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inflammatory disorders, occasioned by sudden and violent colds, are confiderably common, and frequently fatal. Consumptions, epilepfies, cancers, palfies and appolexies, are not so incident to the inhabitants of the fouthern as northern climates.
The winters in Georgia are very mild and pleasant. Snow is feldom or never feen. Vegetation is not frequently prevented by severe froits. Cattle subsiít tolerably well through the winter, without any other food than what they obtain in the woods and savannahs *, and are fatter in that season than in any other. In the hilly country, which begins about 80 or 100 miles from the sea, the air is pure and falubrious, and the water plenty and good. In the flat country there is here and there a spring only, which is clear and pretty good. Neither is the air so pure here as in the hilly country, being more confined, and less subject to agitations from the winds, and withal impregnated with putrid vapours from the rice swamps.
In the south-east parts of this state, which lie within a few degrees of the torrid zone, the atmosphere is kept in motion by impressions from the trade winds. This ferves to purify the air, and render it fit for refpiration; so that it is found to have a very advantageous effect on perfons of consumptive habits.
Face of the Country.] The eastern part of the state, between the mountains and the ocean, and the rivers Savannah and St. Mary's, a tract of country more than 120 miles from north to south, and 40 or 50 east and west, is entirely level, without a hill or a stone. At the distance of about 40 or 50 miles from the sea-board, or falt-marsh, the lands begin to be more or less uneven. The ridges gradually rise one above another into hills, and the hills successively increasing in height, till they finally terminate in mountains. That vait chain of mountains which commences with Katts Kill, near Hudson's river, in the state of New-York, known by the names of the Allegany and Apalachian mountains, terminate in this state, about 60 miles south of its northern boundary,-From the foot of this mountain spreads a wide extended plain, of the richest soil, and in a latitude and climate favourably adapted to the cultivation of most of the EastIndia productions.
Soil and Productions.] The soil and its fertility are various, according to situation and different improvement. The islands on the sea-board, in their natural state, are covered with a plentiful growth of pine, oak, and hiccory, live oak, and some red cedar. The soil is a mixture of sand and black mould, making what is commonly called a grey soil
. A confiderable part of it, particularly that whereon grow the oak, hiccory and live oak, is very fertile, and yields on cultivation good crops of indigo, cotton, corn and potatoes. These islands are surrounded by navigable creeks, between which and the main land is a large extent of salt marsh, fronting the whole ftate, not less, on an average, than four or five miles in breadth, interfected with creeks in various directions, admitting, through the whole, an inland navigation between the islands and main-land, from the northeaitward to the fouth-eastward corners of the state. The soil of the mainland, adjoining the marshes and creeks, is nearly of the same quality with
* A savannah is a tra&t of ground covered with grass, but without any trees or shrubs. They are often to be found in pine lands on the southern states.
that of the islands ; except that which borders on those rivers and creeks which stretch far back into the country. On these, immediately after you leave the salts, begin the valuable rice swamps, which on cultivation, afford the present principal staple of commerce. The most of the rice lands lie on rivers, which, as far as the tide flows, are called Tide-lands, or on creeks and particular branches of water, flowing in some deeper and lower parts of the lands, which are called inland-swamps, and extend back in the country from 15 to 25 miles, beyond which very little rice is planted, though it will grow exceedingly well, as experiment has proved, 120 miles back from the sea. The intermediate lands, between these creeks and rivers, are of an inferior quality, being of a grey soil, covered chiefly with pine, and a sort of wild grals and small reeds, which afford a large range of feeding ground for stock both summer and winter. Here and there, are interspersed oak and hiccory ridges, which are of a better foil, and produce good crops of corn and indigo, but these are very little elevated above the circumjacent lands.. The lands adjoining the rivers are nearly level, and, for a hundred miles in a direct line from the sea, continue a breadth from 2 to 3 or 4 miles, and wherever, in that distance, you find a piece of high land that extends to the bank of the river on one fide, you may expect to find the low or swamp ground proportionably wide on the opposite side of the river. This seems to be an invariable rule till you come to that part where the river cuts the mountains.
