« הקודםהמשך »
Mu % B, ^ ^ 3Eisi Iij m m
Throughout your many regions, you will bring on yourselves the terrors of Heaven, and I also will inflict its punishments, removing you far from your country.'"
30 V. "The king says, 'I do not wish to make these many announcements, but in a spirit of awe I lay my commands before 37ou.' He
31 also says, 'Now you may make a new beginning. If you cannot reverently realize the harmony which I enjoin, do not hereafter murmur against me.'"
mistake for g, -J-, which, I think, is very likely.
Ch. V. Pp. 30,31. The conclusion of the address. Ti ?g H| -j^,—the relation between the two clauses seems to require that the former should be supplemented as in the translation. Blf'&WVl^&M J|j M, 1 now I grant to you to change and begin afresh.' The EU, however, is not = -^, but~||.
THE BOOKS OF CHOW.
BOOK XIX. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF GOVERNMENT.
I. The duke of Chow spoke to the following effect, "With our heads to our hands and then to the ground, we make our declarations to the new emperor, our king." In such manner accordingly all the other ministers cautioned the king, saying, "In close attendance on your Majesty there are the regular presidents, the regular high officers, and the officers of the laws; the keepers of the robes also, and the guards."—The duke of Chow said, "Oh ! admirable are these officers. Few, however, know to be sufficiently anxious about them."
Tne Name Op The Book.—jjf 'The Establishment of Government.' This phrase occurs four or five times in the course of the Book, and is thence taken to denominate it ;— with considerable appropriateness. The subject treated of throughout is, it will be seen, how good government may be established. The Book is found in both the texts.
Contents. The editors of Yung-ching's Shoo give the following summary of the Book from Tung Ting Wt Q ), of the Yuen dynasty,
which is tolerably complete:—' In imperial govt, there is nothing more important than the use of proper men; and when proper men are being looked out for, the first care should be for those to occupy the "three high positions." When these are properly filled, all the other
offices will get their right men, and imperial govt, will be established. The appointment of the officers of business, of pastoral oversight,
and of the law (zg IpP, Wis.; p. 2) is the
great theme of the whole Book (j£ jjjjjtj a), and the words, "Admirable are these! But to know to be sufficiently careful about them,"
, are its pulse [ j£ ^ Jjjj£; i.e., may be
felt everywhere, throbbing in all the sentiments). Parr. 2 and 3 illustrate the subject from the history of the Ilea dynasty; parr. 4 and 5 do the same from that of the House of T'aiig; and in parr. 9 to 15 it is shown how Wiln and Woo, like the founders of the previous dynasties, knew how to be anxious about the selection of their officers, and so obtained the great inheritance of the empire, initiating the happy state
which was then continuing. From par/16 to the end, the duke earnestly addresses the king on his duty to put away from him men of artful tongues ; to employ the good, distinguished by their habits of virtue; to be always well prepared for war; and to be very careful of his conduct in the matter'of litigations. His object in all was that the king should learn from the founders of the different dynasties how he should manifest anxiety on the great subject of the Book, and should be warned by the fate of KM and Show against allowing himself to be indifferent about it. The whole is an example of loyal affection, which we seem even to the present day to be able to take hold of.'
Lin Che-k'e comments upon it, arranged in three chapters:—parr. 1—5; G—15; 16—28. The student will find the arrangement in five chapters which I have adopted of more_assistance to him.
The Order Of The Paragraphs ; And Date. There is no ancient authority for altering the arrangement of the received text; but the reader can hardly fail to be annoyed with the long list of officers of Win and Woo in parr. 8—15.— Why should the speaker go at so much length into their appointments, after having touched so briefly on those of Yu aud T'ang? The student's attention is distracted by the lengthy enumeration; it could only have diverted the young king's mind from the important lesson which the duke wished to impress upon him. There is, again, the greater portion of par. 2,—from ytj jj^jr to the end, which has always seemed
to me to have no proper connection as it stands. The only Chinese critic, however, whom I have met with, who owns to feeling the same difficulties is Wang Fih. He does not scruple to say that the text as it stands is 'head and tail in disorder, and without connection.' His conception of the occasion when the duke delivered the sentiments of the Book is this:—It was soon after king Ching undertook the responsibilities of the government. At such a time it was proper that all the officers should unite in lemoning him, and the duke of Chow accordingly appeared with a host of them, great and small, and when they had expressed their views on the point which seemed most important to them, he took the subject up, aud prosecuted it in his own way. Fih would thus remove parr. 8—11, and the part of par. 2 to which I have referred, and make them all one long
preliminary paragraph —ffl^Tf^
* & Jft # 3r ±. «• f?) JHI.
n &> 351& % n> ;i- m>=
The praise of ingenuity cannot be denied to this arrangement of the text, and if it were proper to decide on such a point simply on internal grounds, I should not hesitate to adopt it.
