« הקודםהמשך »
the iv cent. given up, but it is denied Lewis the Meek, ibid. guilty of Concu,
that miracles had then entirely ceased, binage and Simony in x cent. 101, 102,
264; on the Trinitarians, oppressed and e, f; their state in xi cent. and in-
by the Vandals in Africa, in v cent. crease of their immunities, and for
and the credible witnesses of them, i. what end, 182, 183; exempted by the
374 and h; dispute among the learned Popes from the authority of their sove-
about it, with a reflection thereon, 375, reigns, ibid. their ignorance and corrup-
376, syb. not. said to be performed in tion, ibid. great corruption gives rise
vi cent. invalidated by the lives of the to chivalry, 183 u; new orders, 187;
converts, 400 their number and reality enrich their convents by processions
in viii cent. examined, 483.
made of the saintly relics, ii. 286;
Misa, Jacobell, a disciple of Huss, ad their great increase in xiii. cent. 364 ;
ministers the sacraments in both kinds, some suppressed, 365 ; and what subz
and this practice deemed heretical, ii. sist, 366; the order called Brethren of
530, his opinion that infants should re the Holy Trinity: and if the same with
ceive the Eucharist, 554.
the Brethren of the Redemption of the
Missionaries, their success in barbarous Captivity, 367 and l; a reformation at-
nations, and particularly Jesuits, iii. tempted among them in xv cent. 542 ;
386 ; account of their hardships not too corrupt state in xvi cent iii. 17; their
readily to be believed, 392 ; Capuchins, aversion to learning, ibid. very service-
their success in Africa, 412.
able to the Pope, 137; much reformed,
Missions, priests of the, founded in xvii 146; new orders, 149.
cent. and by whom, iji. 502, 503. Monophysites, their tenets concerning the
account of, in xviii cent. iv. 484 ; nature of Christ, i. 390 ; called Seve-
Protestant, and more particularly the rians, whence, 434; encouraged by
the Emperor Anastasius, ibid. depress-
Mogislaus, Peter, Bishop of Kiow, draws ed by Justin and successsive empe-
up a summary of doctrine for the Greek rors, ibid. their sect restored by Jacob
church, which is publicly approved and Baradæus, ibid. whom they acknow-
adopted, iii. 184 and u, w.
ledge to be their second founder, 435 ;
Molina, Lewis, character of him and his divisions among them terminated, ibid.
writings iii. 177 and i, k, l.
called Jacobites, and flourish in the
Molinists, controversies with them con East in xvi cent. iii. 190 and h; divi-
cerning predestination and liberty, iii. sions into the African and Asiatic, ibid.
176, 177 ; accused of renewing the their religious doctrines and rites, 192;
errors of Pelagianism, 177.
differ from the Greek and Latin church-
Molinos, Michael de, excites new contro. es, in what, ibid. and o; their igno-
versies in the church, ii. 541 ; his book rance, ibid. in Asia, their state in xvij.
entitled the Spiritual Guide, ibid. and h; cent. iii. 560. and s.
principles, whence his followers called -- African and Abyssinian, resist ob-
Quietists, 542 ; opposed by the Jesuits stinately the Roman yoke, iii. 560 ;
and the French ambassador, ibid. and their state in xviii cent. ii. 196.
i; is obliged to recant and dies in pri- Monothelites, the rise of this sect in vii
son, 543 and l; most eminent of his cent. i. 466; Heraclius's compromise,
ibid. progress of their doctrine, 467;
Monarchy, Fifth Men, their rise and en opposed by Sophronius, monk of Pales-
thusiastic notions in xvii cent. iv. 106. tine, 468; condemned in the sixth ge-
Monkery, passes from tho East to the neral council, 469; a view of their doc-
West in iv cent. i. 291 ; where first es trine, 470 ; different opinions among
tablished, ibid. q.
them, ibid. their fate after the council
Morks, their rise, i. 216, formed into a re of Constantinople, 471 ; sentiments em-
gular body by Antony, in iv. cent. 290; braced by the Maronites, ibid.
different orders, 291 ; adopted among Montagne, a supposed infidel in xvi cent.
