« הקודםהמשך »
effects of this custom, and whence, the the Popes, who are treated by their mo-
number of spurious writings in v cent. narchs as the Pagan heroes treated Cer-
ibid. and 363.
Roman Catholic faith, derived from two Rome, its state of learning in xvii cent. iii.
sources, iii. 154 ; uncertainty about it3 505; improved by the French, 506;
real doctrines, ibid. difference or opinion pbilosophy much changed in France,
about determining doctrines and contro and those most distinguished in it, ibid.
and n; ill treatment of them, 507,0;
Catholic religion, its principal the French example followed in Italy,
heads, and whence to be known, iii. 157 &c. ibid. Jesuits improve learning most,
and followed by the Benedictines, 508;
Romans impose the names of their own decline of learning among the Jesuits
deities on those of other nations, and ever since, 509; emulation of the Priests
hence the perplexities in the history of of the Oratory, and the most distin-
the ancient superstitions, i. 32 and h; guished among them, ibid. Jansenists of
their system of religion different from Port Royal the most famous, ibid. rea-
the Greeks, 37; introduce their rites son of these improvements, 510; prin-
among the conquered nations, ibid. why cipal authors of the Romish 'commu-
they persecuted the Christians, 68, 69; nion, ibid. and q; its doctrine moro
state of learning and philosophical sects corrupt than in the former ages through
among them, 82; introduce letters and the Jesuits, and its Pontiffs' negligence,
philosophy into the conquered nations, 511; whence derived and with what
views propaga:ed, 512; Jesuits, why
Rome, its Bishops. See Popes.
supported by the Popes, 514; they sap
the decline of this church, and the foundations of morality with several
whence dated, iii. 130; its internal con pernicious maxims, 513, 514; are con-
stitution strengthened by various ways, demned by Popes Alexander VII. and
VIII. yet their moral tenets not sup-
attempts to ruin the Protestants, pressed, 516 and r; why the great
but unsuccessful, iii. 453, 454, 464; con made them their confessors, ibid. their
ferences held on both sides, 467; the Inaxims and practices not adopted by
interest of this church loses ground in all the fraternity, 517; three circum-
the east, 477 ; two strong instances of stances necessary in general ceasures,
it, 478; the Pope's authority in its de which are not observed by their adver-
saries, ib, state of exegetic theology in
rupture between Pope Paul V. and xvii cent. 513; scripture how obscured,
Venice, jij. 482; wise conduct of the ibid. and a; state of didactic, moral,
latter, 483; peace concluded through and polemic theology at this time, 519;
Henry IV. of France, ibid. y, z; the con contest under the pontificate of Clement
sequences, and their separation bow VIII. between the Jesuits and Domini-
prevented, 484, a, b.
cans, about Grace, 520; intimation of
its contest with Portugal in xvii the arbiters appointed by the Pope in
cent. jii. 485; the former gains no favour of the Dominicans, 521; who
ground, 486 and c; between it and the himself examines the controversy, ibid.
French court, with the former's strata but dies before the decision, ib. dispute
gems defeated and the writers in this continued under Paul V. and ordered to
contest variously treated, ibid. contests be suppressed, with liberty to each party
under Lewis XIV, with the reason, 487;
to follow their own respective opinions,
peace concluded on inglorious terms 522; the Pope bow hindered from pro-
for the Pope, 433; a second contest nouncing a public determination, 523
about the Regale, ibid. and 5 ; 489 and and f; contests occasioned by the rise
h; Lewis summons an assembly of Bi and progress of Jansenisin, ibid. and
shops, ibid. and i; which drew up four 524; hopes of a union between this and
propositions opposed by the Pope pub the Greek church, 553; methods used
licly and privately, ibid. ;; 490,k; third by the Romanists, 553 and d; but in-
contest on the right of asylum to am effectual, 554; a union between this
bassadors at Rome, and accommoda and the Russian church attempted, but
tion, 490 andl; whether the papal au in vain, iii. 201.
thority gained ground in this cent. with Romuald, founder of the Camaldolites in
the complaint in the affirmative ground xi cent. ii. 186.
