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effects of this custom, and whence, the the Popes, who are treated by their mo.
number of spurious writings in v cent. narchs as the Pagan heroes treated Cer-
ibid. and 363.

berus, 495.
Roman Catholic faith, derived from two Rome, its state of learning in xvii cent. iii.

sources, iii. 154; uncertainty about its 505; improved by the French, 506 ;
real doctrines, ibid. difference of opinion philosophy much changed in France,
about determining doctrines and contro- and those most distinguished in it, ibid.
versies, 155.

and n; ill treatment of them, 507 0;
Catholic religion, its principal the French example followed in Italy,
heads, and whence to be known, ii. 157 &c. ibid. Jesuits improve learning most;
and k.

and followed by the Benedictines, 503 ;
Romans impose the names of their own decline of learning among the Jesuits

deities on those of other nations, and ever since, 509; emulation of the Priests
hence the perplexities in the history of of the Oratory, and the most distin-
the ancient superstitions, i. 32 and h;. guished among them, ibid. Jansenists of
their system of religion different from Port Royal the most famous, ibid. rea-
the Greeks, 37; introduce their rites son of these improvements, 510; prin-
among the conquered nations, ibid. why cipal authors of the Romish commu-
they persecuted the Christians, 68, 69; nion, ibid. and q; its doctrine more
state of learning and philosophical sects corrupt than in the former ages, through
among them, 82; introduce letters and the Jesuits, and its Pontiffs' negligence,
philosophy into the conquered nations, 511; whence derived and with what
83.

views propagated, 512; Jesuits, why
Rome, its Bishops. See Popes.

supported by the Popes, 514; they sap
the decline of this church, and the foundations of morality with several
whence dated, iii. 130; its internal con- pernicious maxims, 513, 514; are con-
stitution strengthened by various ways, demned by Popes Alexander VII. and
136.

VIII. yet their moral tenets not sup-
- attempts to ruin the Protestants, pressed, 516 and X; why the great
but unsuccessful, iii. 453, 454, 464; con- made them their confessors, ibid. their
ferences held on both sides, 467 ; the maxims and practices not adopted by
interest of this church loses ground in all the fraternity, 517; three circum-
the East, 477 ; two strong instances of stances necessary in general censures,
it, 478 ; the Popes' authority in its de- which are not observed by their adver-
cline, 481.

saries, ibid. state of exegetic theology in
rupture between Pope Paul V. and xvii cent. 518; scripture how obscured,
Venice, iji. 482 ; wise conduct of the ibid. and a; state of didactic, moral,
latter, 483 ; peace concluded through and polemic theology at this time, 519;
Henry IV. of France, ibid. y, z; the con- contest under the pontificate of Clement
sequences, and their separation how pre- VIII. between the Jesuits and Domini-
vented, 484, a, b.

cans, about Grace, 520; intimation of
its contest with Portugal in xvii the arbiters appointed by the Pope in
cent. ii. 485 ; the former gains no favour of the Dominicans, 521 ; who
ground, 486 and c; between it and the himself examines the controversy, ibid.
French court, with the former's strata- but dies before the decision, ibid. dispute
gems defeated and the writers in this continued under Paul V. and ordered to
contest variously treated, ibid. contests be suppressed, with liberty to each par-
under Lewis XIV. with the reason, 437; ty to follow their own respective opinions
peace concluded on inglorious terms 522 ; the Pope how hindered from pro-
for the Pope, 498; a second contest nouncing a public determination, 523
about the Regale, ibid. and g; 489 and and f; contests occasioned by the rise
h; Lewis summons an assembly of Bi- and progress of Jansenism, ibid. and 524;
shops, ibid. and i ; which drew up four hopes of a union between this and the
propositions opposed by the Pope pub- Greek church, 553; methods used by
licly and privately, ibid. j; 490 k ; third the Romanists, 553 and d; but ineffec-
contest on the right of asylum to am- tual, 554; a union between this and
bassadors at Rome, and accommoda- the Russian church attempted, but in
tion, 490 and l; whether the papal au- vain, iii. 201.
thority gained ground in this cent. with Romuald, founder of the Camaldolites in xi
the complaint in the affirmative ground- cent. ii. 186.
less, 491 ; the manner of terminating Rosary, instituted in honour of the Virgin
differences changed, 492; Gallican li- Mary in x cent. ii. 114 and 1.
berties, still maintained, ibid. and q; Roscellinus, controversy relative to the
some cringing flatterers fawn still on Trinity begun by him in xi cent. ii. 225
the Popes, 493; secret yet vigorous and z; retracts and resumes his error
measures used by the French against 226 ; his doctrine concerning the ille

and 2.

