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mited by any compact among themselves. Our Lord's commission given to his twelve Apostles, is, in Matthew, to this purpose : Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, xxviii. 19. and in Luke, xxiv. 46. 47. he said to them, that repentance and forgivenesse of fons should be preached in his name among all nations, begining at Jerusalem. And Acsi. 8. And ye shall be witnesses unto me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth. And Mark xvi. 1 5. And he said unto them : Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. And ver. 20. And they went forth and preached every where. Of Paul the Lord says in a vision to Ananias at Damascus :He is a cholen veljel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentils, and Kings, and the children of Israel. Acts ix. 5. And Paul says to King Agrippa : I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision : but thewed first unto them of Damascus, and at Jerufalem, and throughout all the coast of Yudea, and then to the Gentils, that they should repent, and turn to God. ch. xxvi. 19. 20. Moreover we know from the historie of Paul's preaching recorded in the Aets, that he always first addressed himself to Jews in all the places where he came, if there were any, and if they had there a synagogue.

Ít nould be observed likewise, that Peter had actually preached to Gentils, in Judea, and was the first disciple of Jesus, that did so. There is a particular account of it in the book of the Acts, ch. x. and xi. And himself takės notice of it in his speech at the Council of Jerusalem, ch, XV. 7.'

The reason therefore, why the gospel of circumcision is said to have been committed unto Péter, and the other Apoftles with him, is, that for a good while, their miniftry was {cly; or hovever very much, and chiefly, employed among Jews in Yudea : though afterwards they preached very freely to Gentils, in several parts of the world. And Paul is called the Apoitle of the Gentils, and the gospel of the uncircumcision is said to have been committed unto him, because he got the start of all the rest in preaching to Gentils, and had laboured among them for a good while in divers countreys, with great succefle, and had formed many churches in divers places : whilst they were still in Judea, teaching Jews, and had made no addresses to Gentils abroad in other countreys. 5. It may be also implied in what St. Paul says in the epistle to the Gala: tians, that (h) several of the firit twelve Apostles intended to stay Mill fomewhat longer in Judea. This they were the more willing to do, being fully satisfied with the preaching of Purl in foreign countreys: infomuch that they encouraged him to proceed, as he had begun.

8. Once more, we may now be reconciled to the supposition of the late date of the Gospels. For they were not to be published, till the doctrine

concerning (b) Alterum, quod ex dicto Pauli ad Galatas colligimus, illud eft, Joannem etiam port dicetlum Pauli cum duobus collegis per aliquod temporis intervallum Hierofolymis, et in Judæa fubftitisse. Gentium enim conversione Paulo et Barnabæ demandata, ipfi inter Judæos se operam porro locaturos de clarant. Quæ etiam caussa eft, cur Joannis et fociorum in Actis Apoftolicis vix mentio occurrat, quia poitquam primordia Ecclefiæ Chriftianæ inter Judæos memorata erant, nihil amplius videbatur addendum, nisi ut narretur, quomodo primitia: Gentium effent introductæ. Lamp. Proleg. in Jo. l. 1. cap.

3. 5. vii.

concerning Jesus had been preached in divers parts, and many converts had been made, to whom they would be useful, for whom they would be needful, by whom they would be received with joy, be highly valued, frequently read, and often copied. Written histories of Jesus could be little wanted by the Jewish believers in Judea, whilst all the Apostles were still in that countrey, and there were also still living among them many sincere followers of Jesus, and eye-witnesses of his person and ministrie. Very probably, therefore, there was no written gospel, till after: the Council at Jerusalem.

Still there may be objections, which should be stated and considered.

Obj. 1. It may be faid: Was not the progreffe of the gospel by this : means much retarded? I answer: No. And this objection, methinks, should be of little moment now, after all that has been said of the many. advantages of the Apostles stay in Judea.

However, some considerations Ihall be here added to what has been already said. Though the Apostles did not leave Judea themselves, they encouraged those who did, who preached the gospel abroad, whether to Jews or Gentils. Of this there is an instance with regard to the church of Antioch, related Acts xi. 19. - 22. And there may have been some other like instances. Moreover the Apostles were very useful by their stay in Judea, as has been already shewn. They made many converts among the Jews. During their stay in that countrey, if there was any measure of public liberty for the believers, the Apostles would all, or. most of them, be at Jerusalem, at the great feasts, to which there was a general resort of Jews from all countreys. Here the inquisitive of that People would have an opportunity of conversing with the Apostles.. And if they were convinced, and persuaded by them, they would carry the doctrine of the gospel into the places of their usual residence, and propagate it there.

