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5 The former sovereigns, king Wan and king Woo, displayed in succession their equal glory, making sure provision for the support of the people, and setting forth their instructions. The people accorded a practical submission; they did so without any opposition, so that their influence extended to Yin, and the great

6 appointment of Heaven was secured. After them, I, the stupid one, received with reverence the dread decree of Heaven, and continued to keep the great instructions of Wan and Woo, not daring blindly to transgress them.

The brilliant and successful rule of Wan and Woo. "Hf ;§" = ^fc 3*i 'the former kings.' =g* is used as an adj. i||f1 —'pub

lished—manifested—their doubled light,'=>JQ

$£ ffn ftl BJJ 3£ Us? « Ch<in Ya-yen

expresses it, 'continued one the other, and could make their virtue illustrious.' This is much better than to understand, with Ma Yung and Keang Shing, that 1|| -jfc is the light of the

heavenly bodies combined together, and that '^if

f^l is merely a figurative description of the virtue of Wan and Woo, as like the brightness of the sun and moon. ^§ (=/J?) jjtfc, —comp. Bk. XVIIL, p. 5. I take in the same way as there. The various views of its meaning taken by the critics all re-appear on this passage. ^ ^ J^'

is found with the meanings of 'to practise,'

and of 'to toil.' Gan-kwO takes the latter meaning, and understands the characters of Wttn and Woo, =' thus they toiled; and though they toiled, they did nothing contrary to what

wasnght-(^-seni,^, m%jfn

Jf\ )■ So, Lin Che-k'e, as far as regards

the meaning of The other meaning, how

ever, is preferable. It was approved by Choo He, and adopted by Ts'ae. Acc. to it, 'the

people,' is understood as the subject of J|fi.

There is no difficulty in this way with jf\ jg|. Keang Shing also takes this view, and attributes the repetition of l^t to the gasping utterance of the dying king. This is not necessary. The repetition of the character gives emphasis to its meaning. I put no comma after the 1st l||f', as is generally done. ^| Jli*,—

'thereby they could reach to all Yin,' i.e., the whole empire came under their influence. 6. How king China had endeavoured to discharge his Icing!;/ duties. ^ ^ £ 'The stupid one who was after them.' So Ching designates himself. Gan-kw8 and Woo Ch'ing find in the idea of 'youth' as well as of

'stupidity (>(|gj tyj ffi ^ ^ 43!

but there is no such idea in the term in Ana., VUL, xvi. Keang Shing, on the authority of the ^jj^, and partly also of Ma Yung, edits—|!J jgy £ =|qj, from which he endeavours to force out the meaning of jf^£

•it *i, 'receiving the possession of Wan and Woo, and being in the Central Great Land the common lord of all the princes!' mjj"

7^ ^ )$i>—reverently met ( = set myself to receive) the dread decree of Heaven.' By ^£ is meant, no doubt, the -fc of last par.,—the appointment to the empire, enforced by the dread requirements of Heaven

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7 "Now Heaven has laid affliction on me, and it seems as if I should not again rise or be myself. Do you take clear note of my words, and in accordance with them watch reverently over my eldest son, Ch'aou, and greatly assist him in the difficulties of his

8 position. Be kind to those who are far off, and help those who are near. Promote the tranquillity of the States, small and great, and encourage them to well-doing.

9 "I think how a man has to govern himself in dignity and with decorum:—do not you allow Ch'aou to proceed heedlessly on the impulse of improper motives."

from those who held it. 7, 8. The general duties which the ministers would have to perform for his son and successor. tjjj

—Ts'ae puts a comma at m, and joins

with the words that follow, as an adverb,

probably,' 'it is to be feared that.' Gankid and Keang Shing put the comma after ^jji and make it an adj., descriptive of the sickness. I prefer the former construction.

jjjj ;—1 will not awake,' i.e., to a conscious ability for my duties. yrj -J—

•^|J,—Cliing thus declares his eldest son as his successor. Ch'aou was the son's name. He is known in history by his honorary title of

K'ang (J^). I have not been able to ascertain how old he was at his accession. tj/j ^£

—no particular hardships and difficulties are meant, in which the new emperor might be involved, but those of his position generally.

As the 'Daily Explanation' has it:—Jj^

—see the 'Can. of Shun,' p. 10. On fit? Wj TZ 5"- Ying.U says:-^ f,*

quillize them, making the States feel in a condition of tranquil safety ; encourage them, making them emulate one another in well-doing.' jljj jjf|j| and A /Ji JftF are composite designations for the whole empire. 9j Special charge to them to watch over the character

of his son. Jg, 5^ ifc A> 'thU

man,' =' men' generally, or 'any man.' jjrj

H T$ #l-for M*<*

on 'The Doctrine of the Mean,' xxvii., 3. "H^^Hi, 'to advance.' k |$|'"~

'improper springs,' i.e., of action. Choo He was asked the meaning of this phrase by one of his disciples, who said that most critics took gt in the sense of 'perilous,' but that

he thought it sin mid be taken as simply =»

tr, ^^m-nm^nz

B^, 'things which ought not to be done.'

