תמונות בעמוד

T 11,5 JU F E. FILE TEL JU O 刃礦乃

敵乃 善。無乃戈矢備敢乃甲善

矢 & 乃 敢鋒矛毀乃不干肖毅

[ocr errors]

2 “Have in good repair your coats of mail and helmets ; have the

laces of your shields well secured presume not to have any of these but in perfect order. Prepare your bows and arrows; temper your lances and spears; sharpen your pointed and edged weapons : -presume not to have any of these but in good condition. care of the oxen and horses of the army ; further, , of Ts'eu' is a question which cannot be fully that the troops on no account leave their ranks

answered. or go astray, and finally, he appoints the day

我 was properly the name of the when he will commence operations against the

wild people on the west of the Middle kingdom. enemy, and commands that all the requisite Possibly, a tribe of them had forced their way preparations be made.

to the eastern coasts, and settled in one or more

places of Ts'eu, continuing to retain their P. 1. Opening of the speech. Occasion of the original designation. Wang Kång-yay (often expedition. By • men’ we are to understand all in mentioned likewise as Wang Ch'ung-yun ( the host, his own subjects of Loo, and the troops of States whom he had called to aid in the ex

* *)) has an instructive and suggestive pedition,-officers and common men. 11. note on the passage :- 1) weans “ to go.” The to Z -there is a difficulty here with passage is best taken with Kóung Gan-kwð as

meaning—“We are now going to smite those E the interpretation of 18. Te-ae, after Soo and Jung.” Kóung says that the various tribes

of wild people were simply bridled by the Shih, takes the characters as = =#*, 'for- emperors of the early dynasties and allowed to merly,' so that the meaning of the clause is dwell in different places within the different *Formerly, the wild tribes of the Hwae and the provinces; but I venture to think that the true Ts'eu rose in insurrection together.' But why

state of the case concerning them was this :refer to what they had done in former times? Anciently, when the country was first peopled, We must understand, on this construction, it was not possible for the principles of propriety something like—And now again, they take and righteousness to penetrate everywhere advantage of our present circumstances, and with a transforming power. All who were give fresh trouble, so that we have to take the unaffected by those principles were classed as field against them. This is the way in which E or Jung, and all who recognised them and the 'Daily Explanation' brings out the mean

came under their influence were said to be Hwa ing:一往者淮夷叛亂,為王室 and Hen 鞭謂為華夏). We are not to Ź W Ñ T H H H in 之患,今又乘我始就國

suppose that it was necessary to be living outside

the , called “ tie #15 # 1 to # four seas, in order to be Jung and E. In the

account of Yu's five domains, indeed, the Man - " UL. Gan-kwo's view was differ- and the E are said to have been in the domain

of Restraint and the Wild domain ; but when ent. He took 1.. indeed as -£-not ad.


we examine the state of the empire of Chow, verbially, however, but as a verb, meaning 'to we find the white Teih” (Ø *) in T'aego,'—'we are going,' or 'let us go.' The

yuen [in Shan-se), the E of the Hwae and the is =!!!,this,' or 'these.'—We are going to Jung of Ts'eu in the province of Ts'eu, the Lue risen up together ;' i.e., we are going to chastise of Luh-wan about the E river (# Jil those tribes of the Hwae and of Seu, who have E in 'Tso (*), and the Jung them. This construction is followed by Lin Che-k'e and Këang Shing, the latter of whom . Even such great states as expounds the clause:- #PIE ILE Y Woo and Tsoo had to drive out the E and Teih.

It is plain that these tribes were not couined BE # I have trans- to the two domains to which we have referred. lated according to this view. The wild tribes Shun told Kaou-yaou to restrain by punishabout the Hwae' are mentioned so far back as ments the Man and E who were disturbing the the time of Yu ;-see “The Tribute of Yu,' Pt.empire, which simply means that he was to i, p. 35. They belonged to the province of punish those who denied the principles of proTs'eu, and why there should be mentioned in priety and righteousness, and violated them, addition to them another tribe, called the "Jung The critics, not examining the case sufficiently,


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


道 其汝 琛、
XXL 7. O 則無獲牛惟

獲 牛 TELE 無臣馬有之敢啟馬


1 復事 安牛常傷傷乃杜舍

[ocr errors]

3 “We must now largely let the oxen and horses loose, and not

keep them as usual in enclosures :—do you shut up your traps, and fill up your pitfalls, and do not presume to injure any of the animals let loose. If any of thein be injured, you shall be dealt with accord

ing to the regular punishments. 4 “When the horses and cattle are seeking one another, or when

your followers, male or female, abscond, presume not to leave the have rashly said that Kaou-yaou took weapons, and horses.' K'ang-shing endeavours to exof war to deal with those people. They have plain it from the not considered that the Man and E were dwell

manacles,' i.e., hobbles ating with the mass of the ordinary population tached to the feet; but this is to be rejected. of the Middle Kingdom. There was no occa- As they marched through the country, the sion for military operations against them. It is soldiers would have, especially at night, to let absurd to think of such measures as those of after ages,—the despatch of a great general to loose co-ft their cattle, to rest them punish and smite the various tribes of barba- and let them seek pasture, instead of keeping rians.