and 4.

gality of bastards being ordained, not in xiji cent. ii. 341 ; added to the Ro-
favourably received in England, ibid. mish calendar in xvii cent. iii. 549, 550
Rosecrucians, their derivation in' xvii cent.

iii. 436 and f; inveigh against the Peri: Salabert,defends the Nominalists in xi cent
patetics, 437; most eminent among ii. 143,9.
them, with their followers, ibid. and g; Saladin, his success against the Christians,
diversity of opinions, whence, with some ii. 237 ; reduces the city of Jerusalem,
common principles, 437, 438; attacked after a dreadful carnage, ibid. and r;
by Gassendi, 438.

defeated by the kings of England and-
Rothman, Bernard, an ecclesiastic of France, 234, 239 ; concludes a truce
Munster, becomes Anabaptist, iii. 330 with Richard I. of England, ibid.

Salernum, a famous school there for the
Rufinus, of Aquileia, his character, i. 280, study of physic in xi cent. ii. 139 and i.

friendship and rupture between him and Salisbury, John,of his just and severe cen-
Jerome, ibid. o; his version of the Scrip. sure of the Nominalists, Realists, and
tures, 294.

Formalists, ii. 254, 255, s, t; his great
Ruffus, a chief of the spiritual libertines, character, 283.
jij. 314.

Salmasius, his disputes about usury, stage
Rugen, Isle of, Christianity established plays, &c. in xvii cent. iv. 114.
here in xii cent. ii. 228 and b.

Salmuth, Henry, his observations on the
Raggeri, Cosmo, account of bis impiety, Bible, an account of, iii. 258.
ii. 425.

Salvian, his book on Divine government,
Russians, converted in ix cent. and by and the cause of writing it, i. 339; cha-

what prudent means, ii. 5; their con- racter, 356 and u; moral writings ex-
version misrepresented by Le Quien, 6, cellent, 363.
h; adopt the doctrine and discipline of Samaritans, their sad state, i. 52; notions
the Greeks, iii. 188; but are independent of the Messiah, if juster than those en-
on them, and the Patriarch of Constan- tertained by the inhabitants of Jerusa-
tinople, ibid. a union between their own lem, ibid. and x.
and the Romish church attempted, but Samogetæ, their conversion to Christianity
in vain, 201.

in xv cent. considered, ii. 508.
Ruysbrockius, an eminent mystic in xiv Samuel, a Jewish convert, writes an elabo-
cent. ii. 483

rate treatise against the Jews in si cent.
s.

ii. 202.
Sabellius, his notions of the Trinity, i. 238; Sanches, a famous eclectic and skeptical

in what he differed from Noetus, ibid. philosopher in xvii cent. iii. 448 and u.
propagates his opinion with some suc- Sancroft, archbishop of Canterbury, is de-

prived, with seven other Bishops, of his
Sacrament, festival of, its origin in xiii ecclesiastical dignity, and why, ii, 111
cent. ii. 417 and 8.

and ü.
Sadducees, their tenets, i. 46; deny a fu- Sanction, Pragmatic, instituted for re-

ture state, 47 ; their moral doctrine and trenching papal power, ii. 539; when,
bad influence, 49.

and by whom made, ibid. n; abrogated
Sagarelli, Gerhard, founder of the sect in part by Lewis XI. of France, ibid. its

of Apostles in xii cent. ii. 437 ; is com- total abrogation obtained from Francis I.
mitted to the flames, and burned, ibid. of France, ix. 14 and g.
his successor Dulcinus, and the war he Sandius, an eminent writer among the
carried on, with his terrible end, ibid. Arians in xvii cent. iv. 173 and w.
and 438.

