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earth of which this monument is composed, we bent our steps to the village of modern Marathona, a pleasantly situated spot, with some pretty country-houses, surrounded by tall waving poplars, and having the river of Marathon winding in its broken rocky channel through the neighbouring glen. Following this stream, we visited the fountain of Oinoe, and, in the overhanging crags, the subterranean cavern, by some called the cave of Pan. This is a succession of caverns, on different levels, covered with sparkling crystallizations, and the roof supported in many places by huge stalagmite pillars, which, with the arching over head, give it the appearance of rude gothic architecture. It is not unlike Mitchelstown cave, in this country ; but, from being the retreat of all the goats in the vicinity, and also the haunt of robbers, the floor of it was covered with dirt, and the roof blackened with smoke.
After this, we ascended the highland country of Attica, to visit Leoshea, the estate of our friend, Mr. Finlay. We crossed through some well-watered ravines, with corn fields, oriental plains, and groves of magnificent oaks, as a short time ago a considerable traffic was carried on in the acorns of Greece ; but the government having put a very high tax upon them, they are not now worth gathering. The soil is, for the most part, a rich ochery loam.
The extensive and elevated plain of Leoshea presents a scene of considerable beauty. The mountains raise their bare limestone heads to a height of nearly thirteen hundred feet, and the secondary range of hills that encompasses the plain, is clothed with forests of magnificent firs, oaks, and poplars, standing in a thick underwood of arbutus—both the Unedo and the Andrachne.
mens have been obtained in a cromlech lately discovered in the Phoenix Park, which contained, likewise, two perfect human skeletons, a shell necklace, an antique earthen vase, and a bone pin-all of which were presented by the Marquis of Normanby to the Royal Irish Academy. These arrow-heads are not cut in the usual shape of those found in this country; but are generally about two inches long, and not quite half an inch wide; flat on one side, and angular on the other; in fact, they are three-sided. They are, however, very rare in this country : but a few have been discovered at Elsden, in Northumberland, and there is a large collection of them among the Scandinavian antiquities at Copenhagen.
AMERICAN MISSIONARY SCHOOLS.
The Judas tree was in full blow, and the peach and apricot just putting forth their blossoms.
We passed the night at our friend's country-seat, and among the other creature-comforts we enjoyed, were regaled with a dish celebrated in Greece--a lamb roasted whole. Our second course was likewise one of the greatest delicacies among the mountaineers, called cookaratty, being the heart, lungs, and liver cut into small pieces, placed upon a ramrod, bound round with the intestines, and roasted something like the Arab kebobs; and it was most excellent. Next day we returned to Athens, by the marble quarries of Pentelicus; the country through which we passed was greatly overrun with low shrubby brushwood, but enlivened by small villages, surrounded by their olive groves and vineyards.
Of all the efforts made to regenerate this long-distracted country, none deserve such honourable mention as the labours of the American missionaries, particularly those of the Rev. Mr. Hill, who has established in Athens and Syra, schools, that will ever make the name of America dear to the people of Greece. In Athens, the missionary school contains upwards of six hundred children, and in Syra and other places, the number amounts to more than five hundred. Shortly before our visit, the Greek and Russian bishops had attempted to put down this institution, and endeavoured to make the government interfere in their behalf; but, notwithstanding the greatest opposition from the priesthood, the schools continued to flourish; for all the higher classes of well-educated Greeks had determined on supporting them. The Scriptures are translated into the modern Greek from the original Hebrew. Thousands of copies are in circulation, and the anxiety evinced by the people to possess the sacred volume is really astonishing.
One of the most interesting scenes I witnessed in this country, was that of laying the foundation stone of a Church-ofEngland place of worship, on the site of an ancient temple, near the road leading to the temple of Jupiter Olympius. All the English residents were present, and a more impressive ceremony I never beheld.
On Easter Saturday I visited the Greek chapel, to see the procession and ceremony of “burying the host;" and a scene of greater violence and confusion can scarcely be imagined among a
people calling themselves Christian. First came an immense crowd, carrying lighted torches; then a military band ; the ministers and officers of the royal household followed ; then came several richly dressed priests, and the aged Bishop of Attica, with his robes and crozier, preceding the hearse or bearer, on which was placed a small coffin, covered with a rich pall of black velvet, ornamented with silver, surrounded with lighted tapers, and decorated with flowers and garlands. A group of Greek and Bavarian soldiers closed the procession. Otbo and his interesting looking little queen having taken their seats in the church, the bearer was carried in and laid down in the aisle. The bishop ascended his throne, and the priests commenced a chant that carried me back to the scenes in the church of the Holy Sepulchre. This part of the service being concluded, each of the principal persons present having taken some of the flowers or candles off the holy bier, the crowd rushed in ; noise, uproar, and confusion ensued; flowers and lights were snatched from each other; and, in their holy zeal, the pall and coffin narrowly escaped destruction ; but the soldiers using their muskets with great energy, in a short time tranquillity was restored. Disgusted with this religion run mad, I did not wait for the conclusion of the proceedings, but I understood that they lasted till two o'clock in the morning. I know of nothing to equal this frightful scene, but that auspicious moment when, at the close of an election, the chair of the successful candidate is given up to the tender mercies of an Irish mob.
