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APPENDIX. (LOUIS XII--LOUIS BONAPARTE.) Agnadello, in 1509, where he fought with Bayard and others, maintained, even in great bravery: Julius II, bowever, fearing misfortune, the glory of the French arms. the power of France in Italy, concluded - See P. L. Roederer's Louis XII et Franthe holy league (see League) with Venice, çois !, ou Mémoires pour servir à une Switzerland, Spain and England, against nouvelle Histoire du Regne de Louis XII Louis XII, in 1510. In vain did the king, et de François 1 (Paris, 1825, 2 vols.). in conjunction with the emperor Max- Louis BONAPARTE, count of St Leu, imilian, assemble, in 1511, a council at fourth son of Charles Bonaparte, was bom Pisa, in order to reform the church, in its at Ajaccio, Sept. 2, 1778. Those who head and members, and to depose Julius believe that the extinction of feudal prinII; the pope laid an interdict on France, ciples must necessarily take place in Euin 1512, and declared Louis XII to have rope, and that the principles of the French forfeited his crown. The French armies revolution (though at first vaguely undercould not maintain themselves after the stood, and often pervertedly applied) must death of their general, Gaston de Foix make a new era in the constitution of (9. v.); they were beaten by the Swiss, at Europe, will consider it as one of the Novara, in 1513, and retreated over the most important points of investigation, in Alps; after which Maximilian, son of Napoleon's life, how far he remained Louis Moro, took possession of Milan, merely a Frenchman, sacrificing other and Genoa made herself independent of nations to elevate his own, and how far France. The Swiss, at the same time, he may be considered as having acted penetrated into France as far as Dijon, with a view to the interests of Europe in and Henry VIII (q. v.) of England de- general, which his station, as dictator of feated the French, in 1513, at Guinegate Europe, called on him to cherish. For (Journée des Éspérons, because the French the investigation of this point, the life of inade more use of their spurs in flight Louis Bonaparte will have a peculiar inthan of their swords in fight). Ferdinand terest. Louis Bonaparte went, at an the Catholic, also, in 1512, had taken early age, to France, chose the military Upper Navarre, which, until then, be- career, and was educated at the military longed, together with Lower Navarre, in school at Chalons. In his Réponse à Sir France, to the house of Albret. Louis Walter Scott, he speaks with great affecXII now renounced the provinces on the tion of the paternal care which Napoleon other side of the Alps and the Pyrenees, took of him in his youth, when he lived became reconciled with Leo X, the suc- with him in France. Louis accompanied cessor of Julius II, and concluded, in his brother to Italy and Egypt, as aid-de1514, a general peace with Henry VIII, camp. From Egypt he returned with whose sister Mary he married, after the despatches to the directory, March 14, 1799. death of Ame, after which he united his Soon after the 18th of Brumaire, Naposecond daughter, Renée, to the arch-duke leon sent him to Berlin, where he reCharles (Charles V). From love to his mained for a year. He was afterwards beautiful wife (only 16 years old), Louis appointed general of brigade, and, in (then 53 years of age) changed his whole 1802, married the step-daughter of Napomode of life, to the injury of his health, leon, Hortensia Beauharnais-a match and thus accelerated his death. He died which proved unhappy. When NapoJan. 1, 1515.—Louis XII possessed many leon assumed the imperial dignity, he of the qualities of a good ruler. He made his brother Louis constable, and, in was open, honest, economical, just, kind- 1805, governor-general of Piedmont. But, hearted and magnanimous; he was on account of his health, Louis soon left friend of science, and attracted learned Turin. Schimmelpennink, the grand men to his country, particularly from pensionary of Batavia, wishing to resign Italy; and France owes to him its first his office, on account of his blindness, scientific collections. He loved to read Napoleon improved the opportunity to Cicero's De Officiis, De Senectute, and De make his brother Louis king of Holland Amicitia. Trajan was his model. France (June 6, 1806). Louis refused to accept enjoyed, under him, a degree of prosperity the crown; he alleged his ill health and and security which it had never possessed the damp atmosphere of the country; but before. In regard to the foreign relations Napoleon told him, “ Qu'ü valait mieur of the country, Louis had not sufficient mourir roi, que de vivre prince.” Other talent to oppose the crafty Julius II, Fer- reasons determined Louis to accept the dinand the Catholic, and cardinal Wolsey, crown, though he could be, in fact, nothHis generals, Trivulce, De la Tremouille, ing more than a French prince. The preGaston de Foix (nephew of Louis XII), vious negotiations with respect to this sub



