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respect, and who might display a generous kindness to the people, but he daily honoured the covetous and cruel, who were guilty of cruel tortures in the cities of Hea. Heaven on this sought, a true lord for the people, and made its distinguishing and favouring decree light on T'angthe Successful, who punished and destroyed the sovereign of Hea. Heaven's refusal of its favour to Hea was decided, and it was because the righteous men among your many regions were not permitted to continue long in their posts of enjoyment, and the many officers whom Hea respected were quite unable to maintain an intelligent preservation of the people in the enjoyment of their

false were employed by him, and put into offices, to the calamity and bitter suffering of

the people'(j^

be gluttonous or greedy,' 'to covet;' i.ij.

fit1 to 'rcsent{ui-' l^ij

•pj'lj g^,—comp. in 'The Speech of T'ang,'

P- 3, 2f£ g g,. |||J, 'to cut off the nose,' is better translated here generally. Kiiang Shing reads after Jj|^, on the authority of

the Af^; but the meaning which he gives to the whole is very far-fetched.—'The people also under the rule of Ilea, suffering the oppression of greed and cruelty, longed more every day to see the kingdom of Ilea cut off.' Only one searching for strange meanings could attempt to draw this from the text.

■Heaven's refusal oj it* favour to Kef., for Hen) was great and decided.' The rest of the par.

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explains why Heaven thus withdrew its favour. We have in Bk. XVI., p. 9, an opposite declaration of Heaven's favour to Shaug,— ^ 'J^s

'm- 14 is wel1 t0 take in tlie same way in both passages, as meaning 'determinate,' 'decided.' pj^J ^

^ —^ 'righteous people,''men of virtue and ability.' They are called 'of your many regions,' i.e., the many regions of the empire. We can lay no stress on the H, 'your.' >K ^> 2^-' l»ng much enjoyment,'='long in the enjoyment of their offices.' Kiiang Sliing says:—

ft- ^^liilfK.

'could not understand to preserve and secure enjoyment for the people.' The use of 2§L, and

thebefore ^$1, render the language obscure, but the meaning seems to be what I have given. The 'Daily Explanation' gives for it—f|j;

mm ^fi'^^^^^a

§5C <^ 'tncy not understand the

art of govt, so as to secure their tranquil enjoyment (^possession) of the ppopleuf the empire.'


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lives, but on the contrary aided one another in oppression, so that of the hundred ways of promoting prosperity they could not advance one.

8 'In the case indeed of T'ang the Successful, it was because he was the choice of your many regions that he superseded Hea and

9 became the lord of the people. He paid careful attention to the essential virtues of a sovereign, in order to stimulate the people, and

10 they on their part imitated him, and were stimulated. From him down to the emperor Yih, the sovereigns all made their virtue illustrious, and were cautious in the use of punishments;—thus also

11 exercising a stimulating influence over the people. When they, having

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Ying-ta quotes the view of Too Yu (jj^
to the same effect, making 2pL = gt, 'to re-
ceive;'—see the j^. Kcang Shing defines

"f=f by 'all.' It >s equivalent to 'all," but
with the further meaning of ' mutual' co-opera-

ti«, iffSA^n

—Gan-kwfi connected the former of these clauses with the one preceding.—'They aided one another in oppression, even in a hundred different ways.' The last four characters are then simply an addition to the indictment.—' And they were greatly unable to initiate any plan of good'


to connect the clauses together as I have done. The ^ ffi leads us back to yf» ^ ^

T J^* M m **' an(* meaning comes out as in the translation.