Sarabaites, an order of abandoned and
Saints, veneration paid to them, its rise, profligate monks in iv. cent. i. 292.

i. 282 ; their number considerably aug- Saracens, their successful incursions in the
mented in v cent. and whence, i. 352 ; East in viii cent. ii. 484; success owing
sepulchres frequented. 358; their pray- to the divisions of the Greeks, ibid.
ers thought to be victorious at the usurpations in the West, 485; conse-
throne of God, 412; the lives of some quences of their success to Christian-
considered, 423, 424; a confidence in ity, ibid. their progress toward univer-
their merits thought necessary to sai- sal empire in ix cent. ii. 7; the progress
vation in viïi cent. 508 ; tutelary, their of their arms injurious to the Gospel,
origin in ix cent. ii. 34 ; a passionate but more fatal in the East than in the
fondness for their relics, 37 ; excessive West, 8; writers against them in this
veneration paid to them in x cent. 105; century reported many things which
multiplied greatly, 109; this accounted were false and groundless, ji. 43 ; their
for, ibid. their numerous devotees in ruin accomplished by the Turks in the
xii cent. ii. 285 ; supposed to be fre- East in x cent. 83, the Ottoman em-
quently present in the places they in- pire established on the ruins of the
habited upon earth, ibid. and r; the de- Saracens' dominions, ibid. state of
fects of those who wrote their lives learning among them, 88 ; driven out

cess, ibid.

215,

of Sicily in xi cent. 121, the privileges of Pisa, which elects a third, 519; af-
thereupon granted to the kings of Si- flictions received by the church from it
cily, 122; resident in Palestine, and in this cent. 536 ; healed by the pru-
expeditions formed against them, ibid. dence of Nicholas V. 537; between the
by Peter the Hermit, with the progress, Greeks and Latins, and why not healed,
and history of this holy war, 124, 125 560.
and s; difficulties and successes, 125 Schmidt, Erasmus, a learned expositor of
and u; motives of the Popes and Eu- Scripture, iv. 26.
ropean Princes engaging in this cru-

Sebastian, an interpreter of Scrip-
sade, 127, 128 and y; reasons for and ture, and character, iv. 26.
against these wars, 128 and 2 ; with

Laurent, his translation of the
their unhappy consequences, 129, 130 Bible, and whence called the Wertheim
and a; of great service to literature in interpreter, iv. 201, character, ibid. is
Spain, 138; they oppress the Eastern opposed, and accused of being an enc-
Christians in xii cent. and the justice of my to the Christian religion, and
these oppressions examined, ii. 243; the whence, ibid. is cast into prison, but
decline of their affairs in Spain, in xiii escapes, ibid. charge brought against
cent. 331 ; scheme for their expulsion him, ibid. m.
thence in xiv cent. ii. 444; subversion Scholastic theology, whence it began, i.
of their kingdom in Spain effected in xv
cent. 507; methods used for their con- Scholastics, properly so called, in xii cent.
version, and how far effectual, 507. See ii. 291 ; their author, Abelard, 292;
Arabians.

opposed from different quarters, 293 ;
Sardis, council of, its fourth canon suppo- and principally by St. Bernard, 294;

sed the chief step to the Bishop of Rome's are chiefly Realists in xiii cent. 406 ;
sovereignty, i. 274; the impossibility of their dangerous tenets, and vicious me-
proving by it the necessity of an appeal thods of defending them, 409; fall into
to Rome in all cases, with the import of absurd and impious notions of the Tri-
this canon, ibid. and p.

nity, and the consequences, in xiv.
Saturninus, of Antioch, leader of the sect cent. 491 and fi hated and opposed in

of the Elcesaites, i. 174; the heretical xv cent. 557; and principally by the
principles he maintained, ibid.

restorers of polite literature, 551; a
Savanarola, Jerome, his great character, ii. philosophical sect in xvi cent. iii. 220,

549; censured with severity the Roman united with the Aristotelians, but oppo-
Pontiffs, and his unhappy fate, ib. and sed by the Ramæans, ibid.
t; declares that Rome was become the Schoman, George, author of the Cracow
image of Babylon, 551 ; Jabours to re- catechism, üi. 366, sub. not. z; his Tes-
form the Schoolmen, in xv cent. 557 ; tamentum, 368 a; an admirer of Far-
his polemic work, entitled The Triumph novius, 382.
of the Cross, 559.

