« הקודםהמשך »
heavenly bodies, and this accounted philosophy, ibid. get footing in England
for, 34 and m; the rites and sacrifices and France, and other countries, with
they paid to these deities various, ibid. their motives, 222 and X.
had stated times and places for this Paracelsus, Theophrastus, a supposed In-
worship, 35; their mysteries infamous, fidel, iii. 119; his character as a phi-
ibid. religion did not inspire its votaries losopher, 123; founds the philosophical
with the love of virtue, ibid. why re sect of Theosophists, 124 ; makes great
jected, 36; promoted universal corrup improvements in chymistry, 123 q.
tion, ibid. and.x; the two arguments Paris, council assembled at, by Lewis the
used by their crafty priests in defence Meek, rejects Pope Adrian's letter in
of their religion, 37.
favour of image worship, i. 524.
Pajon, Claude, attempts to modify the doc frequented in xii cent. for its emi.
trine of the Reformed Church, iv. 86; nent divines, ii. 390; various sects of
this assertion corrected, ibid. u; his divines here, ibid. the first European
sentiments misrepresented by his ad University founded at in xiii cent. and
versaries, 87, 88 and y; his own decla whence this name, ii. 338 ; severe disci-
ration, 89 and z; tenets condemned as pline in it, 339 ; academy of sciences
flourishes in xvii cent. iii. 482.
Palæologus, Jacob, maintains Budnæus's Paris, Matthew, an eminent historian in
doctrine, and is burned at Rome, iii. xüi cent. ii. 340.
William of, a metaphysical divine
Palamas, Gregory, Archbishop of Thessa in xiii cent. ii. 400.
lonica, supports the doctrine of the John of, his great character, ii. 401
Quietists in xiv cent. ii. 498; and pre and n.
vails in several councils at Constantino Abbe de, pretended miracles wrought
ple, ibid. and 499; his notions concern at his tomb, iji. 527, 528 n.
ing the divine operation, ibid.
Parthenius, patriach of Constantinople in
Palatinate, decline of the Protestants in xvii cent. iii. 554; opposes the preten-
xvii cent. iv. 70 and t.
sions of Rome, which desists from fur-
Palestine, its two religions the Jewish ther attempts, ibid.
and Samaritan, much corrupted among Paruta, his errors, iii. 359 and i; a mem-
the people at our Saviour's coming in ber of the secret assemblies at Venice
to the world, i. 45 ; division into various and Vicenza, 360.
sects among the learned, ibid. the de- Pasaginians, circumcised, name of a sect in
cline of the Christians here in xii cent. xii cent. ii. 319; their great aversiop to
the church of Rome, ibid. two distin-
Palladius, writes the Lausiac history, and guishing tenets, ibid.
whence this name, i. 278 and e; his Pascal II. Pope, renews the disputes con-
mission among the Scots (Irish) not at cerning investitures, ii. 257; imprison-
tended with desired success in v cent. i. ed by the Emperor, 259 ; resigns the
336 and q; his works and character, Ring and Crosier, ibid. breaks the con-
vention with the Emperor, and excom-
Pandulph, Legate of Pope Innocent III. municates him, ibid. is condemned by
his artful and insolent behaviour to John a council at Rome, ibid. b; and dies,
of England, ii. 354.
Panormitanus, Antonius, revives Latin illustrates the doctrine of Des Car-
poety in xv cent. ii. 513.
tes, iii. 507; account of his Provincial
Pantænus, is said to convert the Indians Letters, 515, w; a patron of the Jan-
in ii cent. and the fact examined, i. 124; senists, 526.
his version of the Scriptures lost, 152. Passau pacific treaty with the Protestants,
Pantheists, account of this impious sect, iii. 91; some of its principal articles,
iii. 428, and u; most eminent members ibid. d.
among them, 429 and w, x, y.
Paterinus, a common name given to all
Papal power saved from ruin by the force Heretics in xi cent. ii. 167 ; origin of it,
of the secular arm and imperial edicts ibid. t.
in xvi cent. iij. 74.