less, 491; the manner of terminating Rosary, instituted in honour of the Virgin
differences changed, 492 ; Gallican li Mary in x cent. ii. 114 and I.
berties, still maintained, ibid. and q; Roscellinus, controversy, relative to the
some cringing flatterers fawn still on Trinity begun by him in xi cent. ii. 235
the Popes, 493 ; secret lyet vigorous and :; retracts and resumes his error
measures used by the French against 226; his doctrine concerning the ille-
in part by Lewis XI. of France, ibid. its
usurpations in the West, 485; conse
ibid. their progress toward universal
of their arms injurious to the Gospel,
West, 8; writers against them in this
century reported many things which
ruin accomplished by the Turks in the
East in x cent. 83; the Ottoman em.
learning among them, 88; driven out
gality of bastards being ordained, not in xiji cent. ii. 341; added to the Ro-
favourably received in England, ibid. mish calendar in xvii cent. iii. 549, 550
Rosecrucians, their derivation in xvii cent.
ili. 436 and ; inveigh against the Peri- Salabert, defends the Nominalists in si
patetics, 437; most cminent among cent. ii. 143, 9.
ihem, with their followers, ibid. and g; Saladin, his success against the Christians,
diversity of opinions, thence with some ii. 237 ; reduces the city of Jerusalem,
common principles, 437, 438 ; attacked after a dreadful carnage, ibid. and r;
by Gassendi, 438.
defeated by the kings of England and
Rothman, Bernard, an ecclesiastic of France, 234, 239; concludes a truce
Munster, becomes Anabaptist, iii. 330 with Richard I. of England, ibid.
Salernum, a famous school there for the
Rufinus, of Aquileia, his character, i. 230, study of physic in xi cent. ii. 139 and i,
friendship and rupture between him and Salisbury, John, of his just and severe
Jerome, ib. 0; his version of the Scrip censure of the Nominalists, Realists,
and Formalists, ii. 254, 255, s,t; his
Ruffus, a chief of the spiritual libertines, great character, 283.
Salmasius, his disputes about usury, stage
Rugen, Isle of, Christianity established plays, &c. in xvii cent. iv. 114.
here in xii cent. ii. 228 and b.
Salmuth, Henry, his observations on the
Raggeri, Cosmo, account of his impiety, Bible, an account of, iii, 258.
Salvian, his book on Divine government,
Russians, converted in ix cent, and by and the
cause of writing it, i. 339; cha-
what prudent means, ii. 5; their con racter, 356 and u; moral writings ex•
version misrepresented by Le Quien, 6, cellent, 363.
h; adopt the doctrine and discipline of Samaritans, their sad state, i. 52; notions
the Greeks, iii. 188; but are independent of the Messiah, if juster than éb ose en-
on them, and the Patriarch of Constan tertained by the inhabitants of Jerusa-
tinople, ibid. a union between their own lem, ibid. and r.
and the Romish church attempted, but Samogelæ, their conversion to Christianity
in vain, 201.
in xv cent. considered, ii. 508.
Ruysbrockius, an eminent mystic in xiv Samuel, a Jewish convert,
writes an elabo-
cent. ii. 488.
rate treatise against the Jews in sicent.
Sabellius, his notions of the Trinity, i. 238; Sanches, a famous eclectic and skeptical
in what he differed from Noetus, ibid. philosopher in xvii cent. iii. 448 and to
propagates his opinion with some suc Sancroft, archbishop of Canterbury, is
deprived, with seven other Bishops, of
Sacrament, festival of, its origin in xiii his ecclesiastical dignity, and by, iii.
cent. ij. 417 and s.
111 and ii.
Sadducees, their tenets, i. 46; deny a fu- Sanction, Pragmatic, instituted for re-
ture state, 47; their moral doctrine and trenching papal power, ii. 539; when,
bad influence, 49.
and by whom made, ibid. n; abrogated
Sagarelli, Gerhard, founder of the sect
of Apostles in xii cent. ii. 437; is com total abrogation obtained from Francis
mitted to the flames, and burned, ibid. I. of France, iii. 14 and g.
his successor Dulcinus, and the war he Sandius, an eminent writer among the
carried on, with his terrible end, ibid. Arians in xvïi cent. iv. 173 and 20.
