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civil power, ibid. their opinions oppo court of Rome, 129 and e; debates
sed in councils assembled by the concerning their power, ibid. find zeal-
Franks and Germans for terminating ous advocates for their authority in the
disputes relating to image worship, ibid. Jesuits, 140 ; their infallibility and un-
the Emperor's approbation necessary limited supremacy not universally ac-
to their consecration, ü. 19, 99, their knowledged by the church of Rome,
power augmented by the divisions of 167.
the empire in ix cent. 22; divest the Pordage, a member of the Philadelphian
Emperors of ecclesiastical authority, society, an account of, iv. 181.
23; diminish the power of councils Porphyry, opposes the Platonic. philoso-
and the Bishops, ibid. and y; frauds phy to the doctrine of the Gospel, i.
and forgeries to support their claims, 200; a more virulent than formidable
24, 25 and 2, a, c; the cause of the enemy of Christianity, 201 ; his work
vices among the clergy in x cent. 93; against the Christians burned by order
their supreme Legislative authority, of Constantine the Great, ibid. and c;
opposed by the German, French, and the answers to this work lost, ibid. sub.
Italian Bishops, does yet gain ground by fin. not. c; a professed admirer of Plo-
the adulatory services of some minions

ary services of some minions tinus, 205 and k.
among the Bishops, 99; the right of Porre, Gilbert de la, charged with blas-
canonization, though usurped by John phemy, and submits his opinions to the
XV. is not solely vested in them till xii arbitration of the Pope, ii. 296 ; his er-
cent. 109: their motives for encour- rors the consequence of an excessive
aging the first crusade, 127 and y; as subtilty, and metaphysical method of
sume the name of Popes, or Universal explaining the Christian dootrine, ibid.
Fathers, in xi cent. when their anthor- Port Royal, convent of, described, üi.
ity was at the highest, 145 ; confirmed 537; sanctity of the religious in it, and
in their See by the approbation of the its fame, 538, 539 and note; demolish-
Emperors, 147 ; the right of electing ed by Lewis XVI. at the request of the
them vested in the college of Car Jesuits, 540.
dinals, excluding the consent of the Portugal, her contest with Rome in xvii
clergy and people, 156; the imperial cent. iii. 485; throws off the Spanish
privilege in electing them violated, yoke, ib.
157 ; accessions to their power by the Positivi, Christian doctors, so called, in
zeal of Pope Gregory VII. 160; called xii cent. and why, ii. 292.
Paterini, and whence, 167 and r; the Possevin, Anthony, a Jesuit missionary,
Romish ritual imposed by them on all his fruitless attempt to unite the Ro-
the Latin Churches, and the custom of mish and Russian churches in xyi cent.
performing divine service in Latin iii. 201 ; writes against the Protestants,
among all the Western churches, had iij. 454.
their rise in xi cent. 217, 218; violent Potter, Archbishop of Canterbury, main-
dissensions between them and the Em- tains the authority of church and cler-
perors concerning the extent of power, gy of England against the attempts of
and unhappy consequences, in xii cent. Bishop Hoadley to diminish it, and his
ii. 267; deprive the Bishops of the character, iv. 207.
right of canonization, 271 ; and of the Prætorius, his work, “ Tuba Pacis," to
power to grant indulgences, 287 ; pro- convert Protestants, iji. 469 and r.
mote crusades in xiii cent. and why, Prague, University of, &c. right of suf-
324; methods taken at this time to ac frages divided by its founder into four.
quire universal dominion, 347 ; their nations, ii. 523; encroachments made
arrogant claims opposed by civil and by the German nation on this account,
ecclesiastical powers, 349; great ac and contest about it in xv cent. fatal to
cessions of power due to Innocent III. John Huss, 524.
and Nicholas IV. 350, 351, the advan-