Obj. 2. But, if the Apostles had attempted to make a long stay in Yudea, it seems, that they must have been all destroyed. I answer, that doubtless they met with many and great difficulties. What they were from the time of our Lord's afcenfion to the year 44. was briefly rehearsed juft now. After that for several years, as I apprehend, their difficulties would not be so great, as they had been. Yea, during that space would be the best opportunity that ever they had, to promote the interests of the gospel, as I said before, Fór (ithe Jewish people had not the power of life and death in their own hands. And the Roman Pro


() Contra persuasum habeo, hoc emblema fupponere, Ecclesiam jamn longo admodum tempore fuisse afflictam. i . Ne jam dicam, non constare ex historia Ecclefiæ, quinam illi fint Martyres, quorum fanguis, præter eum Stephani, et utriusque Jacobi

, de quorum altero ex Luca, altero ex Josepho liquet et Hege. fippo, a Judæis fusus fuerit. Judæi enim, excepto brevi intervallo regni Agrippæ, rerum fuarum non erant domini: et licet in Christianos pessime affecti fuerint, a Præfidibus tamen Romanis prohibebantur, pro lubitu in innocuos Jesu Chrifti difcipulos favire. Quæ enim junior Ananus tentavit in Jacobum fratrem Domini, et tià; itépes, quofdam alios, Chriftianæ profesionis homines, ut conftat ex Jofepho Feito mortuo, et Albino adhuc in itinere agente, peracta funt. Campeg: Viiring, in Apoc. cap. vi. vcr, 12. $ *xx.

curators were not disposed to give any men disturbance upon account of difference of opinion in religious matters. Finally, the Apostles of Jesus Chrift, we have reason to think, had an especial direction, and an especial protection. They, who were employed in teaching fo important a doctrine, and were enabled to work miracles upon others for confirming it, may be reasonably supposed to have been the subjects of fome wonderful interpofitions of Providence. And it must be reckoned very probable, that affairs would be so over-ruled and influenced, as that these chofer men should be upheld, and enabled to fulfill their miniftrie, and beat fuch a testimonie to Jesus, as should be sufficient to lay a good foundation for the establishment of his Church in the world, and leave all thore of the Jewish People, who did not receive him as the Mefliah, absolutely inexcusable.

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1. That the Evangelist is the same as John Mark, and nephew to Barnabas.

II. His Historie from the New Testament. III. From other Writers, IV. Testimonies to his Gospel, in ancient Writers. V.

V. Remarks upon them. VI. The Time of writing his Gospel, according to these ancient Writers, and the Sentiments of learned Moderns. Vii. Characters of Time in the Gospel itself. VIII. Obfervations upon this Gospel. .

The Evangeline." I

T is generally, or even universally, allowed, that the same as John

Mark, mentioned i Pet. v. 13. is the Evangelift. Mark.

But it has been doubted, whether he be the same as John

Mark mentioned in the Acts, and some of St. Paul's epistles. And it appears from our collections out of ancient authors, that there were doubts about this in the minds of some in former times.

Divers learned moderns are persuaded, that they are different persons. Of this number are (a) Cave, (who nevertheless thinks him (6) the same Mark, that is mentioned by St. Paul in his second epistle to Timothie] (9) Grotius, (d) Du Pin, and (e) Tillemont. Which latt

, in his Ecclefiaftical Memoirs, makes two different articles for this name : one entitled, St. Mark the Evangelif, Apostle of Egypt, and Martyr : the other, St. John Mark, disciple and cousin of St. Barnabas. On the other hand


(a) S. Marcus Evangelista, quem cum Joanne Marco, de quo Act. xii. 12, male nonnulli confundunt. H, L. T. 1, p. 24.

(6) Cum enim illum epistola fecunda ad Timotheum-Romam accerfire: rat Paulus -Id. ib. (e) Gr. Pr. in Marc,

(d) DilPrelim, l. 2. ch. ii. $ iv, (e) Mem. Ec. Tom. 2.

they are reckoned one and the same by() Jer. Jones, (g) Lightfoot, and (6) Wetstein,

I shall now without delay consider the reasons of those, who think there are two Marks mentioned in the New Testament.

1. They say, that Mark the Evangelist was converted and baptised by Peter, because he calls him his fon. 1 Pet. v. 13. But there is no reafon to suppose this of John Mark.

To which I answer. That needs not to be reckoned the constant meaning of the expression. It may denote only great affection and tenderneffe, and a respect to faithful services : in like manner as Paul says of Timothie, Philip. ii. 22. that as a fon with the father he had ferved with him in the gospel. Grotius (i) and Du Pin (k) who mention this reason, seem not to have judged it conclusive. Moreover, if Mark was à con vert of Peter, it does not follow, that he was not an early believer. For he might be one of that Apostle's converts at his first preaching the gorpel at Jerusalem. Mark the Evangelift, upon that supposition, could not be one of the seventy: but he might be among the first believers, and the son of Marie. However, I choose not to infift upon this, but chiefly upon what was before mentioned that the appellation, my son, needs not to be understood rigorously, as meaning á convert begotten to the faith of the gospel.

2. It is said that (1) Mark, the companion of Paul, was called John: but the Evangelift is never lo called by the ancients, who mention him.

To which I answer. It is true, that Paul's companion is sometimes called John, as Acts xiii. 5. and 13. But we are allo informed that he


(f) New and full Method. vol. 3. ch. vi. p. 65. ... 70.