Sarabaites, an order of, abandoned and
Saints, veneration paid to them, its rise,
i. 232 ; their number considerably aug? Saracens, their successful incursions in the
profligate monks in iv. cent. i. 292.
mented in v cent, and whence, i. 352; East in viii cent. ii. 484; success owing
sepulchres frequented, 358; their pray-
to the divisions of the Greeks, ibid
ers thought to be victorious at the
throne of God, 412; the lives of some quences of their success to Christianity;
considered, 423, 424; a confidence in
their merits thought necessary to sal empire in ix cent. ii. 7; the progress
vation in viii cent. 508; tutelary, their
origin in ix cent. ii. 34; a passionate but more fatal in the East than in the
fondness for their relics, 37 ; excessive
veneration paid to them in x cent. 105;
multiplied greatly, 109; this accounted were false and groundless, ii. 43;
for, ibid. their numerous devotees in
xii cent. ii. 285; supposed to be fre-
quently present in the places they in pire established on the ruins of the
habited upon earth, ibid. and r; the de Saracens' dominions, ibid. state of
fects of those who wrote their lives
of Sicily in xi cent. 121; the privileges
of 'Pisa, which elects a third, 519; af-
thereupon granted to the kings of Si flictions received by the church from it
cily, 122 ; resident in Palestine, and in this ceni, 536; healed by the pru-
expeditions formed against them, ibid. dence of Nicholas V. 537 ; between the
by Peter the Hermit, with the progress, Greeks and Latins, and why noi bealed,
and history of this holy war, 124, 125 560.
and s; dificulties and successes, 125 Schmidt, Erasmus, a lcained expositor of
and u; motives of the Pope and Eu Scripture, iy. 26.
ropean Princes engaging in this cru.
Sebastian, an interpreter of Scrip-
sade, 127, 128 and y; reasons for and ture, and character, iv. 26.
against these wars, 128 and z; with
Laurent, bis translation of the
their unhappy consequences, 129, 130 Bible, and whence called tne Wertheim
and a; of great service to literature in interpreter, iv. 201; character, ibid. is
Spain, 138; they oppress the Eastern opposed, and accused of being an ene-
Christians in xii cent. and the justice of my to the Christian religion, and
these oppressions examined, ii. 243 ; the whence, ibid. is cast into prison, but
decline of their affairs in Spain, in xiii escapes, ibid. charge brought against
cent. 331 ; scheme for their expulsion him, ibid. m.
thence, in xiv cent. ii. 444; subversion Scholastic theology, whence it began, i.
of their kingdom in Spain effected in xv 215.
cent. 507 ; methods used for their con Scholastics, properly so called, in xii cent.
version, and how far effectual, 507. See ii. 291 ; their author, Abelard ; 292;
opposed from different quarters, 293
Sardis, council of, its fourth canon suppos and principally by St. Bernard, 294 ;
ed the chief step to the Bishop of Rome's are chiefly Realists in xiii cent. 406 ;
sovereignty, i. 274; the impossibility of their dangerous tenets, and vicious me-
provinz by it the necessity of an appeal thods of defending them, 409; fall into
to Rome in all cases, with the import of absurd and impious notions of the Tri-
this canon, ibid. and p.
nity, and the consequences, in xiv
Saturninus, of Antioch, leader of the sect cent. 491 and f; hated and opposed in
of the Elcesaites, i. 174; the heretical XV cent. 557; and principally by the
principles he maintained, ibid.
restorers of polite literature, 558 ; a
Savanarolu, Jerome, his great character, ii. philosophical sect in xvi cent: iii. 220;
549; censured with severity the Roman united with the Aristotelians, but op-
Pontiffs, and his unhappy fate, ib. and posed by the Ramæans, ibid.
t; declares that Rome was become the Schoman, George, author of the Cracow
image of Babylon, 551; labours to re catechism, iii. 366; sub. not. z; his Tes.
form the Schoolmen, in xv cent. 557 ; tamentum, 368, a; an admirer of Far-
bis polemic work, entitled The Triumph novius, 382.
of the Cross, 559.
