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schools) who determine on this occasion, that the consideration of profit and advantage ought never to prevail in preference to what is honest and jusi. It is an entire people, who are highly interested in the proposal inade to them, who are convinced that it is of the greatest importance to the welfare of the state, and who however reject it with unanimous consent, and without a moment's hesitation and that for this only reason, that it is contrary to justice. How black and perfidious, on the other hand, was the design which Themistocles proposed to them, of burning the fleet of their Grecian confederates, at a time of entire peace, solely to aggrandize the power of the Athenians ! Had he an hundred times the merit ascribed to him, this single action would be sufficient to sully all his glory. For it is the heart, that is to say, integrity and probity, that constitutes and distinguishes true merit.

I am sorry that Plutarch, who generally judges of things with great justness, does not seem on this occasion to condemn Themistocles. After having spoken of the works he had effected in the Piræus, he goes on to the fact in question, of which he says, “* Themistocles projected something s still greater for the augmentation of their maritime power.”

+ The Lacedæmonians having proposed in the council of the Amphictyons, that all the cities which had not taken arms against Xerxes, should be excluded from that assembly, Themistocles, who apprehended, that if the Thessalians, the Argives, and the Thebans, were excluded that council, the Spartans would by that means become masters of the suffrages, and consequently determine all affairs according to their pleasure; Themistocles, I say, made a speech in behalf of the cities they were for excluding, and brought the deputies that composed the assembly over to his sentiments. He represented to them, that the greatest part of the cities that had entered into the confederacy, which were but 31 in the whole, were very small and inconsiderable; that it would therefore be a very strange as well as a very dangerous proceeding, to deprive all the other cities of Greece of their votes and places in the grand assembly of the nation, and by that means suffer the august council of the Amphictyons to fall under the direction and influence of two or three of the most powerful cities, which for the future would give law to all the rest, and would subvert and abolish that equality of power, which was justly regarded as the basis and soul of all republics. Themistocles, by this plain and open declaration of his opinion, drew upon himself the hatred of the Lacedæmonians, who from that time became his professed enemies. He had also incurred the displeasure of the rest of the allies, by his having exacted contributions from them in too rigorous and rapacious a manner.

| When the city of Athens was entirely rebuilt, the people, finding therselves in a state of peace and tranquility, endeavoured by all sorts of methods to get the government into their hands, and to make the Athenian state entirely popular. This design of theirs, though kept as secret as possible, did not escape the vigilance and penetration of Aristides, who saw all the consequences with which such an innovation would be attended. But, as he considered on one hand, that the people were entitled to some regard, on account of the valour they had shown in all the late battles they had gained; and on the other, that it would be no easy matter to curb and restrain a people, who still in a manner had their arms in their hands, and

* Μειζον τι διανοησε.
† Plut. in Themist. p. 192.
| Plat. in Arist. p. 35%

who were grown more insolent than ever from their victories; on these considerations, I say, he thought it proper to observe measures with them, and to find out some medium to satisfy and appease them. He therefore passed a decree, by which it was ordained, that the government should be common to all the citizens, and that the archons, who were the chief magistrates of the commonwealth, and who used to be chosen only out of the richest of its members, viz. from among those only who received 500 medimni of grain out of the product of their lands, should for the future be elected indifferently out of all the Athenians without distinction. By thus giving up something to the people, he prevented all dissensions and commotions, which might have proved fatal, not only to the Athenian state, but to all Greece.




THE Grecians, * encouraged by the happy success which had every where attended their victorious arms, determined to send a fleet to sea, in order to deliver such of their allies as were still under the yoke of the Persians, out of their hands. Pausanias was the commander of the fleet for the Lacedæmonians; and Aristides, and Cimon the son of Miltiades, commanded for the Athenians. They first directed their course to the isle of Cyprus, where they restored all the cities to their liberty : then steering towards the Hellespont, they attacked the city of Byzantium, of which they made themselves masters, and took a vast number of prisoners, a great part of whom were of the richest and most considerable families of Persia.

