תמונות בעמוד

"Do you, my young son, manifest everywhere my unwearied diligence, and listen to my instructions to you how to help the people to observe the constant rules of right. If you do not bestir yourself in these things, you will not be of long continuance. If you sincerely and fully carry out the course of your correct father, and follow exactly my example, there will be no venturing to disregard your orders. Go and be reverent. Henceforth 1 will study husbandry. There do you generously rule our people, and there is no distance from which they will not come to you."

the king should address himself generally to the government of the people icith diligence and reverence.

The duke will withdraw to his fields. ~J*j yfe.

HI $R ^ UK'-Ts'ae Bays he d0C8 not understand fj^i fj^ |Jjj£, but thinks

the meaning may be—Jj|J£ ^£ ^ffj

3% Wl Wl X- Ir.-"in the transla

tion. This appears to have been the view likewise of Gan-kwfi. Kcang Sliing reads on to

before putting a comma, and takes ^Hj (the

j)J^ quotes the passage with ^$0=^^> 'to separate,' 'to divide,' alleging for this the authority of K'ang-shing. He has:—Jj^

(j^ 'The business of government is

burdensome. Divide, my son, the duties. Even I had not time to listen to everything.'


help the course of the people's constant nature.' The meaning seems to be what 1 have given in the translation. If the people be thus ruled,— influenced, not forced,—it may be hoped they

will be forward to obey the guidance.

= ^(j, 'to use effort,''exert one's-self.' There are disputes as to the form of the character, but none as to the meaning. "pj fl^p 'J^ ^\

ly.' Here the meaning is that king Ching's measures should all be ordered after those of his father. We cannot suppose that any other

than king Woo is meant by jj£ though

Keang Shing explains the phrase by 'those whom your father honoured,' referring to the great captains and ministers who assisted in the

overthrow of Show. Hp* j£ ^ JS| ^jjjr, —all the critics understand that the duke of Chow here intimates his purpose to withdraw from public life. Gan-kw6, however, would interpret—'I will retire as old, and teach the husbandmen about righteousness;' and in illustration of this, Ying-tft quotes a passage from Fuh-shang's 'Introduction to the Shoo'CjpJ'

t'lat >l was tne ru'er ret'red officer* to occupy themselves in the villages with teaching the young (jjg, £g £ ^

Jjj j^)' ^ut we cannot suppose

that the duke of Chow would come under any such rule, jfc |# ^ ^jfc^Q

^jjr, 'there,' i.e., in Lfi ; -Jj^^^i, 'to come.'

Thewho.e = ^^^^«^


14 IV. The king spoke to this effect:—"O duke, you are the enlightener and sustainer of my youth. You have set forth great and illustrious virtues, that I, notwithstanding my youth, may display a brilliant merit like that of Wan and Woo; reverently respond to the favour of Heaven; harmonize and long preserve the people of all

15 the regions, and settle their multitudes here; and that I may give due honour to the great ceremony of recording the most distinguished, regulating the order for the first places at the sacrifices, and doing everything in an orderly manner without display.

16 "But your virtue, 0 duke, shines brightly above and below, and is displayed actively throughout the four quarters. On every

If he could ^> x ■fjjj ■ he would escape the evil menaced in the ~J*j [J^p 'j^: ffc of p. 18. If he could ^] J(£ (JLJ ii ffi fjjfi, he would realize the ^ || $6 m also of p. 13. Choo He says that

^P*) M, 'to build the city of L5, and settle

the dwelling of the people there.' 15. This par. must be construed in close connection with the preceding. It has reference to the counsel

given in p. 7. £ ^ ft jjft-g

'great; is evidently employed from the

~Xfy 2: ;ij^^'to deem important,' 'to

give the due importance to.' ;|S yj^

jjljj,—this also must be interpreted from p. 7. Of the last clause it is not necessary to treat

Ch. IV. Pp. 14—21. The king, With Many


Charges Him To Remain At LO. Chin Leih
observes that after the 13th par. there ought to
be some mention of the king's having gone with
the duke from Haou to Lo, and he supposes
that a portion of the Book is here lost. The
natural inference from parr. 18—21 certainly is
that the king, when he spoke them, was in L8;
but we need not suppose that any tablets were
lost. The Book may never have been longer or
less confused than it now is.

