enforced confinement And physics' laws we held in scorn;
testimony - that New South Wales, of all within the house and the fields attached to And matbematics too, was slow;
places on the face of the earth, except, per- it; 4. By the coöperation of discharged pris. And he would sigh, and we would laugh
haps, a British prison, is the place where oners' aid societies. The progress of educaBut you were Sam,” ," and I was “Joe."
there is the least chance for the reformation tion and the decrease of crime, Lord AberAnd then our college years come up,
of an offender; the greatest chance of his dare holds, will march together, and one of So filled with sportive pranks and wiles ; being improved and perfected in every spe- the strongest influences which can be brought The nights so often glad with mirth,
cies of wickedness." The natural result of The days all dimpled o'er with smiles;
to bear against the fostering of a crimina! More luckless wights than then were we,
this state of things was an enormous increase population in overcrowded cities is attentiot The college records did not know;
in crime of every kind in Eogland, Wales, to sanitary regulations. But glad we put dull care to flight,
Scotland, and Ireland, to the terrible extent While it is impossible not to respect so And you were “Sam," and I was Joe."
of a sixfold greater ratio than the increase high an authority as that of Lord Aberdare, Our early loves ?-You mind them well?- of population. In one decade, from 1834 to who has studied this question with great
The months which flitted by like hours ?- 1843, not fewer than 39,844 criminals-an closeness, we can but look upon some of his The walks, the talks ? the rides, the drives
average of nearly 4,000 a year-were trans- statements with caution. It is always necesThe bows that bound the bunch of flow- ported to Australia. The means taken for sary to scrutinize social statistics with care ers?
the repression of crime were most ineffectual, if we would not be misled thereby. We susThe ringing of that old church-bell
and transportation, which had gradually su. pect that public records are not altogether One morn, which made earth heaven below?
perseded the extreme penalty of death, was trustworthy guides to the moral condition of For we had each a treasure found,
proved to have failed in every object which a people, nor sale indexes to the absolute Though you be “Sam,'' and I was Joe." should be sought for in a penal system. prevalence of crime in comparing
In 1857 this latter system was universally with another. As civilization advances, the And we were men! And manhood's cares Have thickly crowded on our path ;
replaced by the present system of penal ser- police becomes a greater force in societs, and Our children cluster round our boarda,
vitude, and a steady and progressive decrease takes cognizance of a larger class of ols And we have felt affliction's scath;
in crime has followed. In the year 1843, | fenses; and it also acts as an intimidating Yet would we not with mayhood's joys when the population of the United Kingdom power, preventing the commission of crime
Return to days of long ago, Though bright the beaker to our lips, was estimated at 16,332,000, the numbers sen.
by its ubiquitous presence, and the certainty When you were “Sam," and I was?“ Joe." i tenced to transportation were 4,488. Thirty of discovery and arrest. In the last centary
the police were powerless in the face of in- and hence people are prone in seeing one or earlier ages; it is searching amid the ruins numerable acts of violence; to-day any form even several of its manifestations to over- of buried cities for precious art-memorials of disorderly conduct brings the offender look or forget some other of its outcomes. of the past, and placing the discovered treaspromptly to a police station. Hilarious young It is unmistakably a pushing, energetic, ures in places of honor; it is bringing into gentlemen cannot now capture door-knockers, money-making age; it is distinctly an age practical use ancient suggestions in deccarry off sign-boards, imprison night-watch- where practical and utilitarian things have a orative and ornamental art; it is, in fact, men in their boxes, or play similar pranks, very high place in the schemes and purposes fuli of reverence for the great achievements without finding their misdeeds appearing in the of the people; but let us see whether poetry of the imagination that have come down to police-reports. House-breaking as a lost crim. and heroism are not also great existing so. it, and is instinct with pleasure in the stimuinal art is not due to the repression of criminal cial and moral forces.