Schomer, a Lutheran expositor in xvii
Saurin, James, his opinion concerning the cent. iv. 26.

lawfulness of violating the truth, and Schoolmen, whence so called, i. 422; chiefly
controversy thereon, iv. 200.

employed in collecting the ancient in-
Saxons, why averse to Christianity in viii terpretations of the Fathers in xiii

cent. i. 481, h, i ; methods used for con- cent. ii. 405; contentions among them
verting and retaining them, with an ob- in xiv cent. 491.
servation on the nature of their conver- Schools, established for Christian philoso-
sion, ibid. and sub. fin. not. i.

phy in i cent. i. 100; how distinguished
Saxony, divines of, contend with those of from the academies of the ancient

Weimar in xvi cent: iii. 243; new refor- Christians, ibid. very serviceable to
mation attempted, 250.

Christianity, 267 ; cathedral erected by
Sceptics, their method, and most eminent Charlemagne in viii cent. 487 ; public,

among them in xvii cent. iii. 444, 445, their sad state in xvi cent. iii. 20,
and notes.

Schurman, Anna Maria, a follower of the
Schaal, John Adam, chief of the Jesuit Labbadists, and great character, iv, 178.

missionaries in China, an account of, Schwenkfeldt, George, his debates with
iii. 396 ; imprisoned, and condemned to Luther, iii. 233; character, ibid. is ba-
death, ibid.

nished, and his death, 234; his doctrine
Schade, John Caspar, his character, iv. 51 ; different from Luther's in three points,

imprudent zeal excites commotions in 235.
the Lutheran church, ib.

Schyn, Herman, a Mennonite, iii. 320 ;
Schism, the great Western in xiv cent. an character of his writings, ibid. sub. not.
account of, ii. 463 ; its bad consequen-

e; 321, sub. f.
ces, 464 ; injurious to papal power, Sciences, their sad state in vii cent. i. 451 ;
465; proposals for terminating it, ibid. a new division of them, and their num-
fomented and continued in xv cent. 518; ber increased in xii cent. ii. 249, 250.
two Pontiffs condemned by the council Science, its limits extended in xiïi cent. ii.

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and f.

344; Bacon's reflection on the learning the immaculate conception of the Vir-
of this cent. ibid. d.

gin Mary, 492 and g.
Sciences, many professors of, but few very Scriptures, canon of, supposed to be set-

serviceable to society in xiv cent. ii. tled before the middle of ii cent. i. 93 ;
449; their improvement in general, in arguments in confirmation of this sup-
natural philosophy, mathematics, in position, ibid. early method of interpret-
astronomy, in xvii cent. iii. 430 ; and ing them, 98 ; the New Testament
how by Bacon, ibid. and z; the most translated into several languages, and
eminent for them through Europe, its use, 125; zeal for them in ii cent.
431 ; their distinguished promoters, and 151; interpretations of them defective,
advantages hence arising to society and through the double sense used at this
religion, 432; their state among the time, 152; the zeal of many for propa-
Lutherans, iv. 15.

gating them in iii cent. and advantages
Scioppius, employed to write against the hence arising to Christianity, 194; in-

Protestants, with an account of his be terpreters of them censured, and why,
ing caned, iii. 454 and n.