Paterius's exposition of the Old and New
Papin, Isaac, propagates the doctrine of Testament, a compilation only from
Pajon, and reduces it to two proposi Gregory the Great, i. 459 and y.
tions iv. 897 refuted by Jurieu, and Patriarchs, the nature of their office ex-
condemned and excommunicated, 90; plained, i. 147; their creation, whence,
turns Roman Catholic, ibid.
270;, Bishop of Rome their prince,
Paracelsistic fire, philosophy, its state in 272; their number increased in v cent.
xvii cent. iii. 436.
ii. 348; their privileges considered,
Paracelsists, eminent in xvi cent. iii. 221 : ibid. not universally acknowledged,
aim at the subversion of the Peripatetic ibid. inconveniences arising from the
patriarchal government, 349; contests ticular tenets, 223; and wby adopted by
with each other, and melancholy ef-
Paulinus, of Aquileia, his character and
Patrick, converts the Irish in v cent. ii. works, i. 507.
336; founds the Archbishopric of Ar-
Bishop of Nola, his works, i.
magh, ibid. called the Apostle of the 280.
Irish, from the success of his ministry, Peasants, their horrid war in xvi cent. and
the occasion, jii. 50, 51, and b; their
Patronage, the right of, its origin, i. 302. claims made religious by Munzer, with
Patropassians, who, and why so called, i. their different demands, ibid. their out-
rages not chargeable on Luther's doc-
Paul, called to be an Apostle by Christ trine, 52 ; defeated at Mulhausen, and
himself, i. 61 ; his extraordinary charac their ringleader Munzer put to death,
- the first hermit, i. 216 ; if properly Peckham, John de, a metaphysical divine
styled the founder of the Mystics, ibid. in xiji cent. ii. 400.
of Samosata, founder of a sect of Pelagianism, its rise in v cent. i. 391.
heretics, i. 239 ; his errors about the Pelagians, their tenets, i. 392 and a; sup-
pressed by Augustin's writings, ibid.
the Deacon, his fame and works in
progress of their opinions in the East,
vüli cent. i. 507.
ibid. condemned in Gaul, England, and
II. Pope, his mixed character, ii. Africa, 393.
540 and p.
Pelagius, account of him, i. 391 ; his cha-
Paul III. Pope, proposes to call a general racter unfairly represented by Jerome,
council at Mantua, iii. 77 ; the place ibid. z; and impartially stated by Au-
objected against, and why, 78 and i, m; gustin, ibid. appeals to the court of
his proposals for a reformation more Rome, 393 and d; condemned there by
specious than real, 83 and w; dispute Zosimus, ibid.
about his character, 142 e.
Pellican, a writer in svi cent. iii. 319.
IV. Caraffa, Pope, his character and Penance, which had been long neglected,
arrogance, iii, 143 and e; founder of is restored in vii cent. by Theodore of
the Theatins, 149.
Tarsus, i. 461 and c.
V. Borghese, Pope, his character, Penitents, first allowed private confession
iii. 449; contest with the Venetians, by Leo the Great, i. 371.
450 ; the occasion and important pieces Penn, William, procures a toleration for
on both sides, ibid. b.
the Quakers under James II. and ac-
Vincent de, founder of the priests count of, iv. 150 and r; settles the
of the missions in xvii cent. iii. 502; is Quakers in Pennsylvania, which was
granted him by Charles II. and so na-
Paulicians, controversy. of the Greeks med from him, 151 ; his character, ibid.
with them in vii cent. i. 464; a sect in and t; flourishing state of Pennsylva-
ix cent. ii. 66 ; persecuted by the Greek nia, ibid. endeavours to digest Quakere
Emperors, and consequences, 56; their ism into a regular form, 154; his wri
deplorable state under the Empress tings, ibid. sub. not. b.