587 ject were kept an entire secret from him. and, under the name of count of St. Leu, After his accession, be desired to identify repaired, by way of Teplitz, to Gratz, himself with his people ; but, in his situa- where he devoted himself to literature, tion, this was impossible; and therefore and wrote several works. The struggle his reign, although he respected the pub- of interests which necessarily ensued belic opinion of the nation, and earnestly tween Napoleon and his brothers, whom endeavored to improve every branch of he recognised as kings, is strikingly the administration, had, on the whole, exhibited in the letters written by Naponeither freedam nor dignity. He often leon's own hand to Louis, and preserved took steps which offended the feelings of in Bourrienne’s Memoirs. They show the nation; for instance, his attempted that it was nearly impossible that the levy of orphans for the military service. interest of the emperor of France should Other plans of his, such as the removal agree with that of the king of Holland. of the seat of government from the Hague Louis had not enriched himself in Holto Utrecht, and subsequently to Amster- land. The income of the civil list, for dam, were not merely without advan- the month of June, he returned to his son. tage, but detrimental. But he made a And when Holland was incorporated with noble, though vain resistance, to what was France, he forbade the institution of any termed the haute politique of France, in as appanage for himself

, the queen and his far as Holland was concerned. On one children; he resigned to his wife his occasion, he generously declared, “Qu'en estate at St. Leu, near Paris, his palace in acceptant le trône de Hollande, il s'était fait Paris, and several houses in Holland. In Hollandais.The supplies demanded by October, 1817, he ceded St. Leu to the France on the one side, and the strict duke of Leuchtenberg, Eugene Beauharmeasures against British commerce, which nais. In the years 1813 and 1814, Louis he was compelled to adopt, on the other, repeatedly offered the emperor his serrendered the restoration of the prosperity vices, with a view, however, to the reof Holland impossible. Louis was, how- placing of Holland under a French dy. ever, successful in preserving Holland nasty, which, however, Napoleon decidfrom a general bankruptcy. Though the edly refused. After the reinstatement of foreign relations of the country demanded the house of Orange, he thought himself unceasing attention, the completion of a freed from all obligations to Holland, and new criminal and civil code was accom- went to Paris, Jan. 1, 1814. His meeting plished, and a uniform system of weights with Napoleon, concerted by the empress and measures, on the model of the French, Maria Louisa, was cold. He earnestly was adopted. In his personal character, exhorted his brother to peace. March 30, the king displayed moderation, modesty, he accompanied the empress to Blois. active humanity (for example, on occasion In April, he retired to Lausanne, and of the explosion of powder in Leyden, thence, in November, 1814, to Rome. In and of the inundations in the winter of 1815, he remained in Rome. Having 1808), and placability in regard to the separated from his wife, he demanded affronts wbich he received. But as he that she should give up to him his son would not enforce the continental system (formerly grand-duke of Berg, under in Holland with severity, and defended Napoleon's guardianship), with whose his people against the ever-increasing en- education he has occupied himself at croachments

of his brother, a dispute en- Rome. The letter to M. Bonald, on the sued between them; Louis was ordered education of his son, bears favorable to Paris, where it was with the greatest testimony to the qualities of his mind sacrifices that he effected a prolongation and his heart. His romance Marie, ou of the existence of the Dutch state. This, les Peines d'Amour, ou les Hollandaises however, was of short duration. Having (3 vols., 1814), contains a picture of Dutch been advised that French troops were on manners. He has given a detailed histheir way, under Oudinot, to occupy Am- tory of the circumstances of himself and sterdam and the sea-board, he abdicated his family, especially of his administration the sovereignty, July 1, 1810, created his of Holland, in his Documens historiques et absent wife, agreeably to the constitution, Réflexions sur le Gouvernement de la Holregent, in the name of his minor son lande, par Louis Bonaparte, Er-Roi de (whom the emperor, without the knowl- Hollande (3 vols., London, 1821), which is edge of the father, had appointed, March 3, entirely his own, even to the preface. 1809, grand-duke of Berg and Cleves, re- Against the participation ascribed to him, serving to himself the guardianship of him), in a work on the British parliament (Hisleft Holland, accompanied by two friends, toire du Parlement d'Angleterre, with notes,