Easter Sunday.—We were awoke at an early hour by the firing of small arms, and the shouting of the people, rejoicing on the anniversary of the resurrection. On going into the streets, happiness beamed in every face ; and when Greek met Greek, it was not in the “tug of war,” but they rushed into each other's arms, a long embrace ensued, they then kissed each other on the cheeks and forehead, saying, “Christ is risen,” and answered, “Yes, Christ is risen indeed.” Not only among friends, but even slight acquaintances, did this primitive salutation take place. I cannot but think that this custom has prevailed in these countries since the days of the early Christians.
The noisy rejoicings continued all day, and towards evening the suburbs of the city reminded us of the Hebrew institution of the Passover ; for, opposite every house, all who could possibly
afford it were roasting a lamb whole. Their meal concluded, hundreds of the inhabitants congregated round the Temple of Theseus, and kept up the Romaic dance till nightfall. I shall never forget that scene. It was a calm and lovely evening; the distant mountains of Hymettus and Pentelicus threw back the mellow beams of the declining sun; the plain of Athens, with its academic groves and sacred way, was stretched beneath us; the Acropolis held aloft the ruins of the Parthenon above our heads; beside us rose the Areopagus, where St. Paul addressed the men of Athens, and first preached that Gospel which is again beginning to be published throughout the land ; and a little farther on, the eye turned to the Pnyx, where the eloquence of Demosthenes so often touched the hearts, and roused the dormant energies of the ancient Athenians....
There has been a large hospital established near the Theatre of Bacchus, and a Natural History Society instituted, whose museum will well repay the visit of the antiquary and the zoologist. During our stay, the maximum daily temperature was generally 64o.
On the 17th we sailed for the Morea, and the morning of the 19th found us beating up the gulf of Nauplia, with a head wind and a drifting mist. Towards evening the weather moderated; the sun shone out, and we anchored before the walls of Napoli di Romania. The scenery around this place is truly beautiful, and the overhanging rock, with its covered way, and the neighbouring batteries, give it a very great resemblance to Gibraltar, though on a much smaller scale. From our position, the view of this fine open bay and the surrounding country was exceedingly imposing, being enclosed by a semicircular range of mountains, between which and the sea, stretches one vast level plain, not unlike that of Marathon, but far greater in extent, being ten miles in length, by three to four in breadth,—then all under cultivation. I never saw so vast and uninterrupted an extent of standing corn. At the extreme end of the bay, the Acropolis of Argos forms an object which, independent of its classic recollections, must always claim the attention of the lover of the picturesque in nature or in art. The town of Napoli di Romania has decreased in interest and importance since the removal of the court to Athens. The streets, though good, have a deserted appearance, and many of the houses which had been
commenced remain unfinished. It is not unlike a Spanish town, but the lion of St. Mark, that decorates the gates and bastions, reminds us of its Venetian origin.
Next day we drove over to Argos and Mycenæ, visiting on our way the ruins of Tyrinthus, the reputed country seat of Hercules, and beside it, the marsh of Hydra. We spent some time in examining the former, groping through its dark passages, and scrambling over its cyclopean walls, the most ancient, perhaps, in existence ; for, when in a state little better than the present, they excited the admiration of Homer and Pausanias. This memorable spot, containing the oldest remains of Hellenic architecture, and one which witnessed the gathering of the kings and warriors of Greece upon the surrounding plain, before the Trojan war, stands upon a low hill near the shore, and when viewed from a little distance, or on entering the harbour of Nauplia, looks like an immense oval tumulus.
Leaving the carriage at the foot of the rocky defile that leads up to Mycenæ, we scrambled over the hills, and followed our guide to the city of Agamemnon. The situation was. lone and desolate, and just what the classic ruins of that heroic age should be. We approached it through the narrow walled way that leads to the Gate of Lions, and sat down to rest beneath the shadow of the oldest sculptured monument in Greece. The gateway was choked up with stones and brambles; but the slab that spans the top, and which bears in good relief the rampant lions, is still undisturbed. That portion of it, however, which contained the heads of the animals has been broken off, and, of late years, antiquarians have held learned discussions as to whether these animals were intended for wolves or lions, many inclining to the former opinion. Had those learned gentlemen combined a knowledge of zoology with their researches, they might have seen, that although the heads have been broken off, the feet, which are most exquisitely and accurately carved, are those of feline animals. The want of the mane, and the tuft at the end of the tail, leads us to look upon them as lionesses.* We climbed
* Quere.-Had the Mesopotamian lion a mane like those we are now acquainted with? Ancient authors say not.