Theodora, ibid. meet with protection Pennafort, Raymond de, his decretals, and
from the Saracens, and under the com the fame acquired by them in xiïi cent.
mand of Carbeas carry on a bloody war ii. 346 ; his polemic works against the
against the Greeks, ibid. 68 and p; Jews and Saracens, 412; is sainted in
their doctrine propagated with success xvii cent. iij. 549.
among the Bulgarians, ibid. and q; Pennsylvania, province of America, Qua-
whether Manichæans or not, consider kers established there, and whence its
ed, ibid. their opinions in six articles, name, iv. 151.
69, 70, 71, and 2, y, z; miserable state People, their right of choosing their rulers
under the Greeks in xi cent. 219; take and teachers in the primitive church, i.
refuge in Europe, 220; their reforma 87 ; seem to have purchased this right
tion attempted, and warmly pursued by by their oblations, ibid.
the Emperor Alexius, ibid. where first Pepin usurps the crown of France in viii
settled, ibid. and 0; different names, cent. i. 495 ; is supported by Pope Z&-
221 and P, 9,7; their first assembly at chary, 496 and q; anointed and crown-
Orleans, with their abettors, 222; hav ed by Stephen, ibid. and r; his donation
ing rejected lenient methods used for to the see of Rome, 497.
their conviction, are condemned to be Peraldus, William, his works, and the
burned alive, ibid. their principles seem fame he acquired, ü. 401 and m.
to be mystic, ibid. and u; another Perezius, attacks and refutes the Jews in
branch converted by Gerhard, and par xv cent. ij. 559.
Peripatetics, flourish in xvü cent. iii. 436; Peyrere, Isaac la, his strange doctrine, iii.
meet with formidable adversaries in 546 ; is cast into prison, renounces his
Des Cartes and Gassendi, ir. 17.
errors public!;;, and turns Papist, 547.
Perkins, William, his treatises on morality Pezelius, his catechism favourable to the
and character, iii. 312 and 0.
sentiments of Calvin, iii. 252.
Perrault, account of his book on the mo- Pfaff, Matthew, zealous in projecting a
rality of the Jesuits, iii. 515, sub. not. w. union between the Lutherans and Re-
Perieres, Bonaventure des, a supposed in formed in xvii cent. and good charac-
fidel in xvi cent. iii. 119.
ter, iv. 205 and t; opposed by the Lu-
Persia, three persecutions there by Sapor therans, ibid.
II. against the Christians, i. 265. Pharisees, their tenets, i. 46; moral doc.
Peter, Bishop of Ravenna, whence called trines, 49; bad influence, ibid.
Chrysologus, i. 356 and 'i.
Philadelphia, whence so called, iv. 151.
Fullo, Fuller, rejects an opinion of Philadelphian society, founded in xvíi
Eutyches, which he modifies, and ex cent. and by whom, iv. 181 ; opinions,
cites troubles in the church i. 387; and chief members, ibid.
founder of the sect called Theopas- Philip, father and son, Emperors, favour
chites, ibid. and I.
Christianity, i. 192 ; whether Christians
his superstitious zeal for a war to the themselves, 193 and d.
Holy Land, ii. 122 ; forged letters from the Solitary, an eminent moral
Heaven, to animate Christians in the writer in xvii cent. 297.
cause, 123; assembles a council at Pla the Fair, king of France, his con-
centia, and recommends the expedition test with Boniface VIII. ii. 453 ; vigo-
against the Saracens of Palestine, ibid. rously opposes papal power, ibid. charges
leads a principal division of the army, the Pope with enormous vices, 454 ;
and is defeated, 124, 125.
sends William de Nogaret to seize
's Pence, wbat, and why so called. ii. the Pope's person, ibid. insists on
the formal condemnation of Boniface,
- of Celle, attacks the Scholastics in and procures the removal of the papal
xii cent. ii. 294.
residence from Rome to Avignon, 455.
the Chanter, opposes the Schoolmen, of Hesse, unjustly detained prison-
ii. 294 and o.
er by the Emperor Charles V. iii. 85 ;
Peter de Vineis, an account of the book the perfidious behaviour of the latter on
said to be written by him, ii. 335.