588 APPENDIX. (LOUIS BONAPARTE-LUCIEN BONAPARTE.) pretended to be by Napoleon), Louis has views of his brother. Not long before protested, in the Paris Constitutionnel. His the memorable 18th Brumaire, he became Réponse à Sir Walter Scott appeared in president of the council, and prepared the 1829. In this work, he acknowledges proceedings of that day. Being unable to himself as author of the following works appease the agitation caused by general only: 1. and 2., Marie, and the Documens Bonaparte's entrance into the assembly, historiques already mentioned ; 3. Mémoire he abandoned his seat, laid aside the sur la Versification, contenant un Recueil badges of his dignity, mounted his horse, d'Odes publiées précédemment en Brochure rode at full speed through the ranks of aset des Essais de Vers sans Rime ; 4. Es- sembled troops, and exhorted them to save sai sur la Versification (2 vols., in 8vo.), their general, whose life was in great dancontenant l'Opera de Ruth, la Tragédie de ger. (See Napoleon, and Sieyes.). After Lucrèce; ces deux Pièces écrites en Vers the consular government was established, sans Rime, et la Comédie de l'Avare de Mo- Lucien was made minister of the interior. liere reduite en Vers de la même Espèce; While in this station, in 1799, he encour5. Nouveau Recueil de Poésies publiées à aged, with great zeal, the arts, sciences, and Florence l’Année dernière, et contenant la public instruction. He established a secSuite du Lutrin Poëme, en 5 Chants, &c.; ond prytaneum at St. Cyr,and organized the 6. Réponse à Sir Walter Scott.

prefectures. In October, 1800, he went, as Lucien BONAPARTE, third son of Charles ambassador, to Madrid, where, by his adBonaparte, since 1814 prince of Canino dress and captivating demeanor, be soon (an estate in the papal territory, which he gained the entire confidence of king purchased in 1808, and which the pope Charles IV, of the queen, and the prince afterwards made a principality), was born of peace, and supplanted the British influat Ajaccio, in 1772. The effective assist- ence at the court of Madrid. He was al. ance which he rendered to Napoleon on so active in the creation of the kingdom some of the most important occasions in of Etruria, and in the cession of Parma the earlier period of his career, and the to France. September 29, 1801, Lucien, misunderstanding which, at a later period, with the prince of peace, signed, at Badatook place between these two brothers, joz, the treaty of peace between Spain render Lucien an object of much interest. and Portugal; and, by virtue of a secret We cannot enter minutely into these par- preliminary treaty, the prince-regent paid ticulars, which will form subjects of study 30 millions of francs, which were equally for the future historian, but must confine divided between Spain and France. On ourselves to a short biographical notice. his return to Paris, he became a tribune Lucien Bonaparte received his education (May 9, 1802). He advocated the plan of at the college of Autun, in Burgundy. At the establishment of the legion of honor, the commencement of the revolution, he of which he was appointed grand-officer. embraced with enthusiasm the party of February 3, 1803, the institute chose him the people. He became engaged to mad- member of the class of political and moremoiselle Boyer, whose brother was a al sciences, and shortly after he received land-owner and innkeeper at St. Maximin, the senatorship of Treves; after which he in the department of the Var. The mar- took possession of the donations made to riage took place in 1795. In the same the legion of honor in the departments year, he was appointed to a place in the of the Rhine, and in Belgium. Lucien, commissariat of war. In March, 1797, he whose first wife died in 1802, having was chosen deputy of the department of married, at the end of the year 1803, the Liamone to the council of the five hun- beautiful widow of the banker Joubertou, dred. July 18, 1797, he appeared, for the aguinst the will of Napoleon, withdrew to first time, in the tribune. He opposed the Italy, in 1804, and purchased the villa de regulation for shutting up the shops on the Nemori, in the neighborhood of Rome, 10th day of each décade, as arbitrary; at- where he devoted himself to his family, tacked with energy those who had wasted and to the arts and sciences. Whether the public money; and, on the anniversa- this marriage alone, or, as has been assertry of the establishment of the republic, ed by many, his disapprobation of Napoexhorted his colleagues to bind themselves leon's policy, was the cause of the misur)by an oath to die for the constitution of derstanding between the two brothers, we the year III ; though he soon after coöpe- have not the means of determining. Ata rated in overthrowing its supporters, Mer- meeting of the two brothers at Mantua, in lin, La Réveillère, and Treilhard. His in- November, 1807, the emperor proposed Huence soon increased, and he formed a to him the marriage of Lucien's eldest party, which afterwards promoted the daughter, then 12 years of age, with the