The master answered that meant gr

/^ "ilk 't'ie small beginnings or s/rrings of things.' Cliing had in view, no doubt, the mind of his son, as the spring and regulator of all his conduct..

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Immediately on receiving this charge, the officers retired. The tent was then carried out into the court; and on the next day, being Yih-ch'ow, the king died.

II. The Grand-protector then ordered Chung Hwan and Nankeung Maou to instruct Leu Keih, the prince of Ts'e, with two shield-and-spearmen and a hundred guards, to meet the prince Ch'aou outside the south gate, and conduct him to one of the wing apartments near to that where the king lay, there to be as chief

mourner.

10. The king's death. ^Wc^t'oft (read seven),- ^ is to be taken adverbially^;^ 'then.' We must understand St , 1 all the ministers,' as the subject of

it & iH=*M.' 'retired-' U> from the apartment where they had received the charge. Gan-kw5, as amplified by Ying-ta, makes the meaning to be that they retired from around the king to the ceremonial places in the apartment appropriate to their different ranks. In this way the interpreter only gives himself trouble. I prefer the simpler view.

{!] a "T* Ht'-"we are obli8ed to seek a meaning for nere ?u'te difft.

from that assigned to it in Bk. XIX., p. 1, where it denotes—' the keeper of the robes.' K'angshing would make the to mean the 'grave

clothes,' and 'a =' they made the grave

Clothes' ^ „j, -fr fa £

But this view, though defended by Ming-shing, may safely be pronounced absurd. If it were to be admitted, we should have to find a third meaning for the phrase on its recurrence in p. 14. Ts'ae is right in defining it here, after Gankwo, by |Jj^ a kind of 'tent,' or curtains

and canopy, set up over the emperor, when he held audiences. This had been prepared when he sent fur his ministers to giye them his last

charge; and that ceremony over, it was now carried out into the court. Into what court? This question will be best answered, and the student prepared to understand the next chapter, if I refer to the form of the imperial palace in the time of Chow. It will easily be conceived by any one who has studied the architecture of the courts of the high officers throughout the empire at the present day.

The palace was much more long or deep than wide, consisting of five series of buildings, continued one after another, so that, if it had been according to etiquette, and all the gates had been thrown open, one might have walked in a direct line from the first gate to the last. The difft. buildings were separated by courts partially open and embracing a large space of ground. The gates of the different divisions, had their particular names. The first or outer gate, fronting the south,

was called J^j. P^; the second was called f*\ ; the third, Jj|[ f*\; the fourth, |g ; and the fifth £g called also ||i p| and Outside the second gate—the

p^ —was held the 'outer levee,' ^iJJ) when the sovereign received the princes and officers generally. Outside the 5th gate—the

p^—was held the 'audience of government' C/£j ijPJ)' wnen tne king mct ma m'n* isters, to consult with them on the business of the State. Inside this gate were the buildings which formed the private apartments, called jp£ , in the Hall of which was held' the inner

audience' (j^J (M), and where the sovereign on occasions feasted those whom he designed specially to honour.

[Such is the general view of the palace given by Choo He. Acc. to K'ang-shing, the second gate was the Jjji pl, and the ^ was the third. Into a discussion of this point we need not enter. The gates were only gates according to our idea, in name, and included a large space, covered by a roof supported on pillars.]

The place where Ching delivered his testamentary charge was probably the hall in front of his bed-chamber, a sort of throne with curtains and canopy—the J^-j Z^£,—being provided for the occasion. When he had finished, either before or after the retirement of the ministers, he was removed back to his chamber, and the tent—so to name it—was carried out into the court within the ^§ pi. Medhurst mistook

the meaning, and translated

Jjg|, with reference to the ministers,—'going out, they set up their tents in the courtyard.' Gaubil saw that 2^ >n(m'd be referred to the king; but he translated the clause by—' On dctendit les ridcaux, et on les remporta,' taking no notice of the T

Ch. II. Pp.11—29. Public Declaration

OF THE KING'S CHARGE TO HIS SUCCES80K, WITH THE VARIOUS CEREMONIES OBSERVED; ON THE Occasion. 11. Immediate measure to recognize Ch'aou as the successor to the throne. f:

<^j^ j^i Q the Grand-Guardian being

also the ^ji^Sp-, or ' prime minister,' the regulation of all matters fell to him. Of Chung Hwan and Nan-keung Maou, we know nothing more than is here related. They were, no doubt, officers of trust and distinction about the court. gt ^ gt simply = a ^ gt, 'to cause,' or 'to instruct the prince of

TsV Jg = /^ but the g has

little independent meaning. Hang Shing would define it by I , 'to lead,' after the gj£ ^yT;

but what then becomes of the -j^, to which

gt is merely supplementary. The prince

of Ts'e was the son of the friend and

minister of king Wan, who had been enfeoffed by Woo with the principality of Ts'e, the

capital of which was Ying-k'ew m the pres. dis. of Lin-tsze, dep. of Ts'ing-chow, Shan-tung. Keih is known in history as duke