Pp. 14, 15. The king, with mention of his obligations to the duke for his counsels, promises to take his advice about the sacrifices to be offered and the

record of merits to be made. 14. Ejjj

vj^ r —it 's muc'1 mor0 natural to

construe this historically, in the indicative mood, than to take it with Gan-kwo in the imperative. He says the meaning is:—' You ought, O duke, to enlighten and sustain me. You must not

speak of,' 'to display.' The 'great and illustrious virtues' which the duke had celebrated are those implied in the counsels which he had

just given. If the king could ^ jj£ 7?\\,

he would display the virtue required in p. 11.

P. 16. The great services of the duke in the business of the govt., which left the king nothing to do but to attend to the sacrifices. We must understand all this as said by the king to prepare the way for pressing the request that the duke would not carry out his purpose of withdrawing from public life.

55 =' on every side' as in the >b 3Ep; m sis ¥ x m. %

hand appears your deep reverence to secure the establishment of order, so that you fail in nothing of the earnest lessons of Wan and Woo. It is for me the youth only to attend reverently early and late to the sacrifices."

The king said, "Great, O duke, has been your merit in helping and guiding me;—let it ever continue so."

The king said, "O duke, it is for me, the little child, to return to my throne in Chow, and I charge you, O duke, to remain behind.


'T'ae-kea,' Pt. i., p. 5,—

'a steelyard,' here = ' to balance,' 'to make

even.' When it is said |t|ij, we see the

duke calmly and reverently 'meeting' all difficulties and emergencies, and adjusting them with the balance of his wisdom and measures. Gan-kwfl is evidently wrong, when he takes this clause not as descriptive of the character of the duke's government but of its results, and

interpret,:-^ -jj E? ^, ^

*H l^Ci&tW} at,-- KeanS ShinB ingeniously takes this as = 'you make no error; with civil capacity and with military you teach the empire.' I prefer, however, to construe as in the translation. f ^ ^",=

'What have I to do? I should not do so well as you in the administration of affairs. I have only to perform the sacrifices which devolve upon me.'

P. 17. The king briefly recapitulates the duke's services, and asks him to continue them, and not

withdraw from public life. jfj} = 'to

teach,' 'to direct.' Ts'ae says:—M

1m * pf VX w * G

kwo's explanation of ^\ ^j- at, though wrong, is yet amusingly ingenious:—K

M % Afr rnj l§ & Z <the w,,ole

empire accords, and affirms by its approval the merit of your services!'

Pp. 18—20. The king declares his own purpose to return to Haou, and charges the duke to continue in public life, remaining at LS, and completing the measures of government which he had initiated. 18. On the interpretation of this par.

there is as much diversity of opinion as on par. 1. The view in the translation is that of Ts'ae, adopted from Lin Che-k'e and other early scholars of the Sung dyn. The old interpreters, followed by many in the present dynasty, understand that the king is here acceding to the duke's request that he would proceed to Lo, and promises that he would there appoint the

duke's son, Pih-k'in ('f^J -j^")> to the principality of Loo.

Where were the king and the duke when the par. was spoken? The old interpreters say— 'In Haou;' and Gan-kwd supposes that the king is on his throne, at a solemn audience where the duke has resigned the regency, so that

^^m.' III^T ^-'1 will when I have retired from this audience, go and be king in L6V I cannot read the Book without getting the impression that the speakers were now in Lo. And without referring to any passages, which might require a lengthy and minute discussion of them, the fact that king Ching did not take up his residence at L6, and that this city did not till after many reigns become the real capital of Chow, is sufficient to show that the king is not here promising to go to Lo, but saying that he will retire from it.

On this view ell JjJ^i has its natural

meaning. Chow is Haou, as in the first par. of
last Book. I should say that this clause ought
to be decisive on the point of the dialogue's

taking place in L<v>, were it not for the
"4 Jlf) of l)ar- 3' And allowing all the weight
we can to the interpretation of neces-
sarily adopted there, I must still think that
iffj Jfr£ Jfjj •» strongly confirmatory of
the view of the Book taken by the Sung scholars.
With regard to -jjjj 'it indicates,'

says Keang Shing. 'the appointment of Pih-
k'in. The king's idea was that if he conferred
the investiture on his son, he might retain the

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19 Order has been initiated throughout the four quarters of the empire; but the ceremonies to be honoured by general observance have not 3ret been settled, and I cannot look on your merit as completed.

20 Commence on a great scale what is to be done by your remaining here, being an example to my officers, and greatly preserving the people whom Wan and Woo received:—by your good government you will prove the help of the whole empire."

duke at court as the prime minister of the govt.' Nothing can be argued conclusively on either side of the question from the words of the text, -jjjj may be taken as in the

translation; and when I look at them without reference to the controversy agitated about them, I must understand them thus. They may, however, likewise be taken as Gan-kwO and the other early interpreters did.