(8) Lightfooi is making observations upon the first epistle of St. Peter. “ He sends this epiftle, fays he, by Sylvanus, Paul's old attendant, but now with Peter. . . His naming of Mark with him calls our thoughts back to what has been mentioned of Mark heretofore : his being with Paul at Ronie, and his coming from him into the East. To suppose two Marks, one with Peter, and another with Paul, is to breed confusion, where there needeth not.

It is easily seen, how John Mark came into familiarity with Paul and Peter. And other Mark we can find none in the New Testament, unless of our own invention. . . He it was, that wrote the Gospel. Lightfoot Harm. of the N. 7. Vol.i. p. 336.

(1) Nihil vetat, quo minus fimpliciter cum Victore et Theophylacto hunc eundem Marcum intelligamus, quoties illius nomen in Actis et Epistolis reperimus. Wetft. Pr. in Murc. Tom. i. p. 551.

(1) Adde, quod Joannes Marcus inter primos Chriftianos : Marcus hic, ut videtur, Petri opera conversus. 1 Pet. v. 13.

1 Pet. v. 13. Nam tales peculiariter filios fuos Apoftoli vocabant. 1 Cor. iv. 15. Gal. iv. 19. Gr. Pr. in Mart,

(k) Il y a plus d'apparence, qu'il a reçu l'evangile de S. Pierre, qui l'appelle fils, peutêtre parcequ'il l'avoit engendré en ]. c. Dil. Prel. 1. 2. ch. 2. § iv.

(1) Joannes quoque ille Mariæ filius, Barnabæ confanguineus, . . Marcus vocabatur : quem multi hunc noftrum fcriptorem putant. Quibus qùo minus affentiar, moveor veterum auctoritate, qui hunc fcriptorem Joannem nunquam, Marcum semper vocant. . . Grot. Pr. in Marc.

L'Evangeliste n'elt appellé nulle part du nom de Jean, qui étoit le nom propre de celuici. Du Pin, ubi fupra.

was surnamed Mark. So Acts xii. 12. And when he had confidered the thing, he came to the house of Marie, the mother of John, whose surname was Mark. And ver. 25. .. and took with them John, whose surname was Mark. And he is several times mentioned by the surname, Mark, only. Acts xv. 39. 2 Tim. iv. 11. Col. iv. 10. Philem. ver. 24. Secondly, fuch of the ancients, as supposed Mark, the Evangelift, to have been the fame with him mentioned in the Acts, must also have supposed, that he was called John, as well as Mark, though they have generally mentioned him by his surname.

3. It is said, that (m) John Mark was much with Paul, Mark, the Evangelist, with Peter. So say the ancients in general.

I answer : It is not at all impossible, but that Mark might be sometimes with Paul, at other times with Peter. As may appear by and by:

As these reasons therefore do not appear to me conclusive, Í rather think, that there is but one Mark in the New Testament, John Mark, she Evangelist, and fellow-laborer of Paul and Barnabas, and Peter. His historie

II. I now proceed to write the historie of John Mark, from the N.T. observations, thewing his acquaintance with Peter, as well from the N.T. from the New Testament, mentioning, as they offer, some as with Paul. After which I shall take notice of some other things said of him by the ancients.

He was the son of Marie, a pious woman at ferufalem, and an early believer, at whole house the disciples used to meet, and that in trouble. fome and difficult times, as well as at other seasons. Peter having been delivered out of prison by an angel, came to the house of Marie, mother of John, whose surname was Mark, where many were gathered together pray111g Acts xii. 12. So that the very firit mention of John Mark assures us of Peter's intimacie in that familie.

That deliverance of St. Peter happened in the year 44. about the same time that Paul and Barnabas came to Jerusalem from Antioch with contributions for the relief of the brethren in 'fudea in the time of a famine, or scarcity. And it is faid at the end of that chapter. And Barnabas and Saul returned from Jerusalem, when they had fulfilled their miniArie, and took with them John, whose surname was Mark. This, with some other things to be hereafter mentioned, may dispose us to think, that this John Mark is the same, who in Col. iv. 10. is called fifter's son to Barnabas.

Mark therefore went now from Jerusalem to Antioch, with Paul and Barnabas. And, when some short time afterwards, they went abroad to other countreys, Mark accompanied them, as their minister. Acts xiii. 5. They went to Cyprus, and preached the word in that countrey. But when they returned to the continent, and came on shore at Perga in Pamphylia, he departed from them, and returned to Jerusalem. ver. 13. He therefore did not attend them in their farther progresse to Antioch in Pie fidia, Iconium, and other places, but went to Jerusalem.


(m) Et ita Petro addunt [Veteres] comitem, ac difcipulum, ut non tantum de Barnaba, fed et de Paulo, quem Joannes Marcus poft illud frigusculum fectatus est , . . nihil meminerint. Grot. ibid.

Il étoit disciple de S. Pierre, et attaché à lui, dans le tems que l'autre étoit avec S. Paul, et S. Barnabe, Du Pin. ibid,

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