Pausanias, who from this time conceived thoughts of betraying his country, judged it proper to make use of this opportunity to gain the favour of Xerxes. To this end he caused a report to be spread among his troops, that the Persian noblemen, whom he had committed to the guard and care of one of his officers, had made their escape by night, and were fled : whereas he had set them at liberty himself and sent a letter by them to Xerxes, wherein he offered to deliver the city of Sparta and all Greece into his hands, on condition he would give him his daughter in marriage. The king did not fail to give him a favourable answer, and to send him very large sums of money also, in order to win over as many of the Grecians, as he should find disposed to enter into his designs. The person he appointed to manage this intrigue with him, was Artabazus; and to the end that he might have it in his power to transact the matter with the greater ease and security, he made him governour of all the sea coasts of Asia Minor.

| Pausanias, who was already dazzled with the prospect of his future greatness, began from this moment to change his whole conduct and behaviour. The poor, modest, and frugal way of living at Sparta ; their subjection to rigid and austere laws which neither spared nor respected any man's person, but were altogether as inexorable and inflexible to the greatest, as to those of the meanest condition; all this, I say, became insupportable to Pausanias. He could not bear the thoughts of going back to Sparta, after his having been possessed of such high commands and employ

* A. M. 3528. Ant. J. C. 476. Thucyd. I. i. p. 63. 342-86. i Plut, in Arist. p. 332, 333.

ments, to return to a state of equality, that confounded him with the meanest of the citizens; and this was the cause of his entering into a treaty with the barbarians. Having done this, he entirely laid aside the manners and behaviour of his country ; assumed both the dress and state of the Persians, and imitated them in all their expensive luxury and magnificence. He treated the allies with an insufferable rideness and insolence; never spoke to the officers but with menaces and arrogance; required extraordinary and unusual honours to be paid to him ; and by his whole behaviour rendered the Spartan dominion odious to all the confederates. On the other band, the courteous, affable, and obliging deportment of Aristides and Cimon; and infinite remoteness from all imperious and haughty airs, which only tend to alienate people and multiply enemies; a gentle, kind, and beneficent disposition, which showed itself in all their actions, and which served to temper the authority of their commands, and to render it both easy and amiable; the justice and humanity conspicuous in every thing they did ; the great care they took to offend no person whatsoever, and to do kind offices and services to all about them : all this, I say, hurt Pausanias exceedingly, by the contrast of their opposite characters and exceedingly increased the general discontent. At last this dissatisfaction publicly broke out; and all the allies deserted him, and put themselves under the command and protection of the Athenians. Thus did Aristides, says Plutarch, by the prevalence of that humanity and gentleness, which he opposed to the arrogance and roughness of Pausanias, and by inspiring Cimon his colleague with the same sentiments, insensibly drew off the minds of the allies from the Lacedæmonians, without their perceiving it, and at length deprived them of the command ; not by open force, or by sending out armies and feets against them, and still less by making use of any arts or perfidious practices; but by the wisdom and moderation of his conduct, and by rendering the government of the Athenians amiable..

It must be confessed at the same time, that the Spatan people on this occasion showed a greatness of soul and a spirit of moderation, that can never be sufficiently admired : for when they were convinced, that their commanders grew haughty and insolent from their too great authority, they willingly renounced the superiority, which they had hitherto exercised over the rest of the Grecians, and forebore sending any more of their generals to command the Grecian armies ; choosing rather, adds the historian, to have their citizens wise, modest and submissive to the discipline and laws of the commonwealth, than to maintain their pre-eminence and superiority over all the Grecian states.



UPON * the repeated complaints the Spartan commonwealth received on all hands against Pausanias, they recalled him home to give an account of his conduct. But not having sufficient evidence to convict him of his having carried on a correspondence with Xerxes, they were obliged to acquit him on this first trial ; after which he returned of his own private authority, and without the consent and approbation of the republic, to the city of Byzantiuin, from whence he continued to carry on his secret prac

* A. M. 3529. Ant. J. C. 475. Thucyd. I. i. p. 86, & 89. Diod. I. ix. p. 336. Cor. Nep. in Pausan.

VOL. II. 8

tices with Artabazus. But, as he was still guilty of many violent and unjust proceedings, whilst be resided there, the Athenians obliged him to leave the place ; from whence he retired to Colonæ, a small city of Troas. There he received an order from the Ephori to return to Sparta, on pain of being declared, in case of disobedience, a public enemy and traitor to his country. He complied with the summons, and went home, hoping he should still be able to bring bimself off by dint of money. On bis arrival he was committed to prison, and was soon afterwards brought again upon bis trial before the judges. The charge brought against him was supported by many suspicious circumstances and strong presumptions. Several of his own slaves confessed that he had promised to give them their liberty, in case they would enter into his designs, and serve him with fidelity and zeal in the execution of his projects. But, as it was the custom of the Ephori never to pronounce sentence of death against a Spartan, without a full and direct proof of the crime laid to his charge, they looked upon the evidence against him as insufficient; and the more so, as he was of the royal family, and was actually invested with the administration of the regal office; for Pausanias exercised the function of king, as being the guardian and nearest relation to Plistarchus, the son of Leonidas, who was then in his minority. He was therefore acquitted a second time, and set at liberty.