Jerome of, condemned and burn-
tage they derived from the orders of ed alive in xv cent. ii. 526; the true
Mendicants, and their returns for these causes of this proceeding 526, 528 and
favours, 373, 374 and x, y, z, a; their x, a, b.
authority diminished under the Gallic Praxeas, his notions concerning the Trin.
pontiffs, 456 ; their powers declared to ity, i. 187; his followers called Monar-
be inferior to that of general councils, chians, and whence ibid.
at the councils of Constance and Basil Prayers, the addition of Ave Maria made
521, 534; deprived of their Expectan- to them in xiv cent. ii. 497.
ces, Reservations, and Provisions, at the Predestinarians, whence their rise in y
latter council, ibid. their zeal for propa- cent. i. 394 ; their doctrine, ibid. oppo-
gating Christianity in xvi cent. exa- sed by Augustine, ibid. the opinion of
mined, iii. 116; manner of their elec- some concerning the reality of this
tions, 126; what distinction must be sect, ibid. and g.
made betwixt their authority and the Predestination and Grace, controversy

concerning, in ix cent. ii. 52; begun by public and private conferences between
Godeschalcus, a Saxon, ibid. its state in the doctors of both churches, but the
xvi cent. iii. 270 ; Calvin's doctrine of breach is widened, 467 and n; methods
it, 278.

of reconciliation by the Romanists in-
Premontre, an order of Monks founded by effectual, 468.

Norbert in xii cent. ii. 278; their uni- Protestants, French, a great variety in
versal fame, ibid. excessive poverty at their religious sentiments, iii. 281 ; join
first, and future opulence, ibid. q; dis in communion with the church of Ge-
cipline chiefly modelled by St. Augus neva, ibid. their sufferings, ibid. 232;
tine's rule, ibid. and r; first arrival into peacemakers among them in xvii cent.
England, ibid. sub, fin. not.

iii. 471; English peacemakers, William
Presbyter, its import, i. 88 b. ibid. c.

Forbes, ibid. and a; Dutch, Grotius,
Presbyterians, flourish under Cromwell, with the bad fruits of their labours, and
iv. 104, 105.

George Calixtus' conduct, 472 ; deser-
Prescription, how pleaded against error, in tions from the Protestant to the Cathon

iii cent. i. 221 and m; polemics rest lic church in this cent. personal only,
upon it in xvii. cent. iii. 473.

476 ; as Christina of Sweden, ibid. l, m;
Prester, John, an account of in xii cent. ii. Wolfgang, William, Count Palatine,

233 and n; his successor deprived of ibid. Christian William of Brandenburg,
his kingdom by Genghis Khan, 234; Ernest of Hesse, ibid. and n; and other
the consequences of his death on the learned men, iv. 68; divided into four

affairs of the Christians in Tartary, 244. sects, iv. 92.
Priesthood, an artful parallel between the Prussia. See Liturgy.

Jewish and Christian, i. 147 ; its perni- Prussians, murder their missionaries Boni-
cious effects, ibid.

face and Bruno, ii. 121; compelled to
Primasius, of Adrumetum, his works, i. receive Christianity, ibid. compulsive
418, 421.

methods used for their conversion in
Printing, this art discovered in xv cent. xiii cent. and the success of them by the

ii. 512; by whom invented, ibid. and p. Teutonic knights, ii. 330, and u.
Priscillian, revives the Gnostic heresy in Psellus, Michael, expounds Aristotle, ii.

iv cent. i. 326 ; condemned to death by 11; his great character, 136, 193 ; his
the order of Maximus, 327 ; an account commentaries, 198.
of his prosecutor, ib. m.

Ptolemaites, Valentinian sect in ii cent. i.
Priscillianists, their tenets imperfectly re- 185.

presented, and how far they resembled Purgatory, its analogy to Pagan supersti-

the Manichæans, i. 327, 328 and o. tion, i. 358, 359, and a; the success of
Probability, doctrine of, inculcated by the this doctrine in x cent. 106 ; dreaded
Jesuits, and what, ii. 170 and a.

more than infernal torments, ibid.
Proclus, a modern Platonic in v cent. his Puritans, Nonconformists, their rise in xiv

character, masters, and disciples, i. 344 cent. iii. 284; uncharitableness of the
and m.