this account, with the doubt concerning
I. Emperor of Russia, introduces a it, ibid. and y.
change into the Russian church, iii. Philip, Theodore, the chief of those who
558; a patron of the Arts and Sciences, excited commotions in xvi cent. con-
ibid. abolishes the penal laws against cerning excommunication, iii. 335.
religious differences, and declares him- Philippicus, Bardanes, Emperor of the
self supreme head of the church, 559; Greeks, espouses the cause of the Mo-
establishes a synod at Petersburg, ibid. nothelites, i. 516 ; orders a picture, re-
Petersen, John William, his inventions and presenting the council that condemned
reveries in xvii cent. iv. 50; strange doc this sect, to be removed out of the
trine, and success, 51 and s.
church of St. Sophia, ibid. commands
Petit, his doctrine concerning the lawful that no images of this nature be placed
ness of putting a tyránt to death, ii. 530; in the Latin churches, ibid. his edict
and condemned as a detestable heresy rejected by Constantine the Roman
in the council of Constance, and by the pontiff, who excommunicates' the Em.
university of Paris, 531.
peror, ibid. is deprived of the empire,
Petrarch, zealous in reviving the study of ibid.
the learned languages in xiv cent. ii. 449. Philology, its lourishing state in xvi cent.
Petrobrussians, a sect in xii cent. ii. 311 ; iii. 120 ; its great importance, 121 and
doctrine held by them, ibid. and w. m: cultivated among the Lutherans in
Petrucci, Cardinal, a disciple of Molinos, xvii cent. iv. 26.
Philosophers, obscure the truth, i. 40; Ori-
Petrus, Comestor, his abridgment of the ental, their first principles, 78; divided
Scriptures, ii. 283.
in sentiments, 79; opinions concerning
Peucer, attempts to reform Lutheranism, the Deity, ibid. origin of the world, 80;
substituting Calvinism in its place, iii. the state and destination of human
251 ; his character, and sufferings, 250 souls, 81; some converted to Chris-
P; writings to promote his design, 251 tianity, and their conversion if advan-
1; convocations by Augustus at Dres tageous, considered, 129; their efforts
den, ibid. and at Torgaw, with the issue, in iv cent. against Christianity, 260 ;
252 and x; imprisoned, but is after prejudices thereby received, ibid. whó
ward released, 253.
These are, 261 ; two great sects of them
in xvii cent. iii. 442 ; who adopt nei. ibid. the Pope's unjust demands reject-
ther metaphysical, nor mathematical ed by the Greeks, 61 ; hence disputes
arose, which ended in a total separation
Philosophical sin, the doctrine of, what, between the Greeks and Latins, ibid.
Phranza, George, his works, ii. 547.
Philosophy, two kinds prevailed at Christ's Pichon, the Jesuit, renews the dispute
birth, i. 39; the Eastern not much concerning the frequent receiving of the
known, 76; Oriental, properly so call Eucharist, iii. 172; is censured by the
ed, what, 77; the success of the Plato French Bisbops for it, ibid.
nic due to Plotinus in iii cent. 204 ; Pictet, a French writer, in xvii cent. iv.
Platonic, most prevalent in iv cent. 76; his moral writings, ibid.
266 ; promoted by Julian, 267 ; its pro- Pietism, controversy concerning its rise in
gress prevented by the incursions of xvii cent. iv. 38 ; by whom begun, 38,
the Goths, 344, 345; Aristotelian, re 39; Spener's private meetings, and his
vived in v cent. 345; but decried in vi noble design in them, 38; his book of
cent. 407; its deplorable state in vii Pious Desire, for promoting vital reli-
cent. 451 ; Aristotelian flourishes in viji gion, with abuses thereon, ibid. com-
cent. 486; revived in ix cent. chiefly plaints against it, ibid. and commotions
by the encouragement of Bardas, ii. 11; at Leipsic, ibid. biblical colleges found-
confined within the circle of the Dia ed, by whom, and for what end, the
lectics in xi cent. 140 and m; encou name of Pietist to whom applied, 40,
raged among the Greeks in xii cent. ii. progress of these debates, ibid. extra-
247 and a; three different methods of vagant fanaticism, and consequence,
teaching it in this cent. 253; Astrology 41, 42 and m; debates carried on with
mixed with it in xiv cent. and consider Spener and the divines of Halle, 42,
ed as magic, with the event, 451, 452; subject of these debates, 43; first, a
Platonic in high esteem in xv cent. 514; thorough reformation of the divinity
Aristotelian, dangerous to Revealed re schools proposed, ibid. disputes that
ligion, 516; its state in xvi cent. iii. hence arose, 44; the second great ob-
121 ; in xvii cent. iv. 16.