the clergy, 293, claim eminent stations iii. 119.
in the church, i. 353 ; observe different Montanus, his tenets, i. 188; some mis-
rules of discipline, ibid. not subject to takes about them, ibid. c; attempts to
the Patriarchal power, ibid. and fi supply the pretended defects of the Gos-
their defence of Origen in vi cent. 425; pel, 189; his excessive austerity, ibid.
their vices in vii cent. 453; are ex reasons for excommunicating him, and
empted by the Pope from episcopal ju success of his doctrine, 189, 190; which
risdiction, 454; held in much repute, Tertullian adopts, ibid. and d.
ibid. their discipline fallen into decay Montesono, John de, denies the immacu-
in viji cent. 502; efforts to stop it iner late conception of the Virgin Mary,
fectual, ibid. and 503 ; excessive vene and contest with the University of Pa-
ration paid to them in ix cent. ii. 26 ; ris, ii. 495 ; is excommunicated, and va-
employed in civil affairs, 27; a reforma rious opinions concerning the reasons
ţion attempted among them hy order of for it, ibid. and m.
Moors, or Saracens, some converted in deck, ibid. 330 ; peace of Germany con-
Xv cent. and how, ii. 507 ; banished out cluded at, iii. 460.
of Spain in xvii cent. iii. 462; conse- Munzer, one of the leaders of the fanatics,
iii. 325 ; assembles a numerous army of
Moralists, moral writers, in ii cent. who, the peasants in xvi cent. ibid. his rava-
i. 155; their merit as such, ibid. the ges not chargeable on Luther, ibid. is
double doctrine introduced by them, defeated, taken, and ignominiously put
what, and the effects, 156; hence the to death, ibid. fate of his associates, 326.
Ascetics, 157 ; charged with want of Muralt, a Deistical writer in xviii cent. iv.
order and precision, in iii cent. 219; 189 and d; his religious system com-
the most eminent in iv cent. with their prehended in three points, and what
defects, 288; their character in v cent. they are, ibid.
i. 363; mystic principles adopted by Musæus, approves of Callixtus's pacifica-
them, 366; reduce practical religion to tory plan, iv. 36; adopts some of his sen-
the observance of a few virtues in vii timents, 37, 38; imputations against
cent. 460; imbibe many of the Aristo- him and the divines of Jena, ibid. and l.
telian principles in viii cent. 515; prin- Mystics, their rise in the East, and whence,
cipally employed in ix cent. in collecting i. 143; their unfair defence, 215; mul-
the sentiments of the Fathers on mo tiplied in iv cent. and doctrine propa-
rality, ii. 41 ; content themselves in x gated, 289; their cause promoted in v
cent. with composing some few homi cent. from their austerity of life, 364;
lies, and writing the lives of the saints, their pernicious influence on moral wri-
ü. 111; contemptible in xi cent, 2017 ters, 366 ; flourish in ix cent. ii. 42 ;
partly scholastic, partly mystic, in xii their method of explaining truth adopt-
cent. ii. 297; their character in xiii ed in xii cent. ii. 289; oppose the Scho-
cent. 410, 411 ; definitions of piety and lastics in xiii cent. 410; a reconciliation
justice different from those in the Scrip between the two parties attempted,
tures, 411 ; chiefly employed in col ibid. zealous for the study of the Scrip-
lecting and solving cases of conscience, tures, and the writings of the fathers, in
and in moralizing on the natures, pro xiv cent. 490; many of distinguished
perties, and actions of the brute crea merit among them in xv cent. 558; de-
tion in xiv cent. 493; their character fended against the Schoolmen, 559 ;
and names in xvi cent. iii. 227 c; the only remaining sparks of piety in
xvi cent. were in them, iji. 24; but un-
Morality, Romish, its sad state in xvi cent. able to combat the error of the times,
iii. 163; no successful attempt made to ibid. why called Quietists, iii. 542 ; their
reform it, and complaints against the precepts embraced by the Quakers,
Jesuits, ibid. writers on it divided into 153, 155.
three classes, ibid.
- true principles of, not settled in
xvi cent. iii. 227.
