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frosts begin. In the spring, the snow, in common, is gradually diffolvend by the warm infuences of the sun. In this way, the earth is enriched and moistened, and spring advances with furprifing quickness. 5-09.06
Militia, population and character. ] There are upwards of 17,000 mén upon the militia rolls of this state. These conlist of two divisions, one on the welt, the other on the east side of the mountain. In these two divisions are 7 brigades, which are made up of 21 regiments. .:) From the number of militia, reckoning 5 for one, we may estimate the number of inhabitants in the state at 85,000. Others, who reckon 6 for one, ehti. mate them at 100,000. The bulk of the inhabitants are emigrants from Connecticut and Massachusetts, and their descendants. Their is one settlement of Scotch people, which are almost the only foreigners in the state. As the characters, the ñanners, the custom, the laws, the policy, and the religion of the people in Vermont is not sufficient to fáy they are New Englandmen.
b.bg 90 o for five' Curiosities.] In the Township of tinmonth, on the side of a small hill, is
very curious cave.. The chafm, at its entrance, is about four feet in circumference. Entering this you defcend 104 feet, and then opens a Spacious room 20 feet in breath and 100 feet in length." The angle of descending is about 45 degrees. The roof of this cavern is of rock, through which the water is continually percolating. The stalactites which hang from the roof appear like icicles on the eves of the houses, and are continually increasing in number and magnitude. The Bottom and fides are daily incrusting with fpar, and other mineral fubstances. On the sides of this subteraneous hall, are tables, chairs. benches, &c. which appear to have been artificially carved. This richly ornamented room, when illuminated with the candles of the guides, has an enchanting effe&t upon the eye of the spectator. If we might be 'indulged in alligning the general cause of these astonishing appearances, we should include from the va rious circumstances accompanying them, that the arise from water filtrating slowly through the incumbent frata ; and taking up in its passage a variety of mineral fubstances, and becoming thus faturated with me. tallic particles, gradually exuding on the surface of the caverns and fifa fures, in a quiesscent state, the aqueous participles evaporate, and leave the mineral substances to unite according to their affinities.
At the end of this cave is a circular hole, 15 feet deep, apparently hewn out, in a conical form, enlarging gradually as you descend, in the form of a fugar loaf. At the bottom is a spring of fresh water, in continual motion, like the boiling of a pot. Its depth has never been. founded.,
Conftitution. ] The inhabitants of Vermont, by their representatives in convention, at Winfor, on the 25th of December, 1777, declared that the territory called' Vermont, was, and of right ought to be a free and independant state ; and for the purpofe of 'maintaining regular government in the same, they made a folemn declaration of their rights, and ratified a constitntion, of which the following
e is an abstract Their declaration, which makes a part of their constitation, afferts that all men are born equally free --with equal rights and ought to enjoy liberty, of conscience---Freedom of the press trial by jury-power to form new states in vacant countries, and to regulate their own internal
police that all cleations ought to be free-that all power is originally in the people that government ought to be instituted for the common benefit of the community-and that the community have a right to reform or abolish government that every member of society hath a right to protection of life, liberty and property--and in return is bound to contribute his proportion of the expense of that protection, and yield his personal service when neceffary-that he shall not be obliged to give evidence against himself--that the people have a right to bear arms--but no standing armies shall be maintained in time of peace that the people have a right to hold themselves, their houses, papers, and possessions free from search or seizure--and therefore warrants without oaths first made, affording sufficient foundation for them, are contrary to that right and ought not to be granted—that no person shall be liable to be transported out of this state for trial for any offence committed within this state, &c.
By the frame of government, the supreme legislative power is vested in a house of representatives of the freemen of the state of Vermont, to be chosen annually by the freemen on the first Tuesday in September, and to meet the second Thursday of the succeeding October--this body is vested with all the powers necessary for the legislature of a free ftatem two thirds of the whole number of representatives elected make
Eeach inhabited town throughout the state, has a right to send one representative to the assembly.
The supreme executive power is vested in a governor, lieutenant-govemor, and twelve counsellors to be chosen annually in the same manner, and vested with the same powers as in Connecticut.
Every person of the age of 21 years, who has resided in the state ore whole year next before the election of the representatives, and is of a quiet, peaceable behaviour, and will bind himself by his oath, to do what he Thall in conscience judge to be most conducive to the best good of the ftate shall be entitled to all the privileges of a freeman of this late.
Each member of the house of representatives before he takes his feat, most declare his belief in one God-in future rewards and punishments, and in the divinity of the scriptures of the Old and New Testament, and must profess the protestant religion.
Courts of justice are to be established in every country throughout the state.
The supreme court, and the several courts of common pleas of this state, besides the powers usually exercised by such courts, have the powers of a court of chancery, so far as relates to perpetuating testimony obtaining evidence from places not within the state, and the care of the persons and estates of those who are non compotes mentis, &c. All prosecutions are to be commenced in the name and by the authority of the freemen of the state of Vermont. · The legislature are to regulate entails so as to prevent perpetuities.
All field and staff officers, and commissioned officers of the army, and all general officers of the militia, shall be chosen by the general assembly and be commissioned by the governos.
Every feventh year, beginning with the year 1785, thirteen persons (none of whom are to be of the council or assembly) Thall be chosen by the freemen, and to be called the council of censors, whose duty it shall be to enquire whether the constitution has been preferved inviolate in every part—whether the ligislative and executive powers have been
properly exercised-taxes justly laid and collected the public monies rightly disposed of—and the laws duly executed. -For these purposes, they Thail have power to send for persons, papers, &c.- to pass public censures-to order impeachments, and to recommend the repeal of all laws enacted contrary to the principles of the constitution. They are to be vefted with these powers
for one year only, after the day of their election. The council of censors, when necessary, may call a convention to meet within two years after their sitting-to alter the constitutioun the proposed alterations to be published at least six months before the election of delegates to fuch convention.