218; versions in iv cent. discover a
Sclavonians, and Dalmatians, express a want of sound judgment in their au-

desire to embrace Christianity in ix thors, 284; the most eminent commen-
cent. ii. 5; the joy this occasioned, and tators in v cent. i. 359; Origen's method
hereupon missionaries were sent, ibid. adopted by many, 360; logical dis-

cussions esteemed better tests of truth
converted by Waldemar, king than the Scriptures, 361 ; expositors in
of Denmark, through Absalom, Arch vii cent. few, and very unlearned, 458;
bishop of Lunden, in xii cent. ii. 228 and the study of them much promoted

b; their aversion from Christianity among the Latins by Charlemagne in
• overruled, and their conversion com viii cent. 510; allegorical interpreters

pleted, by the zeal of Henry the Lion, of, in ix cent. and their fundamental

through the Ministry of Vicellinus, 231. principle, ii. 40; explained in xii cent.
Scot, Michael, an Aristotelic, and a Latin chiefly according to the rules of Mys-
interpreter of his works in xiii cent. ii.

ticism, ii. 290; which prevailed much
343.

in xiji cent. 404; commentators on
Scotland, whether Christian in iii cent. i. them among the Lutherans in xvi cent.

195 and m; church of, its founder, iii. iii. 224.
282 ; how far it adopts the doctrine, &c. Scripture knowledge, its state in xvi cent.
established at Geneva, ibid. opposes iii. 158; methods taken to obscure it,
changes of discipline and worship, ibid. ibid. severe law passed as to interpreta-
a remarkable declaration of king James tion, ibid. and I.

I. concerning the kirk, iv. 90 d. Scylizes, John, a historian among the
Scots, Irish, eminent for their learning in Greeks in xi cent. and character, ii, 136.

viji cent. i. 513 and m; illustrated Chris. Scythia, within Imaus, embraces the Gos-
tian doctrines by the rules of philosophy, pel in viii cent. i. 477; its division by

ibid. their sophism about the Trinity, ib. the ancients, ibid. a.
Scotus, Johannes Erigena, an eminent Sectarian philosophers, who so called in

philosopher in ix cent. ii. 15 and a; his xvii cent. iv. 19, t.
great erudition, ibid. his works, ibid. Sects, formed in the times of the apostles,
blends the Mystic Theology with the i. 110; grow imperceptibly, ibid. ar.
Scholastic, and forms them into one counts of them imperfect, and whence,
system, ibid. his notions and great mo ibid. those which arose from the orien-
desty, 16; high character, 32 ; explains tal philosophy very detrimental to
the doctrines of Christianity according Christianity, 173; illiterate, which pre-
to reason and the principles of true vailed in ii cent. 188; remains of an-
philosophy, 40; is opposed and perse cient in iii cent. 230; and in iv cent.
cuted on this account, 41 and s; his 307; Manichæans most prevalent, who
new and elegant translation of the pre conceal themselves under various
tended Dionysius's works, 43 ; his ex names to avoid the severity of the laws,
cellent method of managing the contro 308; ancient, flourish in vii cent. i.
versy with Pascasius Radbert, concern 464; and recover strength in viïi cent.
ing the real presence of Christ's Body from the divisions in the Grecian em-
and Blood in the Eucharist, 50.-

pire, 524; and, subsist in xi cent. ii.
Marianus, his works, ii. 194. 219; numerous among the Latins in xii

John Duns, eminent for the acute cent, and the abuses which gave rise to
ness and subtilty of his genius, but not them, 307; multiplied in xiii cent. and
for his candour and ingenuity, ii. 488; the cause, 420; unanimous in opposing
luis works, ibid. x; warmly opposes the superstition and the papal power,
several doctrines of Aquinas, and hence ibid. among the Dutch in xvii cent. iv.
the sect of the Scotists, 491 ; defends 123; of inferior note in this cent. an ac-

ers, ibid.

and ..

count of them, 174; various in Eng- Severus, Sulpitius, an eminent historian in
land in xviii cent. iv. 207.

iii cent. i. 481 and p.
Secundians, Valentinian sect in ii cent. i. the Monophysite, made Patriarch

155; maintained the doctrine of two of Constantinople by Anastasius, the
eternal principles, ibid.

Emperor, i. 434 ; is deposed and suc-
Sedulius, bis expositions, and their defect, ceeded by one of his own sect, ibid.
ii. 40.

his doctrine concerning the body of
Seidel, Martin, his extravagant notions, Christ, 436 ; names given to his follow-

iv. 63; whence his followers called
Semi Judaizers, 64 and k.