them in stables or enclosures. They would P.2. The soldiers must have their weapons all have to do this extensively and carelessly' in good order. Tek is defined in the often. The critics all define there by by to select,' and the E similarly t'greatly;' but the other meaning which gives it for it. Ts'ae explains it by to

I have indicated must not be omitted. Below, stitch and make whol,' and K'ang-shing by in 1 and is used simply

to indicate the cattle. Ying-tă says :-Tak, which comes to the same thing. The

既言 meaning evidently is that in the translation, # # # Whatever may be the specific force of this term Ź TEZ The 'coats of mail and helmets' were made of leather, which may have been studded or fenced . What is intimated about the with more or less of metal. 敵 character of the country shows how thinly it properly “the strings attached to a shield. The must have then been peopled

. With and are required they in good order. # B (teih), —- in comp. fit and 64 in 'The Doctrine of perfect condition.? - Ta‘ae defines the Mean,' Ch. vi. - 'to fill up.

None of the commentators touch on the regular porn by 'to put in the fire and then in punishments for the offences here indicated, water,' = 'to temper.' The character denotes nor do I know what they were. the 'forging' of metals generally. TI, P. 4. The soldiers must on no account leave - sharp points and edges, '—i.eu, weapons for their entrenchments or ranks ; and the people must P,3. The people must look after the ground in carefully return strayed animuls and absconded

followers. the line of march, so that the cattle of the army

le X-the dict. ex. should not be injured. The charge here must be plains with reference to this passage, by taken as addressed to the people, through that 'to stray ;' but usage shows that such is not mentioned in the text.

straying is like that " when the wild ass snuffeth 牛馬特 is defined in the 說文 as up the wind;一笔牡相誘謂之風 #

'*+Nzem. ###, an enclosure or stable for 臣妾道逃,一the

臣妾 are caml



[ocr errors]

thrust and cut.


魯逮乃我有據有之 逮

之 人粮惟常誘常逐我

ik ;誘蹦 三則糧征刑。臣坦刑不高

JH E J. 郊有無徐0妾牆無復費 三大敢我甲竊敢次次


汝 竊取 汝 遂刑不時戊則馬寇則乃


ranks to pursue them. But let them be carefully returned. I will reward you who return them according to their value. But if you leave your places, to pursue them, or if you who find them do not return them, you shall be dealt with according to the regular pun. ishments. And let none of you people presume to rob or detain vagrant animals or followers, or to jump over enclosures and walls to steal away horses or oxen, or to decoy away servants and female attendants. If you do so, you shall be dealt with according to the regular punishments.

“On the day Keă-suh I will punish the tribes of Seu ;—prepare roasted grain and other provisions, and presume not to have any deficiency. If you do, you shall suffer the severest punishment. Yemen of Loo, from the three environing territories, and the three tracts beyond, prepare your posts and planks. On Keă-suh I will commence followers who had to gather fuel, cook, &c. Kin P. 5. The time is fixed for direct operations, Le-ts'ëang tells us that to every chariot there and everything required to be in readiness. We were attached three men in mail, and 70 foot are to suppose that the marching would be over soldiers, with other 25 followers, who are those by the day Këă-suh, and that they would be intended here by

EX- then in front of the enemy.

. 峙一儲備, means 'getting over' the entrenchments.

"to have collected and prepared.' 魯人 Tilt i Ź,-this must be understood as addressed to the country-people who should fall = = *-the country beyond the in with such animals and camp-followers. Both capital to a certain extent was called BB, and they, and soldiers who should themselves pursue beyond this again it was denominated after the vagrants, are addressed in 75 Gaubil observes that it is difficult at the present 8 Wiki); but the rest of the day to get correct ideas of what was really

intended by these designations of the frontiers; par. regards only the people who should thus and that it is difficult to account for the mention offend. Gan-kwó, indeed, supposes that PE of three kčaou and three suy.' Wang Suh thinks

that the troops from the këaou and suy on the east HZZ, is addressed to the soldiers, against were left to guard the country, and hence, as stealing from the people, and Woo Ch‘ing that only those from the other three went forth on it is forbidding them to steal one from another;

the expedition, only they are mentioned. This

was the view also of Gan-kwă. Ying-tă, howbut the view which I have proposed seems much

ever, puts forward another view, which is in. more likely. 我 i i it, I will consistent with this,

though he does not seem deliberate and reward you ; —the meaning is imperial domain, to a distance of 100 le was

to be aware of the inconsistency.-In the ås I have expressed it in the translation. The peculiar force of be, 'to appropriate on tempta

called BB, and beyond that was the In tion of occasion offered,' should be expressed in

the were the six hëang + B), which a translation.