Ting ("J" or Jj" His place at

court, say all the critics, was that of a

J^, or master of the guards. If it was so, it shows the dignity of that office, that it should be held by one of the chief princes of the empire. # - # $ I ^

—Gan-kw5 supposed that'the two shieldnnd-spearmen' were Hwan and Maou themselves, and that the meaning is that these officers were sent to the prince of Ts'e to get from him a hundred of the guards under his command, whom they preceded with spear and shield, to meet the prince. But the text, as it stands, will not bear this interpretation. It does seem strange, indeed, that only two men thus armed should have been selected; but so the record says. Medhurst, by mistake, took —for and has rendered—'two

thousand spearmen.' The style might have suggested to him that he was in error.

jffj, 'to meet.' Ts'ae and most of the other

critics suppose the 5th or the gate to be that intended. They think also that Ch'aou had been by his father's side at the time of his death, and that he went out purposely from the buildings in the rear, that he might be met thus publicly, and conducted back to be near the corpse as chief mourner. I cannot help thinking that by the 'south gate' we are to understand the first or outer gate of all,—the

-Ip. pr This is the view of Kcang Shing, who thinks further that the prince had been absent on some expedition, and that he was now returning, just in the nick of time. This last supposition appears to me unlikely. The prince may have been absent from the palace, tho' not far off, when his father died, or he may have purposely gone outside, that his entrance in such B style, which was a public declaration that he had been appointed successor to the throne, might be seen by all. ffi£

A it i?. 'Mil ^ it,ft wi,lg

apartment.' On each side of the hall, immediately in front of the private apartments, called the there was a side cham

ber, or wing, only not spread out, as in our idea of the wings of a house. That to which

the prince was conducted was the

'side chamber on the east.' i|>^[

be the lord of the mournful dwelling.' The

mourning shed' called ^ was not yet

erected. At the present stage the apartment indicated in the text was the proper one for the prince to occupy.

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12 On the day Ting-raaou (two days after tlte king's death), he ordered a record to be made of the charge, and the ceremonies to be

13 observed in publishing it. On Kwei-yew, the seventh day after, as chief of the west and premier, he ordered the proper officers to provide the wood for all the requirements of the funeral.

14 The salvage men set out the screens ornamented with figures

15 of axes, and the tents. Between the window and the door, facing the south, they placed the different mats of bamboo basket-work, with their striped borders of white and black silk; and the usual

The writing of the charge, and of tlie cere-
The order here given is to

12.

monies to be

be understood as from the Grand-Guardian. It would be given to the pb jjj, or 'Recorder of the Interior,' who was charged with the writing of the appointments of the emperor (J^J J^l

||£ ^ "Hf?'-8ee tne Chow Le, Bk.

xxvi.). &m R-mmw

Ji^f, 'to make the writing on a tablet (or

tablets), and the regulations.' For what was thus written see par. 24. The 'regulations' are all the ceremonies connected with conveying the appointment of Ching to his son. Few, if any, students, I apprehend, will be found to

adopt Keang Shing's notion, that by J^f is intended jJJ]- 4g ^* Bgr, 'the measure of the length ofthe tablets.' 13. An order to prepare wood. "f^^ff'—1,0 doubt the Grandguardian is Btill intended. In the 1st par, of the next Bk. he is introduced as 1 leading forward all the princes of the western regions,' and we have seen before that he and the duke of Chow were 'the two chiefs,' the one having under his jurisdiction the east of the empire, and the other the west. Shih is here designated accordingly, as uniting the dignities of Chief and Premier, though it is difficult to assign a reason why the compiler of the Bk. should vary his style in so perplexing a manner. Ts'as

defines ^jj^ by JJjt, 'to take,'' to procure;' but this meaning of the character is not found in the diet., nor is it necessary. We may take it

as an ad)., = 'requisite,' 'necessary,' and 'fjjj

=' re1n'red from *ne proper officers the necessary materials,' those materials being probably of wood, though that is not necessarily

implied in the term. So Gan-kwo:—-jjjj -j-^

to the usual custom, the deceased monarch had been shrouded and coffined on the day E^f, the seventh after the day of his death. The duties to him, therefore, were so far forward, that they might proceed to the announcement of his testamentary charge. There were only

the shell or outer coffin and what were

called the ^ to be further provided; and

it was with reference to them, I suppose, that the order in this par. was given. On those

E$ see tiie Ke>Bk- W. H' ~T*«

Pt. i., p. 44, et al. It is not easy, however, to say definitely all that we are to understand

here by jffl- Ming-shing goes more at length into an examination of the point than any other of the critics whom I have seen.

Pp. 14—18. At four points, where the emperor had been wont to receive his guests, the arrangements are made as if he were still alive. 14.

in the Le Ke, Bk. *g p. 22,

weflnd-^ %,%%.Zm%->mA assuming that ^ and are interchangeable, the here are commonly described as 1 the

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