Nagel, Paul, his reveries, iv. 61.
Moravians, their conversion in ix cent. Nangis, William, of, a historian in xiii
cent. his character, ii. 340.
Moravian, Bohemian, brethren, an account Nantes, famous edict drawn up at, in xvi
of, iii. 297.
cent. in favour of the Protestants, iii.
Morgan, bis deism, and hypothesis of, iv. 282; revoked by Lewis XIV. in xvii
188 and c.
cent. iv. 68 and s.
Morinus, his pacific endeavours to, unite Naples, the Academy at, founded by Fre-
the Greek and Latin churches in xvii d eric II. in xiji cent. ii. 337; the pro-
cent. iii. 552 and d.
gress of the Reformation here in xvi
Moscovy, the Christian religion establish- cent, iii. 99; the opposition made against
ed there in x cent. ii. 76.
the attempts to introduce the inquisi-
-- patriarch of, when first made, tion, ib. and l.
iii. 188; his immunities extended, 189. Naraya, Chaw, king of Siam, his remark-
Moses, Barcepha, a Syrian bishop in ix able answer to the French king's am-
cent. his great character, ii. 29.
bassador, iii, 394 ; sub. not. 9; tolerates
Cretensis, an account of this im- the missionaries, 395; is put to death,
postor in iv cent. i. 333 and g.
ibid. and r.
Moulin, Peter du, is employed to recon- Nassau, church of, embraces Calvinism in
cile the Lutherans and the Reformed, xvi cent. iii. 299.
iv. 8 and f.
Nations, state of those not under the Ro-
Moyer, Lady, her lectures founded in xviï m ans, i. 31 ; the genius of, and liberty
cent, iv. 213.
enjoyed by, the Northern, ibid. and f;
Munster, seized upon by the fanatics in all sunk in superstition, but of different
Germany in xvi cent. iii. 231, and 329; kinds, ib. 32.
retaken by its sovereign, Count WalNature, its law studied with great atten-
tion in xvii cent. iii. 434. Grotius led ter into the Romish communion, though
the way, with the advantages to Chris repeatedly solicited by the most earnest
tian morality, 435.
entreaties and alluring offers in xviii
Naylor, James, a most extravagant Qua cent. ii. 195.
ker, account of him, and the blasphe- Nestorius, founder of a sect in v cent. i.
mous encomiums bestowed upon him by 376 ; occasion of his controversy, 377;
the Quakers, iv. 148, sub. not. kk.
anathematized by Cyril, Bishop of Al-
Nazarenes, the rise of this sect properly exandria, 378 ; his charge against Cyril, *
dated from ii cent. i. 121, 171 ; its divi ibid. is condemned to banishment by a
sion into two sects, ib. ranked among general council at Ephesus, 379; the
heretics by Epiphanius, and if justly, ib. justice of this sentence examined, ibid.
and e; their gospel, ib. and f; that term faults to be found in this controversy,
what originally, ib. their tenets, and 380 and r.
why gently treated by most Christians, Neuser, Adam, introduces Socinianism
ib. and g.
into Germany, iii. 373.
Neercassel, John, assists Arnaud in propa- Newton, Sir Isaac, his great character, ii.
gating Jansenism among the Romish 446, and s; the excellence of his philo-
churches in Holland and the Nether sophy how proved, 447 ; his works and
lands, iii. 533.
life by whom written, ibid. t; liberty of
Neri, Philip, founds the priests of the ora thinking restored by him and Des
tory in xvi cent. iii. 151 ; by whom as Cartes, and in what the admirers of the
sisted, ib. y; is sainted by Urban VIII. former were superior to those of the
Nero, persecutes the Christians, and why, Nice, the first general council at, i. 317;
i. 67, 73.
the account of it imperfect, ibid. Arius
Nestorianism, its rise and author, i. 376, is condemned, 318: determines the time
377; impartial judgment concerning for observing Easter, ibid. and s ; termi-
this controversy, 379; progress after nates the Novatian troubles, ibid. con-
the council of Ephesus, 381 ; its success demns the Meletian schism, ibid. and
in the East, ib. is propagated by Barsu t, u, second council in viji cent. i. 520;
mas of Nisibis through Persia, 382; superstitious decrees in favour of image
taught in a school at Nisibis erected for worship, ibid. its authority and this de-
this purpose, ibid. encouraged in Persia, cision acknowledged by the church of
408 ; its state in vi cent. 433.