Wang Pih supposes that this announcement was made after the duke of Chow had resigned the regency. Such was the opinion of all the early scholars; and likewise, we may presume from the order in which the Book stands, of the compiler of ' The Little Preface,' though his note says nothing on the point (see Pref. N. 54). Now, however, in the received chronology, the Book is referred to the 4th year of king Ching. This date was first proposed by Hoo Woo-fung at one of tue early Sung writers, author of the j|| E an<1 is ^S1"^
for in the j|j|§§jj£ ^ >—on vcry insufficient grounds, as will be seen from the notes on various paragraphs.
Ch. I. P. 1. Circumstances Attending
THE DELIVERY OF TUE ADDRESS; AND ITS
will be seen that I have translated ^£
~yr~ -y^, in the first person plural, understanding that the duke of Chow appeared before the king with a long train of ministers, and that he here speaks first in their name,—for himself and for them. Then J^j| Jpjj£ j£
intimates that the ministers, all took up the subject, and began to speak for themselves. As the 'Daily Explanation' has it:—IE
ffi W y@k T I- They have hardly
entered on their admonitions, however, when the duke takes the word from them, and continues the address in his own person,—
E3' 'TZT "ZT" Gai-kwO supposed
that the duke of Chow was the speaker in his own person throughout. Hence he understood -j^ ~jr^ as =' with my head to my hands, &c., I make an announcement.' For p^, 'he also took up the various procedures of the king by which he should establish his govt, and warned him on the subject of them
all, saying,' . But Lin Che-k'e well
observes that this is very forced, and apart from the meaning of the text. The interpretation which I have given was first fully developed by Ch'in Shaou-nan who found the
germ of it in the comment of Wang Suh,—
1J A Dr. Medhurst makes FF
"ZT "77'10 06 addressed by the duke to all the ministers.—'The duke of Chow, addressing his ministers, spoke to the following effect, Bow down and make obeisance, while you address the new emperor and king.' This construction is to be decidedly rejected, but there can be pleaded for it the authority of Woo Ch'ing, who
Irm 1 *°n°f
Heaven who has inherited (or, who is continuing) the line of succession, the king.' This language, it is said, is more appropriate, if addressed to the young king, a minor, than if addressed to him when of full age. It seems to me, on the contrary, what we should expect, if spoken to Clung now fully seated on the throne of his father. ft >«J, ffi ft, \, —'the regular chiefs, the regular holders of office, and the equalizing men.' It is difficult to say what officers are intended by these designations. Leu Tsoo-lieen says:—' These are the occupiers of ' the three positions,' mentioned in the 4th par., but nowhere else in the Books of the three early dynasties do the designations appear. May we not suppose that they were other names for the high nobles and assistants about the imperial court? Different names were given to the occupants of offices, as when the prime minister was called A-hang (|$pj* |f}jj)
and Paou-hang (^j^ |^J)> anc* when the three chief ministers about a prince's court were called K'e-foo (Jtjj Nung-foo and
Hwang-foo *n *'ie Mme wa-'' tne
names in the text are to be taken simply as diversified designations of the great ministers who assisted in the govt, during the three dynasties. The two designations of a and
jS^ which follow are the names of two
selected from among the various classes of inferior officers, as specimens of the rest. With
those who were in the great offices was lodged the safety or the peril of the throne; by those whose offices brought them into familiar intercourse with the sovereign his character was liable to be affected:—the condition of the empire depended equally on them both.' See the There can be Do doubt these
observations give the general meaning of the text, and the reason why the ministers and officers mentioned in it are specified; but how are we to translate the different designations? Gaubil avoids the difficulty by retaining the names, and giving vague accounts of the officers intended by them in his notes. It seems reasonable to take, with Lin Che-k'e, the list here as — the ii£ Jtf of Pt 2; the tit if a.-the set 7^ iii; and the ^| \ as=.the tit J1}
V^fe. We may then understand by it the chiefs or presidents who had a pastoral charge of the people Jjl £ J|t); by
if, the high ministers of War, Instruction, Works, &C., in the imperial domain; and by jf| the law officers, jffj =■'level,' 'to
level,' 'the instrument to make or determine a level.' jtt are the officers who guard the laws, the instrument of justice. The officers called Jj^| Zfe,'Connected Robes,' and left 'Tiger Braves,' are not known to have existed under these names in the previous dynasties; this Book shows that they were an institution in the times of Wan and Woo. We do not find the name of MI in the Chow Le, but there are enumerated the ' master of the furred robes' (|fj the 'master of robes to the empress *
( ft i^J the 'taiIor' (£1 A>' "** the
'master of robes' ( f|J M) which must have been kindred appointments. See Books VI., VII., and XXI. The set I are expressly mentioned in Bk. XXXI. They were guards, amounting, acc. to K'ang-shing, to 800 men, generally in attendance on the emperor's person; but might be detailed off to other services.