Schomer, a Lutheran expositor, in xvii
Saurin, James, his opinion concerning the cent. iv. 26.
lawfulness of violating the truth, and Schoolmen, whence so called, i. 422 ;
controversy thereon, iv. 200.
chietly employed in collecting the an-
Sarons, why averse to Christianity in viii cient interpretations of the Fathers in
cent. i. 481, h, i; methods used for con xiii cont. i. 405; contentions among
verting and retaining them, with an ob them in xiv cent. 491.
servation on the nature of their conver Schools, established for Christian philoso-
sion, ibid. and sub. fin. not. i.
phy in i cent. i. 100; bow distinguished
Saxony, divines of, contend with those of from the academies of the ancient
Weimar in xvi cent. iii. 243; new re Christians, ibid. very serviceable to
formation attempted, 250.
Cbristianity, 267 ; cathedral erected by
Sceptics, their method, and most eminent Charlemagne, in viii cent. 487; public,
among them in xvii cent. iii. 444, 445; their sad state, in xvi cent. iii. 20.
Schurman, Anna Maria, a follower of the
Schaal, John Adam, chief of the Jesuit Labbadists, and great character, iv. 178.
missionaries in China, an account of, Schwenkfeldt, George, bis debates with
iii. 396 ; imprisoned, and condemned Lutber, iii. 233; character, ibid. is ba-
to death, ibid.
nished, and his death, 234; bis doctrine
Schade, John Caspar, his character, iv. 51; different from Luther's in three points,
imprudent zeal excites commotions in 235.
the Lutheran church, ib.
Schyn, Herman, a Mennonite, iii. 320;
Schism, the great Western, in xiv cent. an character of his writings, ibid. sub. not.
account of, ii. 463 ; its bad consequen e; 321, sub. f.
ces, 464 ; injurious to papal power, Sciences, their sad state in vii cent. i. 451 ;
465; proposals for terminating it, ibid. a new division of them, and their num-
fomented and continued in xv cent. 513; ber increased, in xii cent. ii. 249, 250.
two Pontiffs condemned by the council Science, its limits extended in xiii cent. ij.
344; Bacon's reflection on the learning the immaculate conception of the Vir-
of this cent. ibid. d.
gin Mary, 492 and g.
Sciences, many professors of, but few very Scriptures, canon of, supposed to be set-
serviceable to society, in xiv cent. ii. tled before the middle of ii cent. i. 93;
449; their improvement in general, in arguments in confirmation of this sup-
natural pbilosophy, mathematics, in position, ibid. early method of interpret-
astromony, in xvii cent. iii. 430 ; and ing them, 98; the New Testament
how by Bacon, ibid. and z; the most translated into several languages, and
eminent for them through Europe, its use, 125 ; zeal for them in ii cent.
431 ; their distinguished promoters, and 151; interpretations of them defective,
advantages hence arising tu society and through the double sepse used at this
religion, 432 ; their state among the time, 152; the zeal of many for propa-
Lutherans; iv. 15.
gating them in jii cent, and advantages
Scioppius, employed to write against the hence arising to Christianity, 194; in-
Protestants, with an account of his be terpreters of thein censured, and why,
ing caned, iii. 454 and n.
218 ; versions in iv cent. discover a
Sclavonians, and Dalmatians, express a want of sound judgment in their au-
desire to embrace Christianity in ix thors, 284 ; the most eminent commen-
cent. ii. 5; the joy this occasioned, and tators in v cent. i. 359; Origen's method
hereupon missionaries were sent, ibid. adopted by many, 360 ; logical dis-
cussions esteemed better tests of truth
converted by Waldemar, king than the Scriptures, 361; expositors in
of Denmark, through Absalom, Arch vii cent. few, and very unlearned, 458 ;
bishop of Lunden, in xii cent. ii. 228 and the study of thera much promoted
B; their averaion from Christianity among the Latins by Charleinagne, in
overruled, and their conversion con viii cent. 510; allegorical interpreters
pleted, by the zeal of Henry the Lion, of, in ix cent. and their fundamental
through the Ministry of Vicellinus, 231. principle, ii. 40; explained in xii cent.