Lutherans, and humanity of the Re-
Procopius, of Gaza, his works, i. 416; his formed towards them, ibid. k; two

character as an expositor of Scripture, classes refuse to assent to Queen Eliza-
421.

beth's proceedings, 285; their history
Propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts, by Neale, and character, 286, and m;
account of that society, iii, 417.

their sentiments and doctrine, ibid. fur-
Prophets of the New Testament, the na ther exasperated, and opinion concern-

ture of their office, i. 89; fanatical in ing excommunication, 288 and o; their
xvii cent. iv. 60.

disgust at the rites imposed, and at other
Prosper, of Aquitain, an eminent polemic usages, 288, 289 and p, q, r; their

writer in v cent. i. 356 ; his moral principles of the sentiments on church
works, 363.

government and worship, in answer to
Protestants, whence this name, iii. 57 and the Queen's Commissioners, 289, 291;

h; deliberate about forming a league, on divided into a variety of sects, 292; the
the Emperor's arresting their ambassa controversy between them and the
dors, ib. but come to no determination, church of England, with the conduct of
58; dissension among them about the the Helvetic church to the latter, and
Eucharist, ibid. present a confession of the reasons, 318; contest about doctri-
their faith at Augsburg, 70; object to a nal points, 319 and d; their missions
council being called at Trent, and why, to America, iii. 416 and r; their state
83; attempt to propagate the Gospel in under James I. iv. 90, hope for better
foreign parts, 118 and k; their missions times, but are disappointed, ibid. 91 :
in Asia, iii. 410; in America, 415; per resolution in favour of them, 110 and h.
secuted by Rome in xvii cent. 461;
milder methods used by Rome, 466 ;
different proposals of their enemies, 467; Quakers, propagate their doctrine without
restraint under Cromwell, iv. 106; their ibid. and q; branded with opprobriots
history, and whence denominated, 145; names, 498 and r.
rise and founder, ibid. 146 and i ; anony- Quinsextum, council of Constantinople in
mous letter in defence of their foun vii cent. why so called, i. 463 and g;
der censured, ibid. sub. not. i ; tumults enacts laws about ceremonies, with the
and proceedings against them, 147 and nature of its acts, 473; six of its canons
k; their first attempts under Cromwell, rejected by the Romanists, ibid u.
ibid. strange instances of most extrava- Quintin, one of the leaders of the Spiritual
yant fanaticism, 148 and kk; vain at Libertines, iii. 314.
tempts of Cromwell to suppress them,
149; progress of this sect under Charles

R.
II. ibid. assume a regular form of disci. Rabanus Maurus, Archbishop of Mentz,
pline, with their chief members, ibid. his great character, ii. 14; called the
and n; their sufferings during this reign, Light of France and Germany, 30; his
and on what account, ibid. and o; are commentaries, 40 ; Scriptural allegories,
tolerated under James II. and William ibid. exposes the errors of the Jews, 43;
III. and whence, 150 and r; attempt to writes against Radbert's doctrine of the
propagate their doctrine in other coun Eucharist, 49; opposes Godeschalcus
tries, and success, 151 ; their settlement in his notions of Predestination and
in America, and how, ibid. intestine Grace, 52; the rise of the quarrel be-
disputes and contests among them, 152; tween them, 55 and r.
concerning the reality of the history of Rabelais, a supposed infidel in xvi cent.
Christ's life and sufferings, and which iii. 119.
denied by them, 152, 153 and y, z; Racow, catechism of, iii. 377 and q; à
their religion considered in a general collection of popular tenets, and not a
point of view, ibid. and digested into rule of faith, ibid. a seminary erected
the form of a regular system, and by there, 378; students of, vent their rage
whom, 154 ; authors to be consulted against a Crucifix, whence the downfal
concerning them, and the account of of the Socinians in Poland, iv. 170.
Barclay's works, particularly his cate- Radbert, Pascasius, an account of him and
chism, ibid. b; their fundamental doc- his works, ii. 31 ; his notion of the local
trine, and the same with that of the an presence of Christ's body in the sacra-
cient Mystics, 155 and c; terets that ment, 49 and k; and this doctrine op-
arise from this fundamental principle, posed by Ratramn, 50; Scotus's pre-
156 ; their opinion of the future resur cision, with the fluctuating opinions of
rection, 157 and d; doctrine concern others, ibid. his dispute with Ratramn,
ing Christ, ibid. 158, religious disci concerning the manner of Christ's birth,
pline and worship, 158; reject baptism 56.
and the Eucharist, ibid. their moral Ramæans, a philosophical sect in xvi cent.
doctrine comprehended in two pre- iii. 220; oppose the Aristotelians iv. 16.
cepts, and what they are, 159; distin- Ramus, Peter, a philosopher in xvi cent.
guished from all other Christian sects, his character, iii. 123; his philosophy
and how, with their singular customs, preferred to Aristotle, iii. 309.
ibid. relax their former austerity, 160; Rance, Bouthelliers de, his conversion
form of ecclesiastical government, ibid. and great character, iii. 500 and b.
method of preaching changed, 161 Rasa, Procopius, the head of the Hussites,
and d.