Nestorians, their divisions cease, i. 382, Nicephorus, patriarch of Constantinople,
doctrine what, ib. hold their founder in an account of his defence of image wor-
the highest veneration, 383; but main- ship, ii. 29.
tain the doctrine taught by him to be --- Callistus, his ecclesiastical his-
older than himself, ib. Eastern, diligent tory, an account of, ii. 447.
in exploring the true sense of Scripture,
Gregoras, his character, ii. 447;
420 ; spread their doctrines with suc works, 488.
cess ; in vi cent. 433; introduce Chris- Nicetas, Choniates, a Greek historian in
tianity among the Chinese in vii cent. xiii cent, ii. 335.
439; flourish under the Saracens, 465;
David, an account of, ii. 29.
plant the gospel in Tartary, and beyond - Pectoratus, a zealous advocate for
Mount Imaus, in x cent. ii. 73 ; frequent the Greeks in xi cent. ii. 193; his chain
ly solicited by Romish missionaries to of commentaries on Job, 198.
submit to the papal yoke in xiii cent. Nicholas, patriarch of Constantinople,
but in vain, ii. 420; two factions among suspends the Emperor Leo the Philoso-
them, and how occasioned, in xvi cent. pher, for marrying a fourth wife, ii. 111,
iii. 134; violent methods used by Me- 112; deprived by the Emperor, ibid. is
nezes, bishop of Goa, &c. to reduce restored to his dignity by his son, ibid.
them to the Romish yoke, 135; are call - II. Pope, his character, ii. 149
ed Chaldeans, 190; distinguished from and c; his famous decree concerning
other societies of Christians by peculiar the election of the Pope, 150 and e.
doctrines and rites, iii. 194; their no-
III. Pope, his famous constitu-
tions of the two natures and two per tion, confirming the rule of St. Francis,
sons in Christ explained, 195, and u; ii. 384, and z ; forbids all private expli-
careful in avoiding superstitious opi cations of this law, ibid. and a.
nions and practices, ib. and x; their pa-
IV. Pope, refuses to crown the
triarchs, ib. and 196 ; their state in xvii Emperor Rodolphus, till he acknow-
cent. iii. 562, offers of reconciliation ledged the papal pretensions, ii. 350 ;
with Rome, why not accepted, ibid. his character, 362.
those on the coast of Malabar persecu-
- V. Pope, his great character, ii.
ted by the Romish priests, 563; but tole 537 ; a great patron of letters, ibid.
rated by the Dutch, ibid. refuse to en-
- Henry, founder of the Family of
Love in svi cent. jii. 351 ; his opinions, Christians, ibid. many converted in x
cent. with their chief Rollo, 74; flour-
Nicias, a polemic divine in vii cent. i. 462, ishing state of learning among them in
writes against the Gentiles, ibid.
· xi cent. 136.
Nicolaitans, an account of this sect, i. 119. Norway, Christianity propagated in x cent.
Nicolle, a Jansenist doctor and polemic ii. 79; whether by Olaus, Tryggueson,
divine, iii. 474 ; his character and or Suenon, 80, and u; Guthebald the
works, ibid. g, h; a follower of Des most eminent missionary among them,
Cartes, 507 ; patron of the Jansenists, ibid.
Notker, a monkish historian in x cent.
Nicon, his treatise on the religion of the ii. 96.
Armenians in x cent. ii. 103.
Novatian, disturbs the peace of the church
Nieder, John, his works, and the use of in iii cent. i. 240 ; his character, ibid.
them, ii. 548.
his severity to the lapsed under the per-
Nihusius, a Popish methodist, his work, secution by Decius, 242; opposes Cor-
iii. 473, and d.
nelius chosen bishop of Rome, sepa-
Nilus, character of his works, i 355. rates from the church, and is excommu.