furnished the ' six hosts', while the


則敢乃郊殺無供築甲峙 敢

供時 有不锡三魯餘汝無戌乃

戌 大多获遂人刑則

則 我頓

我 刑汝無峙三非有不惟轮


my entrenchments ;-dare not but be provided with a supply of these. If you be not so provided, you shall be subjected to various punishments, only short of death. Ye men of Loo, from the three environing territories, and the three tracts beyond, prepare the forage, and do not dare to let it be other than in abundance. If you do, you shall suffer the severest punishment." suy extending 200 le beyond, furnished, if need to them, as they were nearer than the others were, six subsidiary hosts. In a large State of

to the seat of war. 無餘刑-punish100 le square, the kenou extended 20 le from the capital; and as it was supposed to turnish only ments without remainder.' It is difficult to

three hosts,' and, if need were, three auxiliary say what punishments are meant. The addition hosts, it is inferred that these might all be of HE t shows that they were short of death. called =ŹN. The lan- Gan-kwe simply says--- various punishments. guage in the text, therefore, is simply equivalent Kang-shing and Wang Suh agree in saying to the army of Loo,' and we do not need to in that the punishments were such as would inquire further about a 4th keuou and a 4th suy.

volve the parents and children of the offender,

so that none should be exempt from them. 植株 are 'the posts and planks' fore

We have in this par. and the last the regular the framework in which walls are raised in punishments’ (FJ), which were well deChina by pounding earth and lime together (題日植,旁日称: From the men

fined and known; the thi, great punishtion of the

men of Loo," it is inferred that ment' or death ; and these TIE Fil. there were men of other States also in the army, while they were required to provide the planks 努类 are distinguished as 'new-inown grass and posts, and forage, such labour being easier and hay.'


[blocks in formation]





君 群 告子 予無土曉公部

, 哲 誰聽我日




The duke said, “Ah! my officers, listen to me without any

noise. I solemnly announce to you the most important of all sayings. It is this which the ancients have said, “Thus it is with all people,

Name of the Book. To "The Speech among the passes of the Heaou mountain (Fit of the duke of Ts'in. At the time when this 14), in the pres. dep. of Ho-nan, and sustained a speech was made, the States of Tsin () and terrible defeat. The troops were nearly all cut Ts'in ) were among the most powerful

to pieces, and the three commanders were taken

prisoners. of the empire. In s.c. 630, they were engaged together in the siege of the capital of Ching captives to death, when he was persuaded by

The duke of Tsin was intending to put these (), and would have extinguished that his mother to send them back to Ts'in, that principality, but the duke of Ts'in was suddenly duke Muh might himself sacrifice them to bis induced to withdraw his forces, leaving three anger for their want of success. Muh, however, of his officers in friendly relations with the

did no such thing. He went out from the capital court of Ch'ing, and under engagement to de

to meet his defeated officers, and comforted fend the country from aggression. These men,

them, saying that the blame of the defeat was however, were entirely in the interest of their his own, wlio had refused to listen to the advice own prince, and one of them, called Ke-tsze of his wise counsellors. Then it is said he made ( F ), sent word. in B.c. 627, to 'Ts'in, that

the speech here recorded, for the benefit of all

his ministers. he was in charge of one of the gates of the capital, and is an army were sent to take the

That the speech was made on the occasion place by surprise, Ch'ing might be added to

thus described rests on the authority of the the territories of Ts.in. The duke-duke

preface to the Shoo, which has generally been Muli ( 12)-laid the matter before his followed by the critics. The Æ , however,

while it relates how Muh met his commanders counsellors. The most experienced of them

and comforted them, says nothing of the speech. the famous Pih-le He (L) and Köenn And Sze-me Ts'een places it three years later,

and on a different occasion. After some unshuhe top- --were against taking advan

successful attempts to wipe out the disgrace at tage of the proposed treachery. The duke, how- | the Ileaou bills, Ts'in made a great raid on its ever, listened rather to the promptings of his neighbour in B.c. 621, when Tsin did not dare own ambition, and the next year sent a large to meet the enemy in the field. Then duke force, under his three ablest commanders, hoping Muli crossed the Ho, and had the bones of his to fall upon Ch‘ing all unexpected. The slaughtered host collected, and interred in one attempt failed. Ch‘ing was warned of the place, making great sacrifices and mourning on approaching danger; and the commanders, vexed the occasion, and delivering this speech, to acand disappointed, were leading the army back, knowledge and transmit the memory of the when it was attacked by the troops of Tsin fault he had committed.

« הקודםהמשך »