Scotl, Michael, an Aristotelic, and a Latin chiefly according to the rules of Mys-
interpreter of his works, in xiii cent. ii. ticism, ii. 290; which prevailed much
in xiii cent. 404; commentators on
Scotland, whether Christian, in iii cent. i. them among the Lutherans, in xvi cent.
195 and 16; church of, its founder, iii. iii. 224.
282 ; how far it adopts the doctrine, &c. Scripture knowledge, its state in xvi cent.
established at Geneva, ibid. opposes iii. 158; methods taken to obscure it,
changes of discipline and worship, ibid. ibid. severe law passed as to interpre-
a remarkable declaration of king James tation, ibid. and l.
I. concerning the kirk, iv. 90, d. Scylizes, John, a historiau among the
Scots, Irish, eminent for their learning in Greeks in xi cent. and character, ii. 136.
viii cent. i. 513 and m; illustrated Chris- Scythia, within Imaus, embraces the Gos-
tian doctrines by the rules of philosophy, pel in viii cent. i. 477 ; its division by
ibid. their sophism about the Trinity, ib. the ancients, ibid. a.
Scotus, Johannes Erigena, an eminent Sectarian philosophers, who so called in
pbilosopher in ix cent. ii. 15 and a; bis xvii cent. iv. 19, t.
great erudition, ibid. his works, ibid. Sects, forined in the times of the apostles,
blends the Mystic Theology with the i. 110; grow imperceptibly, ibid. ac-
Scholastic, and forms them into one counts of them imperfect, and whence,
system, ibid, his notions and great mo ibid. those which arose from the orien-
desty, 16 ; high character, 32 ; explains tal pbilosophy, very detrimental to
the doctrines of Christianity according Christianity, 173; illiterate, which pre-
to reason and the principles of true vailed in ii cent. 188; remains of an-
philosophy, 40; is opposed and perse cient, in iii cent. 230; and in ir cent.
cuted on this account, 41 and s; his 307; Manichæans most prevalent, who
new and elegant translation of the pre-
themselves under various
tended Dionysius's works, 43; bis ex names to avoid the severity of the laws,
cellent method of managing the contro 309 ; ancient, flourish in vii cent. i.
versy with Pascasius Radbert, concern 464; and recover strength in viï cent.
ing the real presence of Christ's Body from the divisions in the Grecian em-
and Blood in the Eucharist, 50.
pire, 524; and subsist in xi cent. ü.
Marianus, bis works, ii. 194. 219; numerous among the Latins in xii
John Duns, eminent for the acute cent. and the abuses which gave rise to
ness and subtilty of his genius, but not them, 307 ; multiplied in xiii cent. and
for bis candour and ingenuity, ii. 488; the cause, 420; unanimous in opposing
his works, ibid. x; warmly opposes the superstition, and the papal power,
several doctrines of Aquinas, and bence ibid. among the Dutch in svii cent. iv.
the sect of the Scotists, 491; defends 123 ; of inferior note in this cent. an ac-
count of them, 174; various in Eng. Severus, Sulpitius, an eminent historian in
land in xviii cent. iv. 207.
iii cent, i. 481 and p.
Secundians, Valentinian sect in ii cent. i. the Monophosite, made Patriarch
185 ; maintained the doctrine of two of Constantinople by Anastasius, the
eternal principles, ibid.
Emperor, i. 434 ; is deposed and suc-
Sedulius, bis expositions, and their defect, ceeded by one of his own sect, ibid.
his doctrine concerning the body of
Seidel, Martin, his extravagant notions, Christ, 436; names given to his follow-
iv. 63; whence his followers called
Semi Judaizers, 64 and k.