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589 prince of Asturia ; but the proposal was Ancona). This order he obtained at an rejected. Mademoiselle Tascher (who af- interview with Napoleon. All the other terwards became the wife of the duke of requests which he made in favor of the Arenberg, but is now divorced) was next pope were also granted, after which he offered to prince Ferdinand ; but the prince remained in Paris. Lucien then had to refused her, because he wished to connect enter the chamber of peers, where he sat, himself with Napoleon's family only. By not among the princes, but among the this opposition Lucien excited the anger other peers. The second class of the naof the emperor, and became desirous to tional institute, of which he was a memrepair to the U. States, in order to remain ber, sent a deputation to welcome him. undisturbed. He applied to Mr. Hill, the In this deputation was Suard, who, in English ambassador at the Sardinian February, 1815, had made the proposal, court, for passports from the English received with dissatisfaction by all the government, and, having received satisfac- members, to exclude Lucien from their tory assurances from him, embarked, Au- body, because he bore the name of Bonagust 5, 1810, at Cività Vecchia, with his parte. The second restoration of Louis family, a retinue of 35 persons, and his XVIII compelled him to return to Rome; personal property. A storm compelled but the Austrian general, count Bubna, him to put into Cagliari; but the English caused him to be confined in the citadel agent at that place denied him passports, of Turin, where he was treated with reand he was not even permitted to land. On spect. The allies restored him his freeleaving the harbor, his vessel was seized, dom, in September, 1815, on his declaraand Mr. Adair, who was then proceeding tion, Qu'il s'était constamment opposé aux to Constantinople as British ambassador, vues ambitieuses de son frère et qu'en dercaused him, at Mr. Hill's suggestion, to be nier lieu il ne s'était joint à lui qu'afin de le conveyed to Malta, where Lucien assign- ramener à des sentimens de moderation, and ed to the London cabinet, as the sole mo- on the mediation of the pope, though tive for his departure to America, the wish the papal see was obliged to pledge itself to live there in safety, as a private individ- that neither he nor any one of his family ual. He was not, however, permitted to should leave the States of the Church. repair thither, but was taken to England, He has since lived in Rome, or on his esin December of the same year, where he tates in the neighborhood, among which was treated with respect. Lord Powis, at the Ruffinella has become the seat of the first, gave up to him his seat of Stone- most refined taste. In 1817, Lucien solihouse, at Ludlow; be then removed to a cited passports, for himself and one of his seat which he had purchased in Worces- sons, to the U. States, which were, howter, where he remained under surveillance, ever, refused by the ministers of the allied having an English colonel for a compan- powers. His son, Charles Bonaparte, was ion. Some time after, the question was finally permitted to go to the U. States, and moved in parliament whether Lucien Bo- lived there for some time with his uncle naparte, as he had actually believed that Joseph (q. v.), whose eldest daughter. he he had obtained English passports, was to married. He published, whilst in the U. be considered as a prisoner of war. Af- States, his splendid work on American Orter protracted debates, he was declared a nithology, and was elected member of the prisoner of war, on the ground that he philosophical society at Philadelphia, and had not renounced the dignity of French that of natural history. He has since resenator ; but no alteration was made in his turned to Europe. His title is prince of treatment. Napoleon's downfall, in 1814, Musignano.—Distinguished as were Lúrestored him to liberty, and he returned to cien's talents as an orator, his poetical Rome. While in London, he published powers were far less splendid. În 1819, his epic poem, Charlemagne, ou l'Église he published at Rome a second heroic podélivrée (in 24 cantos, dedicated to the em, in 12 cantos—La Cyrnéide, ou la Corse pope). Napoleon's opinion of this poem sauvée-in which he celebrates the expulmay be found in Las Cases Mémorial. sion of the Saracens from Corsica (anWhen Napoleon had regained possession ciently Cyrnos). By the ordinance of of the French throne, after his return from March 21, 1816, Lucien was excluded from Elba, Lucien, at the suggestion of the the list of the members of the French pope, proceeded to meet the emperor, in academy. The Mémoires sur la Vie priorder to obtain an order that Murat, who vée, politique et littéraire de Lucien Bonathen occupied Rome, should evacuate the parte, Prince de Canino, rédigés sur sa States of the Church (with the exception Correspondance et sur des Pièces authenof a military road through the Mark of tiques et inédites (London, 1818, and Paris,