Referring to Sze-ma Ts'een, he tells us that king Woo, immediately after the overthrow of Show, invested his brother Tan with the principality of Loo, and that Tan did not proceed to take the charge of it, but remained at court to assist the king, Jj| g. ^ ^

H Mttfc^M => Heteiisus

also, that after the death of Woo, when the duke of Chow had resolved, notwithstanding the injurious suspicions afloat about him, to remain as regent of the empire during the minority of Ching, he invested his son Pih-k'in with Loo, and gave him this charge :—' A son of king Wan, brother of king Woo, and uncle of king Ching, I am not of mean position in the empire. But I have sometimes thrice left my bath unfinished, and thrice left a meal, to receive officers, fearing lest I might fail to secure a man of virtue and ability for the service of the govt. When you go to Loo, be careful lest your being a prince make you arrogant to others.' According to this account, Pih-k'in had been invested with Loo several years before the building of LO. Ts'ae argues the same thing from passages of Bk. XXIX ; but I do not insist on them, because Maou K'e-ling has shown that they need not be taken as decisive on the question. Still Ts'een's statements carry in themselves evidence of their correctness. Of all his brothers and adherents, the duke of Chow was the one whom king Woo was bound to reward. No doubt he did confer on him the country of Loo; and as the duke was detained

from it all his reign and during so many years of his son's reign, there must have been some one to supply his place. I believe that Pih-k'in went to Loo at once, and that subsequently, in the 3d or 4th year of Ching, his father resigned the dukedom entirely to him. This being the case, there is no room left for the

understanding the text—a- —as the

old interpreters did.

19, 20. The king could not look on the duke's work as done, and he calls his attention to various

points which were yet to be settled. 19. jjtj

ijjk ft - h if P! Vn •takit*il

■=jg£ or M. Ke'ang Shing takes it = jj^fe,

meaning is substantially the same.

All /fl-Ts'ae toke8 ^ /fit 113 refurring to the ^ ^ of p. 8, and ^ 0.

of p. 15. It may be so, but I rather

understand the king to be speaking here of the ceremonies in general, by which their dyn. was to be distinguished from those which preceded

it. Keang Shing says they are called

'being honoured by all the empire' (^j- jjjf|

% it yfcSt ,i,as °ccurred twic°

before, in Bk. VII., pp. 5 and 11, joined with jji, and in the sense of or 'to soothe' 'to settle.' 'It means,' says Woo Ch'ing, 'to honour and reward.' I do not see how to translate the term faithfully, and bring out a meaning appropriate to the contents. 20.

$rlk^i mean8'acc-to T8'ae- Wc A

as in the translation. Woo Ch'ing takes as ' an introductory phrase,' but says he

21 The king said, "Remain, 0 duke. I will certainly go. Your meritorious deeds are devoutly acknowledged and reverently rejoiced in. Do not, O duke, occasion me this difficulty. I on my part will not be idle or tired in seeking the tranquillity of the people; and let not the example which you have afforded be intermitted. So shall the whole empire enjoy for generations the benefits of your virtue."

22 V. The duke of Chow bowed his face to his hands and his head to the ground, saying, "You have charged me, O king, to come here.

does not understand the meaning of it. The would certainly seem to have reference

to the ■fjjj of p. 18. I do not see how

Gan-kwO makes out of id ij^ his til

X»-dt a X » equivalent to

Among the officers there were those called Hr,

and others called fjj|j. 154 may be taken, with Ts'ae,' 'to afford an example to,' or, with Gankw6, 'to inspect,' 'to oversee.' jjjj^

DO ijjp,—I do not think that this means more than—'effecting good government, and being a help to me on every side.' Compare with

|JLj jjfjjj the [Jlj in the 'Yih and Tseih,' p. 5. Ts'ae takes the phrase as a name of the new city, or the two new cities of jjfa and

Ijfc, taken in connection with Haou and Fung, as the points d' ap/nii of the empire,—which is far-fetched, and intended to strengthen his view of as meaning to remain at LS, sufficiently strong without such support. In a passage in the Le Ke, Bk. VIII., _j£ j|J- F p. 17, mention is made of the appointment of |/tj jH and from which it would ap

pear that 'four' men were denoted by the former phrase. If so, and we are to interpret the text in acc. with that passage, we must suppose that the king wishes the duke alone to be to him all that those four highest and trusted ministers could be.

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