Sfondrati, Cælestine, his innovated doc-
Seidenbecher, George Lawrence, a propa trine of predestination, iii. 548 ; is ac-
gator of the Millenium in xvii cent. iv, cused of erroneous notions before Inno-
63 ; is censured and deposed from bis cent XII. with the Pope's conduct, ibid.
pastoral charge, ibid. and i.
Semi Arians, their tenets, i. 322.
Shaftesbury, Earl of, his character and
Semi Judaizers, a Socinian sect, iii. 381 ; writings, iii. 421 ; how dangerous to
why obnoxious to Socinus, ibid. y. Christianity, ibid. and e.
Semi Pelagians, author of this sect in v Sharrock, the great advantages derived to
cent, and their tenets, i. 394 ; their five religion from his moral works, iv. 77.
leading principles, 395, h; strongly op- Sheppard, a Puritan missionary in Ame-
posed by the disciples of St. Augustin, rica, iii. 416.
yet support themselves, and make a ra- Siam, the first mission there by the Jes-
pid progress, ibid. excite divisions in
uits, under the direction of Alexander
the Western churches in vi cent. 432. of Rhodes, and its success, iii. 392 ;
Sendomir, synod held there, iii. 296 ; by embassy sent by Lewis XIV. to convert
whom, and concerning what, ibid. and the King and people, 393 and p; this
was fruitless, and remarkable observa-
Sens, Benardine of, a celebrated mystic tion by the King on this occasion, 394
writer, in xv ceot. ij. 549; his works
must be read with caution, 358. Siculus, Peter, an account of, ii. 29.
Serapion, Bishop of Antioch, writes a trea- Sidonius, Apollinaris, bis writings tumid,
tise against the Jews, and his motives but not destitute of eloquence, i. 356.
for it, i. 203.
Senino, Jacobus a, protects the Socinians,
his successful mission in Arme iii. 371 ; embraces their communion,
nia, iii. 133; maintains with success the and erects a public seminary for them,
cause of Rome, ibid.
Servetus, Michael, Servede, his character Siganfu, famous Chinese monument found
and writings, iii. 355 and c; circum there in vii cent. i. 439 and a.
stances concurring to favour his designs, Sigismund, John, Elector of Branden-
356; is seized, and accused by Calvin burg, renounces Lutheranism, and em-
of blasphemy, ibid. and d; condemned braces the communion of the Reformed
to the flames, ibid. his life by whom church, iv. 4; adopts not all their te-
written, ibid. e; strange doctrine of nets, and leaves his subjects free as to
the Trinity, 357 ; Calvin's severity their religious sentiments, 5; the bad
against him how alleviated, ibid. sub. effects of this liberty, and Lutherans
not. e ; strange tenets of other Antitri disgusted at it, ibid. controversy and
nitarians after him, 358.
civil commotions that ensued, ibid. the
Servites, convent of, founded in xiii cent. form of concord hereupon suppressed,
ii. 366; wear a black habit with the and other edicts made by the Elector
reason, and observe several rules pecu and his successors, 6 and d.
liar to themselves, and unknown to Simeon, Bishop of Jerusalem, crucified by
other societies, ibid. and k.
Trajan's law, i. 130.
Sethites, an account of this sect in ii cent. head of the Stylites, makes many
i. 185 ; consider Seth as the same per converts, i. 365 ; his extravagant tenets,
son with Christ, 186.
ibid. attracts the veneration of many
Severian, character of his moral writings, persons, ibid. and p; followed by many
persons, though not with the same aus.
Severinus, promotes the philosophy of terity, ibid. and q; his superstitious
Paracelsus in Denmark, in xvi cent. iii. practice continued till xii cent. ib. and r.
of Constantinople, translates the
Severus, his character, i. 123 ; persecution lives of the Saints in x cent. and hence
under him, 134 ; Martyrs who suffered styled the Metaphrast, ii. 103 and i.
under him, 196.
Sin, original, doctrine of, disputed by La
Alexander, shows favour to the Place, iv. 85; denied by Le Cene, 90.
Christians, i. 196 ; is assassinated by Smalcald, league, how formed by the con-
the order of Maximin, ibid.
federate princes, iji. 75; the substance