his character, ii. 552.
Quakers, Refutation of sundry erroneous Rathier, Bishop of Verona, his works and

statements relative to some of their so- character, ii. 104.
ciety, their doctrine, discipline, &c. Rathman, Herman, controversy occasione
Also a Summary of their history, doc ed by his writings, and character, iv. 53;
trine, and discipline, iv. 284, &c.

bis doctrine misrepresented, 54; real
Quesnel, Pascasius, bis celebrated New doctrine reduced to four principal

Testament, with the condemnation of it points, and what these are, ibid. dies in
by Pope Clement XI. iii. 519 and b, c; the height of the controversy, which
patronises Jansenism, 526; disputes in then gradually decreases, ibid.
the Romish church on account of his Ratisbon, Diet, memorial for peace, and
New Testament, and bad consequence the result, iii. 82; new conference held
of its condemnation, iv. 192.

there, 84 ; the Protestants protest
Quietism, controversies occasioned by its against the Trent decrees, and are pro-
doctrine in xvii cent. iii. 541.

scribed, ibid.
Quietists, Hesychasts, their rise in the Raymond, de Sabunde, his natural theolo-

East in xiv cent. ii. 497 ; the same with g y, ii. 559.
the Mystics, ibid. employ their time

Earl of Thoulouse, is excom-
chiefly in contemplation, ibid. their no municated, and why, ii. 425; readmit-
tions of a celestial light within them, ted into the church, and opposes the

pretended Heretics, 426 ; his kingdom 56, opposes Lubieniecius's attempts to
given away by Innocent III. Pope, to establish Socinianism in Holstein, iv.
Simon earl of Montfort, ibid. contest be. 171.'
tween his son and Simon's son, 427; op-. Reineccius, a famous Lutheran Historian in
position of the former against the Pope, xvi cent. iii. 213.

fruitless, ibid. accounts of this war where Relics, excessive veneration for them in ix
- to be found, 428 q.

cent. ij. 37; by what arts collected, ibid.
Realists, why so called, ii. 15 b; Schoolmen and 38.

chiefly such in xiïi cent. ii. 406 ; their Religion, early method of teaching it in
defects, 407 ; their disputes with the the Christian church, i. 98; corrupted by
Nominalists in xiv cent. 450.

the principles of modern Platonism,
Reformation, its history in xvi cent. iii. 9, 214; its state in iv cent. 281 ; degene-

and a; its foundation laid in the revi rates into superstition, ibid. pious frauds,
val of letters, 11 ; how the people were whence, 283; method of explaining
in some measure prepared to receive it, Scripture on Origen's plan, 284 ; its
15; ardently desired, 23; how far at doctrines determined with more accu-

