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into Lake Erie. Between Lake Superior and its waters and Huron are the * rapids of St. Mary, which will permit boats to pass, but not larger ves. o sels. Lakes Huron and Michigan afford communication with Lake Erie by vessels of eight feet draught. That part of the trade which comes o from the waters of the Misfissippi must pass from them through some port- . age into the waters of the lakes. The portage from the Illinois river into * a water of Michigan is of one mile only. From the Wabash, Miami, Muskingum, or Allegany, are portages into the waters of Lake Erie, of from one to fifteen miles. When the commodities are brought into, and have passed through Lake Erie, there is between that and Ontario an interruption by the falls of Niagara, where the portage is of eight miles; and between Ontario and the Hudson's river are portages of the falls of Onondago, a little above Oswego, of a quarter of a mile; from Wood creek to * the Mohawks river two miles ; at the little falls of the Mohawks river half a mile, and from Schenectady to Albany fixteen miles. Besides the increase of expence occasioned by frequent change of carriage, there is an increased risk of pillage produced by committing merchandize to a greater number of hands successively. The Patomak offers itself under the following circumstances. For the trade of the lakes and their waters westward of Lake Erie, when it shall have entered that lake, it must coast along its southern shore, on account of the number and excellence of its harbours, the northern, though shortest, having few harbours, and these : unsafe. Having reached Cayahoga, to proceed to New-York it will have eight hundred and twenty-five miles, and five portages: whereas it is but four hundred and twenty-five miles to Alexandria, its emporium on the Patomak, if it turns into the Cayahoga, and passes through that, o Bigbeaver, Ohio, Yohoganey, (or Monongalia and Cheat and Patomak, * and there are but two portages; the first of which between Cayahoga and Beaver may be removed by uniting the sources of these waters, which are lakes in the neighbourhood of each other, and in a champaign country; the other from the waters of Ohio to Patomak will be from fifteen to s forty miles, according to the trouble which shall be taken to approach the * two navigations. For the trade of the Ohio, or that which shall come into it from its own waters or the Mississippi, it is nearer through the Pa- * tomak to Alexandria than to New-York by five hundred and eighty miles, and it is interrupted by one portage only. There is another circum- " stance of difference too. The lakes themselves never freeze, but the com. munications between them freeze, and the Hudson's river is itself shut up by the ice three months in the year: whereas the channel to the Chesapeek leads dire&tly into a warmer climate. The southern parts of it very rarely , freeze at all, and whenever the northern do, it is so near the sources of the rivers, that the frequent floods to which they are there liable break up the ice immediately, so that vessels may pass through the whole winter, subject only to accidental and short delays. Add to all this, that in case of a war with our neighbours the Anglo-Americans or the Indians, the route to New-York becomes a frontier through almost its whole length, and all commerce through it ceases from that moment.—But the channel to New York is already known to practise; whereas the upper waters of the Ohio and the Patomak, and the great falls of the latter, are yet to be cleared of their fixed obstructions. * - " - - - - - Particular
Particular descriptions of the other rivers in the United States, are reserved to be given in the geographical account of the states, through which they respectively flow. One general observation respecting the rivers will, however, be naturally introduced here, and that is, that the entrances into almost all the rivers, inlets and bays, from New-Hampshire to Georgia, are from sourh-east to north-west.
Delaware Bay is fixty miles long, from the Cape to the entrance of the river Delaware at Bombay-hook; and so wide in some parts, as that a ship, in the middle of it, cannot be seen from the land. It opens into the Atlantic north-west and south-east, between Cape Henlopen on the right, and Cape May on the left. These Capes are eighteen miles 2Dart. *:::. Chesapeek is one of the largest bays in the known world. Its entrance is between Cape Charles and Cape Henry in Virginia, twelve miles wide, and it extends two hundred and seventy miles to the northward, dividing Virginia and Maryland. It is from seven to eighteen miles broad, and generally as much as nine fathoms deep ; affording many commodious harbours, and a safe and easy navigation. It receives the waters of the Susquehannah, Patomak, Rappahannok, York and James rivers, which are all large and navigable.
that the ocean has fince, by the operation of certain causes not yet fullyinvestigated, receded. These phaenomena, it is presumed, will authorizethis conclusion, That a great part of the flat country which spreads eafterly of the Allegany mountains, had, in some past period, a superincumbent fea; or rather that the constant accretion of soil from the various causes before hinted at, has forced it to retire. Mountains.] The tračt of country east of Hudson's river, comprehending part of the State of New-York, the four New-England States, and Vermont, is rough, hilly, and in some parts mountainous; but the mountains are comparatively small, in few instances more than five or fix hundred yards in height, and generally less. These mountains will be more particularly described under New-England. In all parts of the world, and particularly on this western continent, it is observable, that as you depart from the ocean, or from a river, the land gradually rises; and the height of land, in common, is about equally distant from the water on either fide. The Andes in South-America form the height of land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. That range of mountains, of which the Shining mountains are a part, begins at Mexico, and continuing northward on the east of California, separates the waters of those numerous rivers that fall into the Gulf of Mexico or the Gulf of California. Thence continuing their course still northward, between the sources of the Misfisfippi and the rivers that run into the South-Sea, they appear to end in about 47 or 48 degrees of north latitude; where a number of rivers rise, and empty themselves either into the South Sea, into Hudson's Bay, or into the waters that communicate | between these two seas. The Highlands between the Province of Main and the Province of Quebec, divide the rivers which fall into the St. Lawrence north, and into the Atlantic south. The Green Mountains, in Vermont, divide the waters which flow easterly into Connecticut river, from those which fall westerly into Lake Champlain and Hudson’s River. Between the Atlantic, the Mississippi, and the Lakes, runs a long range of mountains, made up of a great number of ridges. These mountains extend north-easterly and south-westerly, nearly parallel with the sea coast, about nine hundred miles in length, and from fixty to one hundred and fifty, and two hundred miles in breadth. Mr Evans observes, with respect to that part of these mountains which he travelled over, viz. in the back parts of Pennsylvania, that scarcely one acre in ten is capable of culture. This, however, is not the case in all parts of this range. Numerous tracts of fine arable and grazing land intervene between the ridges. The different ridges which compose this immense range of mountains, have different names in different States. o As you advance from the Atlantic, the first ridge in Pennsylvania, Vir- * ginia, and North-Carolina, is the Blue Ridge or South Mountain; which : is from one hundred and thirty, to two hundred miles from the sea. This a is about four thousand feet high, measuring from its base. Between this and the North Mountain, spreads a large fertile vale; next lies the Allegany ridge; next beyond this is the Long Ride, called the Laurel Mountains, in a spur of which, about latitude 36°, is a spring of water, fifty feet deep, very cold, and as blue as indigo. From these several ridges proceed innumerab