The soil between the rivers, after you leave the sea board and the edge of the fwamps, at the distance of 20 or 30 miles, changes from a grey to a red colour, on which grow plenty of oak and hiccory, with a considerable intermixture of pine. In some places it is gravelly, but fertile, and so continues for a number of miles, gradually deepening the redish colour of the earth, till it changes into what is called the Mulatto foil, consisting of a black mould and red earth. The composition is darker or lighter according as there is a larger or smaller portion of the black or red earth in it. The mulatto lands are generally strong, and yield large crops of wheat, tobacco, corn, &c. To this kind of land succeeds by turns a foil nearly black and very rich, on which grow large quantities of black walnut, mulberry &c. This succession of different soils continues uniform and regular, though there are some large veins of all the different foils intermixed, and what is more remarkable, this succeflion, in the order mentioned, stretches across this state nearly parallel with the sea coast, and extends through the several states, nearly in the fame direction, to the banks of Hudson's river. In this state are produced by culture, rice, indigo, cotton, filk, (though not in large quantities) India corn, potatoes, oranges, figs, pomegranates, &c. Rice, at present, is the staple commodity; and as a small proportion oniy of the rice ground is under cultivation, the quantity raised in future must be much greater than at present. But the rapid increase of the inhabitants, chiefly by emigrations, whose attention is turned to the raising of tobacco, and the vait extent of land, with a richness of soil suited to the culture of that plant, renders it probable, that tobacco will fortly become the staple of this state.
The tobacco lands are equally well adapted to wheat, which may hereafter make an important article commerce.
On the dry plains, grow large crops of sweet potatoes, which are found to afford a wholesome nourishment, and from which is made, by distillation, a kind of whisky, tolerably good, but inferior to that made from rye. It is by properly macerating and washing this root, that a sediment or ítarch is made, which has obtained the name of Sago, and answers all the purposes of thie India fago. Most of the tropical fruits would flourish in this state with
proper attention. The rice plant has been, and the tea plant, of which such immense quantities are consumed in the United States, may undoubtedly be, tranfplanted with equal advantage. The latitude, the soil, and the temperature of climate, all invite to make the experiment. From
many considerations, we may perhaps venture to predict, that the south-western part of this state, and the parts of East and West Florida, which lie adjoining, will, in a few years, become the vineyard of America.
Remarkable Springs.] In the county of Wilkes, within a mile and an half of the town of Washington, is a medicinal spring, which rises from a hollow tree, four or five feet in length. The inside of the tree is covered with a coat of nitre, an inch thick, and the leaves around the spring are incrusted with a substance as white as snow.-It is said to be a sovereign remedy for the scarvy, scrofulous disorders, consumptions, gouts, and every other disease arising from humours in the blood.-A person, who had a fevere rheumatism in his right arm, having, in the space of ten minutes, drank two quarts of the water, experienced a momentary chill, and was then thrown into a perspiration, which, in a few hours, left him entirely free from pain, and in perfect health.
This spring, situated in a fine, healthy part of the state, in the neighbourhood of Washington, where are excellent accommodations, will no doubt prove a pleasant and falutary place of resort for invalids from the maritime and unhealthy parts of this and the neighbouring states.
Curiosities.] About 90 miles from the fea, as you advance towards the mountains, is a very remarkable bank of oyster shells, of an uncommon fize. They run in a direction nearly parallel with the sea coast, in three distinct ridges near each other, which together occupy a space of seven miles in breath. The ridges commence at Savannah river, and have been traced to the northern branches of the Alatamala. This remarkable phenomenon has already been accounted for (page 49.) But by whatever means these shells were placed there, they are an inexhaustible source of wealth and convenience to the neighbouring inhabitants, as from them they make their lime for building, and for the making of indigo, in which it is indispenfibly necessary.
Commerce, manufactures and agriculture.] The chief articles of export from this state are rice, tobacco, indigo, fago, lumber of various kinds, naval stores, leather, deer skins, snake root, myrtle, bees wax, corn, live ftock, &c. The value of the exports from this state in 1772, was £.121,677 sterling. The number of vesiels employed this year, was 217, whose tonnage was 11,246, as will be seen in the following statement.