^ 2£=H H lit %83 in thc transla
tion. Many critics understand the characters as meaning—'Admirable are these observations!' But it would be hard to say what observations have been made. The duke takes the word out of the mouth of the others, and at once gives out the text which he proceeds to illustrate in his own way. Ag (h f& = ta ]>X
'those who know to make the not getting the proper men for them a subject of sorrow are few.'
II. "Among the ancients who exemplified this anxiety there was the founder of the Hea dynasty. When his House was at its strength, he sought for able men to honour God. His advisers, when they knew of men thoroughly proved and trustworthy in the practice of the nine virtues, would then presume to inform and instruct their sovereign, saying, 'With our heads to our hands and then to the ground, 0 sovereign, we would say, Let such an one occupy one of your high offices: Let such an one be one of your pastors: Let such an one be one of your law-officers. By such appointments
Ch. II. Pp. 2, 3. The Importance Of This
PRINCIPLE,—AN ANXIOUS CONCERN TO GET THE OFFICES OF STATE FILLED BY THE RIGHT MEN, ILLUSTRATED IN THE HISTORY OF THE Hea
DYNASTY. 2. -^r^A^'Pi^
M. & 'fi MI it •1 °f th°ancients
who walked in this course of a wise anxiety there was the great Yu, the Sovereign of Ilea.' jtjj _ or Jg, 'to walk,' 'to tread.' Gan
kw<5 and Keang Shing take it as = ;but
they bring out the same meaning. x£j
'when the imperial House was greatly strong.' Keang Sliiug, after Gan-kwO, by ^? understands ^JJ A "term, 'tne fam'ues of the high nobles and officers;'—an interpretation not nearly so good as that which I have follow
*• 3 Jtifr,
-comp., in p. 4, ^ H ± Ifc Z$Kfa and, in p. 6, ||| These three
passages supply a very striking testimony of the recognition in those times of God as ruling over the nations of the earth. Yu, T'ang, and kings Wan and Woo, the founders of the three great dynasties which are still celebrated, all considered it their great business to honour and serve God. They were simply His ministers. Whatever were the errors of religious belief aud worship into which they fell, they held fast this important principle"-—that they were called to their high stations by the one Supreme Ruler,
and were bound to occupy in them so as to
pleasejlim. & fa Hi, fft ¥ % a
^P* ^"j",—this, I think, is spoken of Yu's
ministers, the advisers who were about him. Not only did he seek out able men to honour God, but they also sympathized with him in his views, and co-operated with him, and recommended to him men of whose character and fitness they were assured. As Wilng Ts'Saou tersely says:
R A ^ 5^' 'The good and Bble
ministers of antiquity served the sovereigns by recommending the right men; the good and able sovereigns of antiquity served Heaven by employing those men. For ^5 ^ see 'The Counsels of Kaou-yaou,' pp. 3, 4. Lin Che-k'e explains fa by git I $£rfti
^ff ,'those whom they knew by examination of their actual conduct,' z^Z D lff> ~J£i—these three clauses are to be taken not as general advice with regard to putting good men in the positions indicated, but as specific, with reference to the individuals whom they had in view as displaying more or fewer of
1 the nine virtues." Jgj ^
and so will you prove yourself the sovereign indeed.' =J£ |fp A,-- Gan-kwo quite misunderstood the meaning of this part of the par., led away in the first place by interpreting
the =^ r£ of the ^ rgt ^ Jjjj, 'three localities assigned to the live banishments,'