APPENDIX. (LUCIEN BONAPARTE–MADISON.) 1819, 2 vols.), of which Alfonse de Beau- distinguished men in various branches of champ is mentioned by some as the au- science. On his return home, he took thor, was first printed in London, in 1815, charge of the college, and commenced but immediately suppressed. It was pub- that long career of usefulness, which enlished, for the second time in London, by titles him to be considered as one of the Colburn, in 1819, and, on the whole, con- greatest benefactors of Virginia. Throughtains valuable contributions to the history out the whole revolutionary war, he was of the day. Lucien has made important unceasing in his exertions to sustain the excavations on his estate near Montalto, college; and it was only for a short period in the ancient Etruria (see the article during the struggle, that its exercises were Etruria), and has published an account of intermitted, viz. the autumn preceding and the collection of antiquities obtained, un- the winter and spring succeeding the der the title Muséum Etrusque de Lucien siege of Yorktown. Until 1784, he was Bonaparte, fouillés de 1828–1829 (with not only president, but professor of mathe40 plates of the inscriptions), and has also matics and natural philosophy. In that begun a splendid work, in folio, which will year, he gave up the mathematical decontain a hundred colored plates, repre- partment, and became professor of natural senting the paintings on the excavated and moral philosophy, of the laws of naEtruscan vases, &c. The latter appears ture and nations, &c., and continued in in monthly numbers, of five plates each, this office until the period of his death. sold by Piatti in Florence. . According to

In 1788, he was chosen bishop of the the latest accounts, his family had arrived Protestant Episcopal church, and in the in England, where he was expected soon following year again went to England to follow them.

for the purpose of consecration. Whilst Madison, James; a bishop of the Prot- there, he formed an extensive acquaintestant Episcopal church in Virginia, was ance amongst the most distinguished liteborn August 27, 1749, near Port Republic, rati, with many of whom he kept up an in the county of Rockingham, Virginia. uninterrupted correspondence during the His father was for a long time clerk of subsequent part of his life. At the end of the extensive district known as West Au- eight months, he returned to the U. States. gusta, of which Rockingham county Various universities and literary societies formed a part. At an early age, the son subsequently conferred their honors on was sent to an academy in Maryland, him. Under the care of bishop Madison, where he remained for several years, and the college of William and Mary advanced received instruction in the classics. He steadily in reputation, and became the then entered the college of William and alma mater of many eminent men. He Mary, where he was matriculated in 1768, was indefatigable in his lectures, and, and from which he obtained several hon- when in good health, is known to bare orable testimonials of his proficiency: been engaged in the lecture-room from One was the gold medal assigned by lord four to six hours every day throughout Botetourt for the encouragement of clas- each week. He first introduced a course sical learning, which was awarded to of systematic lectures on political econohim in 1772. He studied law under Mr. my into the college. In the department Wythe, and was admitted to the bar; but of natural philosophy, he excelled; his he never relished the profession, so that, enthusiasm there throwing a peculiar after one successful effort in an admiralty charm over his lectures. As a bishop, case, he abandoned it, and devoted him- also, he was ardent in the performance of self to the church. In 1773, he was his duties, and his sermons caused him to chosen professor of mathematics in Wil- be ranked among the first pulpit orators liam and Mary's college, and, in 1777, of this country. This excellent man died was made president of that institution, March 6, 1812, in his 630 year, after a painbeing then but 28 years of age. The ful illness of many months. His remains statutes of the college required that the were deposited, by vote of the faculty of president should be 30, but the rule was William and Mary's college, in the chapel suspended in his favor. In the same year, hall, and a marble monument was erected he visited England, in order to qualify over them. In person, bishop Madison himself still more for the duties of his was tall and slender, of a delicate constistation. He continued abroad, principally tution ; and nothing but the most temperin London, until the latter part of 1778, ate and abstemious habits could have and during his absence enjoyed the ad- prolonged his life to threescore years. In vantage of the aid and instruction of Ca- disposition, he was mild and benevolent; vallo in natural philosophy, and of other and few men have equally deserved

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