Sfondrati, Cælestine, his innovated doc-
Seidenbecher, George Lawrence, a propa trine of predestination, iii. 548; is ac-

gator of the Millennium in xvii cent. iv. cused of erroneous notions before Inno-
63; is censured, and deposed from his cent XII. with the Pope's conduct, ibid.

pastoral charge, ibid. and i.
Semi Arians, their tenets, i. 322.

Shaftesbury, Earl of, his character and
Semi Judaizers, a Socinian sect, iii. 381; writings, iii. 421 ; how dangerous to

why obnoxious to Socinus, ibid. y. Christianity, ibid. and e.
Semi Pelagians, author of this sect in v Sharrock, the great advantages derived to

cent, and their tenets, i. 394 ; their five religion from his moral works, iv. 77.
leading principles, 395, h; strongly op- Sheppard, a Puritan missionary in Ame-
posed by the disciples of St. Augustin, rica, iii. 416.
yet support themselves, and make a ra- Siam, the first mission there by the Jesuits,
pid progress, ibid. excite divisions in under the direction of Alexander of

the Western churches in vi cent. 432. Rhodes, and its success, iii. 392 ; em-
Sendomir, synod held there, iii. 296; by bassy sent by Lewis XIV. to convert

whom, and concerning what, ibid. the King and people, 393 and p; this
and f.

was fruitless, and remarkable observa-
Sens, Bernardine of, a celebrated mystic tion by the King on this occasion, 394
writer, in xv cent. ii. 549; his works

and
must be read with caution, 358.

Siculus, Peter, an account of, ii. 29.
Serapion, Bishop of Antioch, writes a trea. Sidonius, Apollinaris, his writings tumid,

tise against the Jews, and his motives but not destitute of eloquence, i. 356.
for it, i. 203.

Sienno, Jacobus a, protects the Socinians,
his successful mission in Arme iii. 371 ;. embraces their communion,
nia, iii. 133; maintains with success the and erects a public seminary for then,
cause of Rome, ibid.

ibid.
Servetus, Michael, Servede, his character Siganfu, famous Chinese monument found

and writings, iii, 355 and c; circum there in vii cent. i. 439 and a.
stances concurring to favour his designs, Sigismund, John, Elector of Branden-
356 ; is seized, and accused by Calvin burg, renounces Lutheranism, and em-
of blasphemy, ibid. and d; condemned braces the communion of the Reformed
to the flames, ibid. his life by whom churcb, iv. 4; adopts not all their te-
written, ibid. e; strange doctrine of nets, and leaves his subjects free as to
the Trinity, 357; Calvin's severity their religious sentiments, 5; the bad
against him how alleviated, ibid. sub. effects of this liberty, and Lutherans
not. e ; strange tenets of other Antitri disgusted at it, ibid. controversy and
nitarians after him, 358.

civil commotions that ensued, ibid. the
Servites, convent of, founded in xiji cent. form of concord hereupon suppressed,

ii. 366; wear a black habit, with the and other edicts made by the Elector
reason, and observe several rules pecu and his successors, 6 and d.
liar to themselves, and unknown to Simeon, Bishop of Jerusalem, crucified by
other societies, ibid. and k.

Trajan's law, i. 130.
Sethites, an account of this sect in ii cent.

head of the Stylites, makes many
i, 185; consider Seth as the same per converts, i. 365 ; his extravagant tenets,
son with Christ, 196.

ibid. attracts the veneration of many
Severian, character of his moral writings, persons, ibid. and p; followed by many
i. 363.

persons, thoagh not with the same aus-
Severinus, promotes the philosophy of terity, ibid. and 'q; his superstitious

Paracelsus in Denmark, in xvi cent. iii. practice continued till xii cent. ib. andr.
221.

of Constantinople, translates the
Severus, his character, i. 123; persecution lives of the Saints in x cent. and hence

under him, 134 ; Martyrs who suffered styled the Metaphrast, ii. 103 and i.
under him, 196.

Sin, original, doctrine of, disputed by La
Alexander, shows favour to the Place, iv. 85; denied by Le Cene, 90.
Christians, i. 196; is assassinated by the Smalcald, leagué, how formed by the con-
order of Maximin, ibid.

federate princcs, iii. 75; the substance

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