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measures of government, will exert an enriching influence on the people, so that the wild tribes, with their coats buttoning on the left, will all seek their dependence on them, and I, the little child,

It will long enjoy much happiness. Thus, 0 duke, here in Chingchow will you establish for ever the imperial possession of Chow, and you will have an inexhaustible fame. Your descendants will follow your perfect pattern, governing accordingly.

15 "Oh! do not say, 'I am unequal to this;' but exert your mind to the utmost. Do not say, 'The people are few;' but attend carefully to your business. Reverently follow the accomplished achievements of the former kings, and complete the excellence of the government of your predecessors."

}!■ 'The govt, of the three prinees differ- I J# git >/g ^ fa a f£ ing as this earlier and that later, yet each | say^ ^£ T r_j -g£

'to exert to the utmost' The duke ought not to shrink from his duty, because it was arduous. || neither might he trifle with his work, thinking it easy.

tit y^,—comp. in the 'Can. of Yaou,' p. 8. By ' the former kings' we are to understand Wan, Woo, and Ching. -J*

jljlj" jjcfa,—the 'former government' is that of the duke of Chow and Keun-clrin. The clause will bear to be translated,—'that you may realize an excellence superior to the govt, of your predecessors;' but we have two instances of after an adj. in this Book, and not indicating comparison. I prefer to consider ft: as an active verb, and the whole = J^j[ 9t

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THE BOOKS OF CHOW.

BOOK XXV. KEUN-YA.

o mmm vtnvf^

The king spoke thus:—" Oh! Keun-ya, your grandfather and your father, one after the other, with a true loyalty and honesty, laboured in the service of the royal House, accomplishing a merit

Introductory Note. In the note at the commencement of the last Book, I have said that the annals of king K'ang are peculiarly barren. No other event of his reign is commemorated but the appointment of the duke of Peih to the govt, of Ching-chow. During his time, however, several worthies of whom we have had occasion to speak passed off the stage. In Loo, Pihk'in, the son of the duke of Chow, died B.C. 1,062 (or 1,003), and was succeeded by his son

Ts'ew (|§f ), or duke K'aou /fe), who

gave place in the king's 20th year to duke Yang

Yang died in the last year of the

reign, and was followed by his son Tsae (5^?),

or duke Yew To the same year is

assigned the death of Shih, the duke of Shaou, the co-worker with the duke of Chow in the establishment of the dynasty.

The Viscount of Wei, the prince of Wang, and Chung of Ts'ae have all likewise their deaths chronicled in this reign.

King K'ang was succeeded by his son Hea (lj^)> known as king Ch'aou (j}^ E), to whom the standard History assigns a very long reign of 51 years. The Shoo, however, is silent about him. The appointment of Keun-ya to be minister of Instruction, in the Book to which we have now arrived, wai made by king Muh

(JCS), Ch'aou's son and successor, the first

year of whose reign is commonly placed in B.c. 1,000 (or 1,001). The brief notices of Ch'aou and his reign which we find in Sze-ma Ts'een and other authors are unfavourable to him. The first symptoms of decay in the dynasty date, indeed, from his time. In B.c. 1,038 the duke of Loo was murdered by a younger brother, who established himself in his room, while the king could do nothing to avenge so great an outrage.

Ch'aou died in a hunting expedition to the south, according to most accounts, being drowned in the river Han, which he was crossing in a boat, whose planks were only glued together! This account is no doubt fabulous.

The Name Of The Book.—T, 'Keunya.' The name is taken from that of the person whose appointment to be minister of Instruction forms the subject of the Book. Kenya's surname is not known. His father and grandfather, it appears, had been in the same office before him; and hence it is conjectured that he may have been the grandson of the Chief of Jay, who was minister of Instruction at the commencement of king K'ang's reign. This is possible; but we cannot say more, for, acc. to the received chronology, the commencement of Muh's reign was separated from that of K'ang by nearly 80 years.

The Book was not in Fuh-shang's Shoo.

Contents. The Book is short, containing only seven paragraphs. The 1th and 5th parr.

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which was recorded on the grand banner. I, who am but a little child, have inherited the charge of the line of government transmitted from Wang and Woo, from Ching and from K'ang, and keep also thinking of their ministers who were able to aid them in the good government of the four quarters of the empire;—the trembling anxiety of my mind makes me feel as if I were treading

speak of the duties of the minister of Instruction. The other paragraphs stimulate Keun-ya to the discharge of them by motives drawn from the merits of his forefathers, and the services which he would render to the empire, making his sovereign no unworthy descendant of Wan and Woo.

Pp. 1—3. The king speaks of the merits of Kenya's grandfather and father; of his own anxiety to get ministers equal to those of his ancestors; and of his hope that Kenya would render him services which should prove that he was the worthy seion of a good stock. 1.