Noailles, Cardinal de, opposes the Bull nicated, ibid.
Unigenitus of Clement XI. and the Nuremberg, an account of the Diet in xvi
event, v. 193.
cent. iii. 48, 49; peace between the
Nobili, Robert de, account of that Jesuit's Emperor Charles V. and Protestants at
mission, ii. 390; his singular strata a second Diet, 66; the terms, ibid. the
gems in Madura, ibid. and i; followed effects, 77; the ratification of this peace
by other Jesuits with surprising success, in xvii cent. iii. 461, and y.
and the causes, 391, 392, and m, and *.
Noetus, his doctrine of the Trinity, i. 237;
followers, whence called Patripassians, Occam, William, renews the disputes be-
tween the Nominalists and Realists,
Nogaret, William de, seizes the person of and strenuous advocate for the former,
Pope Boniface VIII. and his ill treat ii. 450 ; his philosophy forbidden, 451;
ment of the Pope, ii. 454; prosecutes but prevails, ibid. keen satires against
his accusation against the Pope after his the Pope, 479; his didactic writings,
Nogent, Guibert, Abbot of, his commenta- Ochin, a supposed infidel in xvi cent. iii.
ries, ii. 290 ; attacks the Schoolmen in 119.
xii cent. 294.
Ochinus, Bernardin, his opinions, iii. 317;
Nominalists, who, and whence so called, embraces the communion of the Anti-
15. b: dispute between them and the trinitarians and Anabaptists in Poland,
Realists in xi cent. 143 ; their chief, where he dies, ibid. said to be a princi-
John the Sophist, 144 ; the state of their pal member of the secret assemblies of
disputes in xii cent. ii. 254, 255; which Venice and Vicenza, 360 and m.
continue in xiv cent. and the issue, 450; Odensee, the famous edict at in xvi cent.
their state in xv cent. 517.
iii. 65 and t.
Nonconformists, name given to the Puri- Odilo, of Clugni, his works, ii. 105; and
tans, iii. 284; their hopes frustrated un $; adds All Souls to the festivals in x
der Charles II. iv. 110; precarious situ cent. 113.
ation under him, ibid. Aourish under Odo, Abbot of Clugni, his attempts to re-
William III. ibid. toleration act passed form the monks, ii. 102 ; his new disci-
under him, ibid. and h; their state in pline adopted in all the European con-
England in xviii cent. iv. 206.
vents, ibid. character, 404 ; his moral
Nonjurors, high churchmen, their rise and observations on Job, a transcript only
the occasion in xvii cent. iv. 111, and from a like work of Gregory the Great,
ii, iii; their notions, 112, and k; Dod 110.
well's defence of them, and by whom – Bishop of Cambray, restores the sci,
answered, ibid. and l; principles in ence of logic, ii. 142.
which they differ from the established Oecolampadius, resumes the dispute con-
church of England, 113.
cerning the Eucharist with Luther, and
Norbert, a German nobleman, founds the character, iii. 266 and X; his exposi-
monastic order of Premontre in xii cent. tions of Scripture, 310.
ü. 278; silences the sect of Tanquel- Oeconomical method of disputing intro:
duced in ii cent. i. 55 ; its nature, ibid.
Normans, their successful invasions in is z; almost universally adopted, and to
cent. ii. 8; the sufferings of the Chris- what owing, 221 and l.
tians under them, ibid. piracy esteemed Oecumenical council, first established ir
among them, ibid. k; form new settle- iv cent. i. 269.
ments, 9; softened by living among Oecumenius, his chaio, ii. 103 and k.
Ogilby, his remarkable embassy to the many, i. 360, 421 ; controversies con:
king of Spain, from James I. of Eng cerning him renewed in vi cent. 425;
land, iv. 94, sub. not. i.
condemned by Justinian, and his doc-
Olaus, King of Norway, converted to trine ordered to be suppressed, ibid.