ject of debate, whence arose endless
Philostratus's comparison of Christ with controversies, ibid. and 45 ; these Pie-
Apollonius Tyanneus, i. 201; its perni tists proceed still further in two points,
cious con sequences, 202.
with the objections to them, ibid. and
Philotheus, his works, ii. 483.
46; the third principal object which
Philoxenus, Bishop of Alexandria, rejects they insisted on, ibid. various charac-
Eutyches's opinion, and modifies it, i. ters of these reformers, who endea-
voured to promote piety at the expense
the Syrian, his translations of of truth, 47.
part of the Scriptures into the Syriac Pietists, their order founded in xvii cent.
language, i. 420.
Phocas, made emperor by unjust means in reformed, account of, iv. 40; laws
vii cent. i. 452 ; engages to give the enacted against them, 42; their state in
Pope the title of Universal Bishop, ibid. xviii cent. iv. 201, 202,
Photinus, Bishop of Sirmium, author of Pilatus, Leontius, his zeal in reviving the
a heretical sect, in iv cent. i. 325; his study of the Greek language in xiv
erroneous notions concerning the Tri cent. ii. 448.
nity, ibid. is degraded, and dies in ex- Pin, Dr. Ellis du, exposes the injustice of
the papal claims, iii. 486 ; account of
Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, his the correspondence carried on between
learning, ii. 10; explains Aristotle, 11; him and Archbishop Wake, relative to
his works and character, 29; exposition a project of union between the Eng-
of Scripture, not to be recommend lish and Gallican churches, iv. 230,
ed as a model to other commenta 231. See Wake.
tors, 38 and o, p; first controversy be. Pisa, the famous council assembled at in
tween the Greeks and Latins on this Xv cent. to terminate the divisions in
account, 57; mutual excommunica the papal empire, ii. 519; is unsuccess-
tions, ibid. the second contest, in
which he is degraded, 58; engages the Pisanus, Raynerius, his summary of Theo-
Bishops to espouse his cause, as a pub logy, ii. 439.
lic cause of the church, 59; brings are Piscator, John, bis doctrine concerning the
ticles of heresy against the Latins, ibid. obedience of Christ, iv. 81; is adopted
60 and v; which are answered, ibid. by the Romish church, and the Reform-
is restored to his See by Basilius the ed in France, 82 üi, k.
Macedonian, and with the consent of Pisides, Gregory, his works, i. 456.
the Pope, ibid. neglecting to fulfil the Pistorius writes against the treaty of Pas-
conditions made with the Pope, is ex-
san, iii. 215.
communicated, and again degraded, Pius 11. Pope, his character, ii. 538; ob
tains the abrogation of the Pragmatic mark thereon, iv. 180 ; his works, ib. h.
Sanction, 539 and n; his impudent re- Poland, commotions excited there by
traction of former opinions, 540 ; en Stancarus, üi. 249 and m; progress of
joins silence on the worship of Christ's the Reformation here in xvi cent. 296 ;
Servetus's doctrine introduced there by
Pius IV. Pope, an account of, iii. 143. Gonesius, 359.
V. eminent for his austerity, and Poles, their conversion in x cent. and the
sainted, iii. 143 g.
methods used, ii. 75.
Place, M. de la, his opinions concerning Politian, a supposed infidel in xvi cent. iii.
original sin, and contests occasioned 119.
by it in xvii cent. iv. 85; condemned Polliac, John de, opposes the Mendicants
by the Synod of Charenton, yet are re-
in xvi cent. ii. 467 ; his opinions con-
ceived by many, ibid. churches of demned by Pope John XXII. ib. and e.