Pp. 8—12. The empire gained if the virtue of T'ang, and maintained by that of his successors, teas finally lost by the wickedness and misgovernment of Show. 8. It is only in the interpretation of the intermediate clause of this par.,—

V\ flj ^> M, tnat tllpre is a di£fl;rence of opinion. We may translate it 'on the ground of being chosen by your many regions;' and the meaning, as stated by Vaou Shun-muli (~f0^

is that 'Heaven, in seeking a lord for the people, simply followed the choice of the many regions' sit R ±, g£ ^ -ft

2: $f KH -^' Gan-kw0 Ke^K sl,in«
translate, however,—'was able among your
many regions to choose the worthy.' But this is
forcing a meaning, much more than the other
construction, from the characters themselves,
nor is the sentiment so suitable to the tenor of
the Book. 9. We ought surely to take

here as in p. 5. Ts'ae, however, makes,
to be =»1 what he depended on,' i.e., the essential
virtue of a sovereign, or benevolence.
}J|J = j^, 'to imitate,' 'to find a pattern.'
Gan-kwii takes it in the sense of 'punishment.'
—' His people, though he might punish them,
were stimulated to virtue!' The student will
mark the force of the Jf^j and the in the two
clauses. And yet, such is the peculiar character
of the Chinese language, that the critics inter-
pret in the next par. quite differently.

IO. Hf}fj*i'JSj|-§ij,-seeBk. IX, p. 3. The

assertion made here about the sovereigns of the Shang dynasty down to Yih, must be taken with large allowance. 11. IN ,—see on Bk. XL, p. II. It is strange to find this specified

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/ft ^ o f ft ^ #0#,

examined the evidence in criminal cases, put to death those chargeable with many crimes, they exercised the same influence; they did so

12 also, when they liberated those who were not purposely guilty. But when the throne came to your late sovereign, he could not with the good will of your many regions continue in the enjoyment of the favouring decree of Heaven..' r

13 II. "Oh ! the king speaks to the following effect, 11 announce and declare to you of the many regions, Heaven had no set purpose to do away with the sovereign of Hea, or with the sovereign of Yin.

14 But it was the case that your ruler, being in possession of your many regions, abandoned himself to great excess, and reckoned on the favouring decree of Heaven, making trifling excuses for his

15 conduct. And so in the case of the sovereign of Hea;—his schemes

with reference to the emperors; but so it is in the text. m Jfgjl M comp, in 'The

Counsels of Yu,' p. 12, {M. J£ ^

^ -k % «$>

Bovereign,' we are to understand Show.
J^t Pit ~)] s'10ul1' be interpreted with
Reference to the J# g*f ^ fit of p. 8.
The critics have all overlooked this.

Ch. II. Pp. 13—16. HOW TUB SOVE

Bkhintv Of The Emhre, Having. Passed from Hea To Yin, Bt Tub Will Of Heaven, Fassbd Again From The Tyrant Show To The Trinces Of Chow. 13. The critics have much

to say on the manner in which this par. begins, —the repetition of ^£ j^- and the

ft^, which precedes. But what can be said to

the purpose, more than that the duke of Chow chose thus to speak? Very strange is the

method of Keang Suing, who makes the pft

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m & m % m Mm

# m # # Jmi lit f ±>£ ^ it mix m n m %

of government were not of a tendency to secure his enjoyment of the empire, so that Heaven sent down ruin on him, and the chief of your State entered into the line of his succession. Indeed, it was the case that the last sovereign of your Shang was luxurious to the extreme of luxury, while his schemes of government showed neither purity nor progress, so that Heaven sent down such ruin on him.

'The wise, not thinking, become foolish, and the foolish, by thinking, become wise. Heaven for five years waited kindly, and forbore with the descendant of T'ang, to see if he would indeed prove himself the true ruler of the people, but there was nothing

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dolence to excess.' This is better than to take one of the characters in the sense of 'to

go beyond.' £g flfc- 'pure;'

= 'to advance,'' progress.' The meaning of the clause then comes out as in the translation. Kiiang Shing, after Ma Yung, takes = 'to ascend,' so the whole ■='his measures of govt, did not go up purely to Heaven.' This is far-fetched, but not so much so as Woo Cli'ing's interpretation. He takes jflfa, in its sense of ' the winter sacrifice,' and hence for 'sacrifices' in general, so that 4, £r5.= 'he did not offer his sacrifices with purity 1'

P. 17. tyfe ig| ^ >f£ g?,—these two sayings have wonderfully exercised theingenuity of the critics. Confucius has said (Ana. XVII., iii.) that 'the wise of the highest class and the stupid of the lowest class cannot be changed.'