Whilst the Ephori was thus perplexed for want of clear and plain evidence against the offender, a certain slave, who was called the Argilian, came to them, and brought them a letter, written by Pausanias himself to the king of Persia, which the slave was to bave carried and delivered to Artabazus. It must be observed by the way, that this Persian governour and Pausanias had agreed together, immediately to put to death all the couriers they mutually sent to one another, as soon as their packets or messages were delivered, that there might be no possibility left of tracing out or discovering their correspondence. The Argilian, who saw none of his fellow-servants that were sent expresses return back again, had some suspicion; and when it came to his turn to go, he opened the letter he was entrusted with, in which Artabazus was really desired to kill him pursuant to their agreement. This was the letter the slave put into the hands of the Ephori; who still thought even this proof insufficient in the eye of the law, and therefore endeavoured to corroborate it by the testimony of Pausanias himself. The slave, in concert with them, withdrew to the temple of Neptune in Tenaros, as to a secure asylum. Two small closets were purposely made there, in which the Ephori and some Spartans hid themselves. The instant Pausanias was ioformed that the Argilian had fled to this temple, he hastened thither, to inquire the reason. The slave confessed that he had opened the letter; and that finding by the contents of it, he was to be put to death, he had fled to that temple to save his life. As Pausanias could not deny the fact, he made the best excuse he could ; promised the slave a great reward ; obliged him to promise not to mention what had passed between them to any person whatsoever. Pausanias then left him.

Pausanias' guilt was now but too evident. The moment he was returned to the city, the Ephori were resolved to seize lim. From the aspect of one of these magistrates, he plainly perceived that some evil design was hatching against him, and therefore he ran with the utmost speed to the temple of Pallas, called Chalciocos, near that place, and got into it before the pursuers could overtake him. The entrance was immediately stopped up with great stones; and history informs us, that the criminal's mother set the first example on that occasion. They now tore off the roof of the chapel : but as the Ephori did not dare to take him out of it by force, because this would have been a violation of that sacred asylum ; they resolved to leave him exposed to the inclemencies of the weather, and ac. cordingly he was starved to death. His corpse was buried not far from that place ; but the oracle of Delphos, whom they consulted soon after, declared that, to appease the anger of the goddess, who was justly offen: ded on account of the violation of her temple, two statues must be set up there in honor of Pausanias, which was done accordingly.

Such was the end of Pausanias, whose wild and inconsiderate ambition had stifled in him all sentiments of probity, honour, love of his country, zeal for liberty, and of hatred and aversion for the barbarians : sentiments which, in some measure, were inherent in all the Greeks, and particularly in the Lacedæmonians.



THEMISTOCLES* was also charged with being an accomplice of Pausanias. He was then in exile. A passionate thirst of glory, and a strong desire to command arbitrarily over the citizens, had made bim very odious to them. He had built, very near his house, a temple in honour of Diana, under this title, “ To Diana, goddess of good counsel ;" as hinting to the Athenians, that he had given good counsel to their city, and to all Greece, and he also had placed his statue in it, which was standing in Plutarch's time. It appeared, says he, from this statue, that his physiognomy was as heroic as his valour. Finding that men listened with pleasure to all the calumnies his enemies spread against him, to silence them, he was for ever expatiating, in all public assemblies, on the services he had done his country. As they were at last tired with hearing him repeat this so often, “ How! says he to them, “ are you weary of having good offices “ frequently done you by the same persons ?" He did not consider, that putting them so often in mind † of his services, was in a manner reproaching them with their having forgot them, which was not very obliging; and be seemed not to know, that the surest way to acquire applause, is to leave the bestowing of it to others, and to resolve to do such things only as are praiseworthy; and that a frequent repetition of one's own virtue and exalted actions, is so far from appeasing envy, that it only inflames it.

| Themistocles, after having been banished from Athens by this ostracism, withdrew to Argos. He was there when Pausanias was prosecuted as a traitor, who had conspired against his country. He had at first concealed his machinations from Themistocles, though he was one of his best friends ; but as soon as he was expelled his country, and highly resented that injury, he disclosed his projects to him, and pressed him to join in them. To induce his compliance, he showed him the letters which the king of Persia wrote to him, and endeavoured to animate him against the Athenians, by painting their injustice and ingratitude in the strongest colours. However, Themisto

* Thucyd. I. i. p. 89, 90. Plut. in Themist. c. cxxiii. cxxiv. Corn. Nep. in Themist. c. viii.

* Hoc molestum est. Nam est hæc commemoratio quasi exprobatio est immea moris beneficii. Terent. in Andr.

| Plut. in Themist. p. 112.

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