tempted, and its dawn rises unexpect racy in v cent. i. 356 ; consequences,
· edly, 24, 25 ; its rise and progress in 357 ; the increase of superstition in sup-
Sweden, 61, 62 ; its rise and progress plicating Saints and worshipping ima.
in Denmark, 63; distinction in that of ges, 358; efficacy attributed to the
Sweden and Denmark, 65 and w; the bones of martyrs, and to the figure of the
measures taken about doctrine and dis cross, ibid. the purification of departed
cipline commendable, but not so in re souls, and benefits hence arising to the
forming the clergy, 66; how far this Romish church, ibid. 359 and a; prac-
observation is just, ibid. w, ; its rise tical, how explained in vi. cent. and
and progress in France, 67 : and in methods used for advancing it, 422 ;
other European states, 69; its history remission of sins purchased by liberality
from the Augsburg confession till the war to monks and churches, 455; its de-
subsequent upon the Smalcald league, plorable state and superstitions in vii
70; from the Smalcald war till the cent. 457 ; this exemplified from St.
peace of religion at Augsburg, 81; a judg Eloi's life, ibid. and w; placed in puri-
ment of it, and the means used for pro fying fire and offerings, 458 and x; its
ducing it, 101 ; civilized many nations, decline in viii cent. 508 ; the ignorance
126.

and superstition of ix cent. and the
Reformation, its rise in England, iii. 79, 80, causes, ii. 32, 33; its state in x cent.
81, and p, q, r; the nature and effects of 105; a universal opinion of the final
this first dawn of the reformation here, dissolution of all things being at hand
81 ; gains ground here, 92 ; hoc, pro now prevailed, 107; whence this notion,
moted by Edward VI. and his character, ibid. w; the preparations thought ne-
ibid. 93.

cessary against this expected change,
-- takcs place in Scotland, iii. 108; made to consist in the observance
94 ; established by Knox, with his cha of external rites in xi cent. 195; its me-
racter, ibid. and g, 95 and h...

lancholy state in xii cent. ii. 284, 285 ;
its success in Ireland, iii. 96 ; attempts of many to reform abuses, why
Queen Mary's design to extinguish it, unsuccessful, 284 ; a general and de-
· how prevented, 96, 97 m.

plorable account of it in xüi cent, 401 ;
-- its progress in the United Pro two eminent sources of corruption intro-
vinces, iii. 97; conduct of the nobility duced, 402; its dignity degraded by the
and people at this time, considered and great variety of rites, 416; corrupted in
explained, 98 0; the religion of Swit xiv cent, and bence the number of sec-
zerland established here, and universal taries increased, 489; many defenders
toleration, with some distinction, ibid. engage to prevent its total decay in xv
and q.

cent. 551; reduced to mere external
-- in Italy, its progress, iii. 99. pomp and show, 563.

in Spain, its dawn soon pre- Religions, the variety in the Pagan world
vented from spreading, iii. 99; execu- produce no dissensions, and whence, i.
- tions from the inquisition upon the death 33.
of Charles V. 100.

Religious errors, their punishment by civil
Refugees, French, their character, iii. 263. penalties, and when introduced, i. 293.
Regale, a right enjoyed by the French Remi, Archbishop of Lyons, defends Go-
· Kings, and opposed by Innocent XI, in deschalus, and his doctrine, ii. 53.
xrii cent. ii:. 480 and notes.

Remigius, Bishop of Auxerre, his exposi,
Regino, Abbot of Prum, an account of, ii. tions, ii. 40; other works, 41.
32.

Remonstrants, Arminians so called, and
Reinboth, singularity of his opinions, iv. why, iv. 127,

55; severely censured by Danhaver, Reservation, ecclesiastical, stipulated by
VOL. IV.

Queen waren, 96, 97 m..m United Pro-

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Charles V. for the Roman catholics in Rivius, a moral writer, iii. 221.
xvi cent. iii. 215 and k.

Robert, King of France, his ardent Zeal for
Restitution edict, issued out in Germany in cultivating letters and success, in xi cent.

xvii cent. iii. 458; how put in execution, ii. 137.
ibid. and v.

- Abbot of Moleme, founder of the
Reuchlinus, John Capnion, restores learn Cistercian monks in xi cent. ii. 186.
· ing among the Germans in xv cent. ii. of Arbriselles, founder of the Fon-
513.

tevraud order of monks in xii cent. ii.
Rheims, William of, his works adapted to 276 ; his singular discipline and rules,

excite pious sentiments, and to promote how defended, 277; accused of crimi-
practical religion, i. 283.

nal conversation with his female disci-
Rhinsberg, solemn assembly of the Colle ples, ibid. and p; some Nuns of this or-

giants holden every year, and for what der brought into England, ibid. sub. fin.
end, iv. 174, 175.

not. p.
Rhinsbergers. See Collegiants.

de Sorbonne founder of a college
Rhodes, Alexander of, his mission to Siam, for the study of divinity in xii. cent. ii.