Exports of Georgia, of the year 1755, 1760, 1765, 1770, and 1772.
1755. 1760. 1765. 1770. 1772. Barrels of rice, 7,3991 3,283 12,224 22,1291 23,540 Pounds of indigo, 4,508! 11,746 16,019! 22,336
11,882 Lbs deer-skins,
65,765) 200,695 284,8401 213,475 Lbs beaver-skins,
2,298 1,800 1,469 632 Lbs. raw silk,
438 558 711 2901 485 Lbs. tanned leather, 3,250 34,725 34,575 44,5391
52,126 M: feet of timber,
2,163 Lbs. of tobacco,
13,447) 176,732 M. ftaves,
3,525 Oars and handspikes,
364 45 425
105 298 8 394 5211
628 Barrels of beef, 40 141 141
6391 555 Hogs and shoats,
605 574. 600
7,805 13,598 11,444 Lbs of flour,
1,000 Bushels rough rice,
7,0641 2,627 400
601! 140 Lbs. fago-powder,
18,4051 14,435 Gals: orange-juice,
605 284 Lbs. of tallow,
1,079 Lbs.of bees and
209 3451 257
Lbs. of hemp,
Bushels of corn,
Bushels of peas,
Value in fterling money, of the exports of Georgia, for eighteen years.
86,480 1758, 8,613 1764, 55,025 1770,
99,383 1759. 12,694 1765, 73,426 1771, 106,387 1760, 20,852 ( 1766,
Statement of the number of vessels cleared out of Georgia, from 1755, to 1772
It is impossible to tell, with accuracy, what has been the amount of exports in one year since the peace, owing to the confusion into which 'affairs of this kind were thrown into by the late war. In return for the numerated exports are imported, West-India goods, teas, wines, vari. ous articles of clothing, and dry goods of all kinds. From the northern states, cheese, fish, potatoes, apples, cyder and shoes. The imports and exports of this state are to and from Savannah, which has a fine harbour, and is a place where the principal commercial business of the ftate is transacted. The manufactures of this state have hitherto been very inconsiderable, if we except indigo, filk, and fago. In 1765, 1084 lbs. of raw silk were exported. So large a quantity, however, has not been exported in any one year before or since. The culture of filk and the manufacture of fago, are at present but little attended to. The people in the lower part of this state manufacture none of their own clothing for themfelves or their negroes. Foralmoft every
article of their wearing apparel, as well as for their husbandry tools, they depend on their merchants, who import them from Great-Britain and the northern states.
upper part of the country, however, the inhabitants manufacture the chief part of their clothing from cotton and from flax.
Military strength.] In Georgia there are supposed to be about 8000 fighting men, between fixteen and fifty years of age. Of these 2,340 are in Wilke's county, 600 in Chatham, and 424 in Liberty county.
Population, Chara&er, Manners, &c.] No actual cenfus of the inhabitants of this state has been taken since the war. Population, since the peace of 1783, has increased with a surprising rapidity. It is conjectured that emigrations from Europe, the northern states, but principally from the back parts of Virginia, and the North and South Carolinas, have more than tripled the number of inhabitants in the last six years. From the most probable calculations there are, exclusive of Indians, upwards of 40,000 inhabitants in Georgia, of whom one third part at least are slaves.
In the grand convention at Philadelphia, in 1787, the inhabitants of this state were reckoned at 90,000, including three-fifths of 20,000 negroes. But from the number of militia, which has been ascertained with a considerable degree of accuracy, there cannot be at most, more than half that number.
No general character will apply to the inhabitants at large. Collected from different parts of the world, as interest, necessity or inclination led them, their character and manners must of course partake of all the varieties, which distinguish the several states and kingdoms from whence they came. There is so little uniformity, that it is difficult to trace any governing principles among them. An aversion to labour is too predominant, owing in part to the relaxing heat of the climate, and partly to the want of necessity to excite industry. An open and friendly hospitality, particularly to ftrangers, is an ornamental characteristic of a great partof this people.