lating and often during productions of today. instincts, but to the efficiency of the police, Notwithstanding all the great practical | The literature about art is swelling ceaselessw bien has rendered that sort of pastime al- activities of the age, the people are eager ly; teachers who instruct what and bow to together too dangerous to be indulged in. It readers of imaginative literature. They lis- admire are eagerly listened to; and everyis said that density of crime and population ten not only attentively to the poets and sing- where are the evidences of how large a place go together. Perhaps it would be more accu- ers of the time, but they are manifesting a this form of poetic feeling holds with us. It rate to say that density of population and po- marked disposition to go back and study pe- is distinctly a poetic and not an unpoetic lice arrests go together. These facts and in-riods of the past. There are signs of a re. age that evinces in so many ways its cathostances show how the criminal records may vival of classic taste, and the early produc- lic and large-hearted sympathy for all the pebe increased without a real increase of crime. tions of English literature have now their riods of imaginative creation in the various On the other hand, the thoroughness of the hosts of students and admirers. While on modern police organization prevents acces- one hand we see that realism is cultivated, Heroism no less than poetry takes its sions to the criminal ranks, and is the indirect we also note that higher forms of imagina. | place in this many - sided era. The loud means of keeping some young people to the tive thought lead captive the whole rank of proclamation and noisy defiance of some of paths of rectitude; but it is principally potent realers. Sentimentalism, such as marked the the earlier forms of beroism do not exist ; in driving many persons from the commis- literature of the Minerva press, is honestly , men now believe it incumbent upon them to sion of crimes that full under police jurisdic. and vigorously detested; and, although the age | seek no opportunity for the mere display of tion, to arts and tricks not amenable to law. bas its affectations, yet elevation of thought their gallantry, but also to shrink from no While certain crimes decrease, dishonesty and fidelity to one's own convictions are occasion that exacts fortitude or involves may increase. While the law may render imperatively demanded of every leader of self-sacrifice. That is emphatically not av life and property more secure from direct at- song
unheroic age that with such zeal dares the tacks, we may all the time be the more ex- There have been more brilliant eras of wilderness of ice in the arctic seas and the tensively victimized by the dishonest devices dramatic and even of lyric literature, but wilderness of forest and swamp in the heart of those who live by their wits. The crimi. none in which the poets have enjoyed so large of Africa-that delights in conquering hithnal class are forced to find out how to be a concourse of readers, none in which they erto-inaccessible mountain-peaks—that penecriminal in such a way as to keep out of the have been permitted so freely to follow their trates everywhere, explores everywliere, and hands of the law. Ingenious scoundrels do individual poetic instincts, or have more ef. knows no such word as “ fail” in its multinot now resort to house-breaking; they get | fectually stirred the popular heart. Those tude of splendid enterprises. Recent wars a contract. They do not take to the high- who look may see evidence of the truth of showed no decline of that physical courway; they go to Wall Street, However, it these assertions on every hand. The inter- age which in earlier ages was so worshiped ; is well if we can begin by driving crime est felt in every new production by Tenny- and in all the ordinary exigencies of life, out of the more open courses; perhaps by. son, Longfellow, Lowell, Whittier, Morris, fortitude, endurance, the courage to do and and-by we can reach it in its hidden places | Swinburne; the endless essays upon poetry to suffer, evince no lack of the true spirit of and under its plausible devices.
and the poets in all the magazines—these are heroism.
substantiating facts. We might also cite tlie We have been enabled to glance only at It is repeatedly said that the age is un. subjective nature of most of our prose writ- a topic large enougli to admit of an extended poetic and unheroic. Such is the recent com- ings to prove the poetical under-moods of our essay. Our readers, however, will readily plaint of a writer in a contemporary journal. people, but we can do no more now than supplement many arguments and facts to Is it true? Poetry and heroism change some mention the fact.
those we have advanced, and will see that of their aspects from age to age, and it may Art also is inspired with both realistic the age has neither lost imaginative sympabe that those who lament their decadence are truth and imaginative force. Mere story. thy, which is the essential spirit of poetry, simply failing to discern those virtues under telling by pictures has declined, but the ex. nor the fibre of genuine heroism. their new guise. It may, moreover, be sus- pression of poetic feeling and sentiment by pected that the very fact of lamenting the color and form has taken a lofty place. We In a very quiet way—so quiet that even death or the decay of certain qualities is al- do not deny that there have been greater the English people seem to have scarcely most proof that they still flourish among us. art-epochs, but there is now a marked pas. noted it—the whole judicial system of EngThose who admire poetry enough to feel a sion for studying those epochs; there is an land bas just undergone a change. Of a deficiency of poetic feeling show by this very eagerness to be at home with their spirit and sudden, all those ancient and historic courts fact their poetic sympathies; and those who to master their teachings. Mere imitations which have so long clustered around Westrender their suffrage of praise to the heroic of ancient methods are not tolerated, but minster, Guildball, and Lincoln's Inn, have are quite certain to find their quiet opportu- originality, passion, individual sentiment, in- dissolved into one august tribunal. The nity for enacting some form of true, unob. ventive power, are quickly recognized and courts of Queen's Bench and Common Pleas, trusive heroism.
applauded. This so-called unpoetic age is of Admiralty and Probate, of Arches and The age is really neither unpoetic por un- completing in some instances and restoring i Chancery, have ceased to exist–or, at least, heroic, but it is manifold and many sided; I in others the great poetical arcbitecture of instead of being separate and independent