&c. iii. 392 ; success, and the Pope's re- 339 and f.

gulations thwarted by the Jesuits, with Robinson, John, founder of the Independ-
· the latter's injurious treatment of the ents in xvii cent. iv. 100; his writings,
Papal missionaries, 393 and 0.

ibid. sub. not. p; endeavours to reform
Rhodius, Nilus, a warm advocate for the the Brownists, and success, 102.
Greeks in xvi cent. ii. 488.

Rochelle, city of, granted to the Reformed
Ricci, Matthew, a zealous missionary in in France, iv. 66; taken from them by

xvi cent. iii. 118; obtains a grant from Lewis XIII. and terrible consequences
the Emperor to propagate the Gospel in of it to the Reformed, 67.
China, ibid. and h, i ; founder of the Rochester, Earl of, his character, conver-
Christian church in China, declares for sion, and death, iii. 420, 421 and c, d.
the innocence of Chinese rites, and how Roderic, Christopher, a famous Jesuit, and
explained, iii. 400 ; this opinion rejected missionary in Egypt, but unsuccessful
by some missionaries, ibid. and v; pro- in xvi cent. iii. 132. -
gress of this dispute in favour of the Roell, Herman Alexander, controversy
Jesuits, yet turns against them, 401; set on foot by him about the use of rea-
bustle on both sides, at the Pope's ap- son in Religion, and account of, iv. 120;
pointing a congregation to examine it, his sentiments concerning the genera-
ibid. and w, x; this dispute reducible to tion of the Son of God, ibid. notions
two great points, and the first of these, about divine decrees, &c. greatly differ-
402 ; the question on it stated, ibid. an ent from the Dutch church, 121 and t;
swered by the Jesuits in the affirmative, con emned with his disciples as here-
ibid. by their adversaries in the nega tics and their ill treatment after his
tive, and why neither side satisfactory, death, with observations on'this remark,
403 ; second point, and the question ibid. and tt. .
thereon, 404 ; Jesuits conclusion from Roger, Count of Sicily, expels the Sara-
it, ibid. whether justifiable, ibid. and y; cens out of Sicily, in si cent. ii. 121 ; ob-
what their adversaries maintain, with an tains from Pope Urban II. a grant of su-
account of the honours paid to Confu preme authority in matters of Religion,
cius, 405 and z.

which is still vested in the kings of Sici-
Richer, Edmund, opposes the Pontifical au ly, 122 ; his successors called Dukes till

thority over the Gallican church in xvi xii cent. when Sicily became a kingdom,
cent. iii. 161'; his character as a com ibid.
mentator, ibid. .

Rohas, Christopher de, Bishop of Tinia,
Richelieu, Cardinal, his attempts to reclaim his pacificatory attempts in xvii cent. ii.

the Protestants, iii. 469; followed by 470.
, others of less note, ibid. despotic maxim Rollo, first duke of Normandy, his conver-
of, ibid. and r.

sion in x cent. ii. 74; his motives, ibid.
Rickel, Dionysius ,a mystic in xv cent. ii. the influence of his example on the army,

549.
Rigourists, Jansenists so denominated, and Romanis, Humbert de, his attempts to re-
why, iii. 535.

form the monks in siji. cent. ii. 401 ;
Rimini, Gregory de, a scholastic divine in his Spiritual Institutes, 411.
xiv cent. ij. 488.

Roman empire, its extent advantageous to
Rites. See Ceremonies.

Christianity, i. 30; subject to four præ-
Rivet, assists Voet in his controversy with torian prefects in iv cent. 270; its state
Des Cartes, iv. 115.

in v cent. i. 331.
Rivier, propagates the philosophy of Para- tribunals, ecclesiastical causes how

celsus at Paris in xvi cent. iii, 221. determined by them, i. 362; the pernicious

75.

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