Surely he who can be called belongs to ' the

wise of the highest class;'—how can the dictum of the great sage and the sentiment of the duke of Chow in this passage be reconciled? The foreign student is not concerned to reconcile them. What the duke says we know to be accordant with facts. He had not come to the folly and arrogance of the sage and his school exalting the 'sagely man' above the attributes

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18 in him deserving to be regarded. Heaven then sought among your many regions, making a great impression by its terrors to stir up one who might look reverently to it; but in all your regions, there was

19 not one deserving of its regard. There were, however, our kings of Chow, who treated well the multitudes of the people, and were able to sustain the burden of virtuous government, and to preside over all services to spirits and to Heaven. Heaven thereupon instructed

?^ tltl 'to 'nn"uence and bring forth one who might receive its decree of favour and regard,' for ^ !jji0 jfc. Then for

ffl f& H Z there 18 shw W^sL

VX t& # M Z ifo 'aU wcre insuf

ficient to sustain the favouring decree.' Woo Ch'ing' explains in the same way. But |||^

must mean 'their looking to Heaven,'

not 'Heaven's looking to them.' |||| simply

= [ej JH§,> 't0 tur" round and look at,' commonly with the idea of kindness or favour attached. I suppose that the subject of tho

former fS£ is 'the princes,' and tho object, Heaven, while of the latter the subject is Heaven, and the object, the princes. 19. jffi ^PJ ^£—these 'kings' were Wan and Woo.

]0 Jz,—J8L — 'to preside over.' The

whole-:£ jjjty <Z flE' <wh0 °°M preside over the sacrifices to spirits and to Heaven.' The phrase ^ has occasioned some difficulty. When Dr. Medhurst made his translation of the Shoo, he supposed that was an adj. qualifying ^j, and rendered the passage by—' Only they could superintend the worship of tho Divine Heaven.' Subsequently he saw the error of this, and has corrected it in his 'Theology of the Chinese,' pp. 56, 57, where he refers to the paraphrase of the ' Daily Explanation,'-^ pf i& jjty % g

± 'ut it1 £ ± £ Ga,lbil traQ8"

of humanity, and all created beings. ^;J| — jfe, 'to wait.' B|x = 1f[ <t0 allow indulgently a longer time.' The in -^r Jj3j> occasions a difficulty. Woo Ch'ing makes it = 'this,' as m the expression j£

—J— tg^j, quoted in the' Great Learning,' Comm. ix., 6. It is better to take it as merely giving emphasis to the active meaning of the verbs

and |Jj-£. Show of course is intended,—'the

descendant' of T'ang. The clause gJiE ^j

tfc ought, I think, to be connected with the preceding, as appears in the translation. Gankwo, however, and in recent times Keang Shing, understand it as =' But he greatly played the people's lord, and there was nothing in him,' &c. When it is said that Heaven forbore with Show for five years, giving him the opportunity of repentance, there must have been something remarkable in the closing period of his history, which was known to the duke of Chow and his hearers, and to which allusion is made. We, however, do not know the events of the time witli sufficient minuteness to be able to say

what it was. See on the ^£ ii^i in the

'Great Speech,' Pt. i., p. 1. 18. ^ J/^[

J^,—greatly moving by its terrors." Moving whom? Gan-kwii says—' Show.' But this is evidently wrong. The individuals intended to be moved were the princes of the various regions; the terrors employed to move them were the overthrow of Show, and the troubles generally of the time. There is a difficulty in interpreting the expressions j|j!]=j and Ijfft

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