M I ^ ~Ma San (-1 fa' Mi°s dyn.)

gives the following definitions of ^tf* and a :

2: j£ -jjj,, 'The putting forth one's whole mind is called kt, ; there is not in it the insincerity of a single thought: holding firm the way of principle is called J1^ ; there is not in it the incorrectness of a single action.' We must understand a preposition, it or "^j, between # and Al ftj^

—>J>C >» the name of the grand imperial banner. The Chow Le, Bk. XXVII, makes mention of the ffj or 'superintendent of banners,' who had charge of all the 'nine flags or banners' therefore, is in

that passage used apparently as synonymous with M. Commonly, however, we find it used with reference to the grand standard, on which were figures of the sun and moon, with figures of dragons, lying along its breadth, one over the other head above tail. The sun and moon,

however, were the distinctive figures of the grand banner. It was borne aloft when the emperor went to sacrifice;—see the same Bk. of the Chow Le, on the duties of the fjj tjf ,p. 2. The names of meritorious ministers, moreover, were inscribed on it during their life time, preparatory to their sharing in the sacrifices of the ancestral temple after their death;—see the Chow Le, Bk. XXX, on the duties of the

—it is inferred, and with reason, from the language of this clause, that the king had lately succeeded to the throne, and that this Charge to Keun-ya was delivered in the early part of his reign. Chronologists generally refer it to his 3d year. But how is it that while speaking of the line or clue of govt, as being transmitted to him from Wan and Woo, Ching and K'ang, he makes no mention of K"ang's successor, his own father? The prefatory note expressly assigns the charge to king Muh. "yfi 'f^fe -p |J[| —the meaning of this is, that while the king felt that he himself could not follow his predecessors passibvs €equis, he thought also how they, so superior to him, had yet been assisted by very able ministers. What cause

was there then for anxiety to him! •=•
jjj^. In the edition of the 'Thirteen King,' for

But Gan-kwo's comment—qt; ^ ^ JJfjJ
IE —shows that he must have read ^£
-p. t TP probably crept into the text
from Bk. XXVIII, p. 1, q.v. til,
—see' The Testamentary Charge,' p. 25.
Jjjjj^ J^g,—this representation of perilousness
is also found in the Yih King, under the diagram

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s M m & Jek $ # *fi #

3 on a tiger's tail, or walking upon spring ice. I now give you charge to assist me; be as my limbs to me, as my heart and back-bone. Continue their old service, and do not disgrace your grandfather and father.

4 "Diffuse widely the knowledge of the five invariable relations of society, and reverently seek to produce a harmonious observance of the duties belonging to them among the people. If you can be correct in your own person, none will dare to be but correct. The minds of the people cannot attain to the right Mean of

5 duty;—they must be guided by your attaining it. In the heat and rains of summer, the inferior people may be described as murmuring

various ways in which Kaou-tsung spoke of Yuc's relations to him, IV., Bk. VIII, Pt. i., pp. 5—8; and also par. 11 of the 'Yih and

Tsoil,' "%% = %'hZ% It', 'the old office of your fathers.' The only difficulty is with the It would seem to be

«= y^", and then ~pj M, is 'the old duties which would almost seem hereditary in your family.' Ying-ta ingeniously says—J^"

A W. If M rs. Tbta p"-and the

next show that Keun-ya's father and grandfather had been the ministers of Instruction.

P. 4. The special duties of Kenya, and the importance of his exemplifying himself the lessons which he taught jj/, at jftj1—comp.

Slum's charge to Sec, his minister of Instruction,-^ gijj 5. 3; embraces

what are here called at Jjll and M. $L denotes the social relations, with their obligations, as so many canons or unchanging rules of life; fill denotes those obligations recognised and obeyed as practical duties or laws of conduct.

= 'reverently.' gf |p, Er ^, -comp. Ana. XII., xvii., -jp tit J# J£, £fo

yfs The paraphrase of the 'Daily

Explanation' is interesting:—lijs T Jj£

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and sighing. And so it is with them in the great cold of winter. How great are their hardships! Think of their hardships in order to seek to promote their ease, and the people will be tranquil. 6 Oh! how great and splendid were the plans of king Wan! How greatly were they carried out by the energy of king Woo. They are for the help and guidance of us, their descendants;—all in principle correct and deficient in nothing! Do you with reverence illustrate your instructions, and enable me to honour and follow

—the advice here given to Keun-ya is substantially the same with that given to T'ae-ke'S

byE Yin,-fiE$g|$^<jf $t. The

student will say, 'But Keun-ya was the minister

of Instruction, whose province was the minds of the people, whose business was their moral training:—how is it that he is here directed to think of the difficulties of their lot, and to provide for their material well-being?' In answer to this, there may be quoted first the remarks of Chang Urh-kea (Bit ^ Ming dyn.):—' When the nourishment of the people is provided for, their moral training may be carried on with advantage. While they are groaning amid their sufferings from hunger and cold, it is vain to require from them to pursue the Mean, and discharge all the duties belonging to their various relations.' See the R. Next we may refer to the exposition of the duties of the minister of Instruction in the 9th Bk. of the Chow Le, from many parts of which we might suppose that he was the minister of Agriculture, and charged with the care of the material wellbeing of the people, rather than with what is commonly understood as the business of their education. That poverty tends to crime, and competency to virtue is a maxim recognised in China from its earliest history. These remarks seem to explain sufficiently anything that might seem incongruous in this par. There is no

necessity to suppose with Lin Che-k'e that it is spoken to Keun-ya, not as minister of Instruction merely, bnt as uniting with that office the dignity of one of the Kung, and so charged with 'the harmonizing and regulating of the operations of Heaven and Earth' (Bk. XX., p. 5), able somehow therefore, and bound, to moderate the heats of summer and the cold of winter.

[In the Le Ke, Bk. ^ p. 17, we hare most of this par., with some trifling variations:

P. 6. The king mentions the achievements of the dynasty in the past, and hopes not to come short of his predecessors by the help of Keun-ya, who likewise will thus be shown no unworthy son of his fathers. ^ i S m ijpt>-8ee

all this quoted by Mencius, III., Ft. VI., ix., 6.

a: we are probably to understand kings Ching andK'ang. ht- J||j|. The whole —

however, indicates what issued from Wan and

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