Chief Town.) BENNINGTON is the principal town in Vermont. It is situated in the south-west corner of the late gear the foot of the Greta Mountain. Its public buildings are a church for Congregationalists, a court-house and gaol. It has a number of elegant houses, and is a flourishing town. Near the center of the town is Mount Anthony, which rises very high in the form of a sugar-loaf. The assembly commonly hold their sessions at Windsor.
* For the new discoveries on the north-west coast of America, see the Voy
ages of Captains Portlock and Dixon. +++
For the discoveries in the South Seas, see the History of New Holland, with an introductory Preface on Banisament, by the Right Hon. Lord
Bay, which includes several new discoveries.
British American Dominions.
N E W BRITAI N.
ina cluding Lobrador, now North and South Wales; laid to be 850 miles long, and 750 broad.
To speak generally, this is a mountainous, frozen, barren country, abounding with lakes, rivers and bays, that furnish plenty of fish. The fur of the various animals is close, soft and warm. The fishery and the fur trade are the only things which render this country valuable. This trade is in the hands of a company of nine or ten persons, who received a charter in 1670, and whose profits are not inconsiderable. One year they carried from Great Britain,
articles to the amount of E-16,060; and in return, carried furs and fish to the amount of £.29,380.
Breadth 200} Between
Boundaries.]. BOS.. Lawrence; south, by Nova-Scotia and the United b. of
of the ci the year 1786, was £:34.3,262 : 19: 6. The amount of imports in the
The country is very thinly inhabited, by a people resembling the Laplanders, and the other nations in the north-western part of Europe, from whence their ancestors probably migrated.
CAN A D A.
SITUATION and EXTENT.
1452 and 520 North Latitude.
OUNDED north, by New-Britain; east, by the Bay tates; west, by unknown lands.
Rivers.] The principal are, the Outtauais, St. John's Seguina, Def-
river, on a rock, in two divisions, 320 miles from the fea, and contained in 1784, 6,472 inhabitants. One hundred and
Seventy miles from Quebec, as you afcend the St. Lawrence, Itands Mont-
Population.] In 1984, a census of the inhabitants of the province of Quebec was tãken, by order of General Haldimand, when they amounted to 113,012 English and French, exclusive of the Loyalists, who have lately settled in the upper parts of the province, to the numbers it-is-said, of 10,000.
Constitution.] The constitution of the province is founded on the 14th of George the IIId, called the Quebec Bill. - By this bill the legislative power is vested in the governor and législative council. The council is composed of the lieutenant-governor, chief justice and secretary for the time being, and twenty other members, nearly one half of whom are French. They are appointed by the crown, and received f. 100 a year as a falary. Their power extends to almost all the necessary purposes of
government, except the levying of taxes, wherein the said statute inbre hibits, whereby Great Britain pays the salaries to the counsellors, and all
, per annum, exclusive of the governor-general's salary1
Trade.] The amount of the exports from the province of Quebec in Same year was 2-325,116. The exports consifted of wheat, flour, bifad cuit, flax-feed, lumber of various kinds, fish, pot-ath, oil, ginseng and
other medicinal roots, but principally of furs and peltries, to the amount of £.285,977. The imports consisted of rum, brandy, molasses, coffee, sugar, wines, tobacca, fale, chocolate, provisions for the troops and dry goods.
History.] This country was discovered by the English, as early as about 1497, and settled by the French in 1608, who kept pobellion of it till 1763, when, after a long and bloody-waf, it- fell into the hands of the British, to whom it has ever since belonged.
42° and 49° North Latitude. Between
60° and 67° West Longitude from London. Boundaries.] BOUNDED welt, by the eastern boundary of the United south, by the Gulf of St. Lnwrence and the Atlantic Ocean. It has about 90 leagues of sea coaft, on the Atlantic Ocean. In 1784, this province was divided into two governments. One of the governments is called New Brunswick, and lies bordering on the United States.
Rivers and Bays.] The rivers Risgouche and Nipifiguit run from west to east, and fall into the Bay of St. Lawrence. St. John's Paffamagoadi, and St. Croix, run from north to south into the Bay of Fundy, or the sea. Nova Scotia is indented with numerous bays, which afford many commodious, bold harbours. The bay of Fundy is the largest of the bays, and extends 50 leagues into the country. Here the ebb and flow of the tide is from 45 to 60 feet,
Climate, Soil, Productions and Trade.] During a great part of the year the atmosphere is clouded with thick fog, which renders it unhealthy for the inhabitants ; and four or five months it is intensely cold. A great part of this country lies in forest, and the soil, in most parts, is thin and barren. On the banks of the rivers, and some other parts, the soil is good; many of the bays, and salt water rivers, and some parts of the sea coast, are bordered with tracts of salt marsh. The inhabitants do not raise pro
vision enough for home consumption. They sublift principally by the 2. lumber trade, which is supplied by their forests; and by the fishery, which
is very profitable. The filhery on the sea coast of the island of Cape Bre- ston, in the year 1743, while in poffeffion of the French, yielded 1,149,000
quintals of dry fish, and 3,900,000 quintals of mud filh; the value of both, including 31164 tons of train oil, was estimated at £:926,577:10 fterling, Five hundred and fixty-four ships, besides thallops, and 27,000 Seamen were employed in this trade.
Chief Towns. HALIFAX is the capital of Nova Scotia, and stands on Chebucto Bay, has a good harbour, sufficiently large and safe to