Christianity, ii. 80; is sainted, ibid. es and k, 1; condemned with his followers
tablishes the Gospel, and by what me in the fifth general council at Constan-
thods, ibid. u.
tinople, 427 and r; his doctrine adopt-
Olive, Jean Pierre de, famous Franciscan ed by the Quakers, iv. 153, 154.
in xiji cent. excites new dissensions in Origenism, disputes about in v cent. i.
the order, ii. 385 and b; the corrup 367, 368; melancholy effects of them to
tions of the church of Rome, the chief Chrysostom, 368.
object of his censure, ibid. his fanati- Origenists, who, i. 381.
cism, ibid. warmth against the Popes Orkneys, Christianity first propagated
for maintaining the renunication of there in x cent. ii. 80.
popery. 386 and f.
Orosius, obviates many objections against
Olympia, Donna, her illicit commerce with Christianity in his history, i. 339; his
Pope Innocent X. iii. 451 and e.
character, 355 and p.
Olympiodorus, a Platonic philosopher in iv Osiander, Andrew, his Harmony of the
cent. i. 267.
Evangelists, iii. 224; disputes excited
Ophites, a sect of ridiculous Heretics in ii by him in xvi cent. 247; his character
'cent. i. 186 ; divided into Christian and and doctrine, ibid. opposed by Stanca-
Antichristian, ibid. their tenets, whence rus, 248.
they had their name, ibid.
Osnaburg, peace of Westphalia concluded
Optatus, his work against the Donatists, at, iii. 460.
and character, i. 280 and m.
Ostorod, Christopher, attempts to propa-
Oratory, priests of the, founded in xvi gate Socinianism in Holland, iii. 373;
cent. iii. 151; their name whence, is banished, and his books condemned
to be burned, but not executed, ibid.
Order, its meaning when applied to Monks,
ii. 103 h.
Ostrogoths, kingdom in Italy in v cent. and
Orders, ecclesiastical, their great vices in its duration, i. 332.
xii cent. ii. 273 and d.
Otho the Great, his zeal for Christianity,
religious, new in xiv cent. wbat, ii. 81 ; excessive liberality to the cler-
ii. 485; new in xv cent, what, 545. gy, and its unhappy effects, 82 ; obtains
- monastic, their state in xvii cent. the Purple, and saluted with the title of
iii. 494 ; reformations made, and hence Emperor by Pope John XII. 96 ; calls
two classes, 497, t, u; new, founded in à council, and degrades the perjured
xvii cent. 501.
Pope, ibid. his death and miserable
Oresme, Nicholas, his French translation consequences, ibid. his edict, by which
of Aristotle in xiv cent. 450 and w. he and his successors maintained their
Origen, his zeal in spreading copies of supremacy over the Bishop and Church
the Gospel, i. 194; character, 212 and of Rome. 99.
X; erroneous method of explaining - Bishop of Bamberg, converts the Po-
Christian truths by the Platonic philo meranians in xiii cent. ii. 226, 227 and
sophy, 215; the abuse of it by his fol a.
lowers, ibid. his Hexapla, fragments of IV. Emperor, deposed and excom-
it, 217 and f; allegorical method of in municated by Pope Innocent III. ii.
terpreting Scripture, censured, ibid. 352.
neglects the outward letter of it, and
confines his study to the hidden sense of
it, ibid, and g, h; his subdivisions of Pachymeres, George, his works, ii. 399;
this mystical world, 218; method fol- a mystic writer in xiii cent. and his
lowed by other interpreters, ibid. his treatise on Dionysius, 411.
Stromata and principles, 219; moral Pacific age, that time so denominated
works, ibid. rigorous measures by De- when Christ came into the world, i.
metrius, Bishop of Alexandria, in two 31.
councils against him, 224; his book of Padua, Anthony of, an expositor of Scrip-
Principles contains dangerous opinions, ture in xiii cent. ii. 405.
225 and t ; his deprivation and degra- Paganism, remains of it in iv cent. al-
dation variously received, ibid. and u; though zealously opposed by the Chris-
confutes the Arabian philosophers, 240; tian Emperors, i. 259; some remains
controversies concerning him in iv in vi cent. even among the learned, i.
cent. 299; troubles in the East, on ac 401.
count of his writings, 300; his method Pagans, their deities were ancient heroes,
of interpreting Scripture followed by &c. i. 33 ; pay worship to material and