Switzerland alarmed at the progress of Polycarp, bis epistle to the Philippians
bis opinions, with their proceedings disputed, i. 96 and d; suffers martyr-
against him, 125.
dom in ii cent. under Antoninus, 133 ;
Placette, La, his moral works, iv. 76. confers with Anicet about the time of
Planudes, Maximus, his character, ii. keeping Easter, 168.
Pomeranians, converted to Christianity in
Plato, his notions concerning the Deity, xii cent. by Otho, Bishop of Bamberg,
i. 41 ; the defects of his philosophy, ib. ii. 227, 228 ; receive Albert for their
an accusation against bim not strictly first Bishop, ibid.
true, ibid. h; his works translated into Pomerius, Julian, his confutation of the
Latin by Victorinus, i. 343 ; greatly ad Jews, and other works, i. 457 ; his vain
mired in v cent. 344 ; his Timæus attempts to reconcile the seeming con-
more commended than understood in tradictions in Scripture, 458.
x cent. ii. 90; his opinions by whom Pomponace, Peter, an eminent sophist in
adopted in xii cent. 247 ; philosophy
XV cent. ii. 516, his opinions not very
revived in xv cent. 514.
different from the notions of the Pan-
Platonics, their tenets, i. 41 ; defects, ibid. theists, ibid.
schools more frequented than those of Pomponatus, a supposed infidel in xvi
the Stoics, 137 ; new, their rise in cent. iii. 119.
Egypt in ii cent. 138; why so called, Pongilup, Armannus, his fame and piety,
and their seeming candour, 138 ; ii. 391 ; reasons to believe him not the
whence styled Eclectics, ibid. their founder of the Fratricelli, ibid. p.
discipline approved by Christians, 139; Pontius, of Nola, his good character and
prefer Plato to all others, ibid. the works, i. 356 and s.
principles of their philosophy, as im- Popes, Roman Pontiffs, when first distin.
proved by Ammonius, 140 ; and its guished by a certain pre-eminence over
chief articles, 141; and moral disci other Bishops, i. 208; in what sense
pline, 142; flourish in iïi cent. 204 ; this superiority must be understood,
some converted to Christianity, 207; ibid. their power in iv. cent. .whence,
their state in iv cent. 266; principles 272; the double election and its melan-
adopted by expositors of Scripture, choly consequence, 273; the limits
281 ; their state in v cent. i. 344 ; op of their authority, ibid. steps laid for
pose Christianity by their writings, in their future despotism, 274; the fourth
vi cent. 401; their suppression, 408. council of Sardis is supposed to favour
Platonists, their attempts against Chris. it, ibid. their jurisdiction how increased
tianity in iii cent. i. 200; different sects in v cent. i. 350; supremacy not ac-
ainong them, 206.
knowledged by the Africans and others,
Pletho, Gemistius, promotes the Platonic 351; contest with the Bishop of Con-
philosophy in xv cent. ii. 514; and the ·stantinople for unlimited supremacy,
Greek language, 548.
410; are subject to the control of the
Plotinus, his doctrine universally propa Gothic princes, 411; obtain the title
gated in iii cent. i. 205 and k; opposes
of Universal Bishops from the tyrant
the Gnostics with the Christians, and Phocas in vii cent. 452 ; their views
of universal power opposed, and by
Plutarch, his character, i. 136; renews whom, and the consequences, 452, 453;
the celebrated academy at Athens in iii subject to the emperors, ibid. raised to
the dignity of temporal princes by the
Pockesius, heads the spiritual libertines in usurper Pepin, 497 and t; the nature of
x vcent. iii. 314.
their jurisdiction under Charlemagne,
Podoniptæ, Mennonites, so called, and 500, 501 and z, a; their dignity lessened
whence, iii. 345.
by the Grecian emperors, 502; and
Poiret, Peter, a follower and defender of made subordinate to them and the Latin
Bourignon, his mixed character, and re monarchs, 504, 505; and limited by the