« הקודםהמשך »
monks, 29 ; orders a translation of the him the founder of the Lollards, and
works of Dionysius, the Areopagite, and whence, ibid. e.
thus encourages Mysticism, 42 and w. Lollards, account of them in xiv cent. ii.
Lewis IX. of France, afterward sainted, 482; and u; by whom favoured and
his two Crusades and their success, ii. persecuted, 487.
328, 329 and q; the last of the Euro- Lombard, Peter, his works, ii. 283 ; lucu-
pean monarchs who undertook Cru brations defective, ii. 289; book of ihe
sades, 330; his famous edict, called the sentences universally admired in xii
Pragmatic Sanction, by which the rights cent. 291; is called Master of the Sen-
of the Gallican church are secured tences, ibid. and g; his followers called
against the Pope, 349 and q.
Sententiarii, ibid. his book of sentences
- Duke of Bavaria, his contest and in greater repute than the Bible, 293, 1.
war with Pope John XXII. ii. 458; de London, the Royal Society founded at, üi.
poses the Pope, and patronises the Fran 432.
Loquis, Martin, his chimerical notion, ii.
- Elector Palatine, restores Luther 554; the cruelties of the Hussites to be
anism in Germany, which his father had imputed to him and his followers, ibid.
removed, iii. 280.
Lord's Supper, its celebration in ii cent. i.
- XIV. of France, his solemn em- 189; its symbols adored, and whence,
bassy to the king of Siam, iii. 393 and 307; administration burdened with
P; a great patron of the arts and sci- pompous rites by Gregory the Great,
ences, 432; contest with Popes Alexan- i. 430.
der VII. and Innocent XI. about what, Lothaire, his zealous, but fruitless as
488; persecutes the Jansenists, 533; tempts to revive learning in Italy in ix
demolishes the convent of Port Royal, cent. ii. 13.
540; revokes the edict of Nantes, iv. Love, Family, Anabaptist sect founded by
Henry Nicholas in Holland, in xvi cent.
Liberatus, his compendious history of the ii. 351.
Nestorian and Eutychian controversies, virgins of, a female order in the Ro-
and character, i. 418.
mish church, their institution in xvii
Libertines, spiritual brethren and sisters, cent. and office, iii. 502.
their tenets, iii. 314; resemble the Beg- Low churchmen, in xvii cent. iv. 112. See
of Geneva, oppose Calvin, and Lubieniecius, Stanislaus, a Polish knight,
of what composed, iii. 215.
a patron of Socinianism, his character,
Licinius, persecution of the Christians iv. 171; his zeal for its success, ibid. by
under him in iv cent. i. 253 ; his turbu. whom opposed, and his hopes frustrated,
lence, defeat, and death, 254; this per- ibid.
secution mentioned by Aurelius Victor, Lucar, Cyrillus, opposes the union of the
Greek and Latin churches in xvii cent.
Light, children or confessors of, a name iii. 553; his character and persecution
assumed by the Quakers, iy. 146. , by the Jesuits, ibid. is accused of trea-
L'Isle, Alain de, an eminent logician in xiii son, and put io death, ibid. and e.
eent. ii. 340 ; his character 401 and e; Lucas, a follower of Spinoza, his works,
polemic work against the Jews, 413. iii. 429 and x.
Lithuanians, partly converted by the Teu- Lucifer, Bishop of Cagliari, his character,
tonic knights in xiii cent. ii. 331; their and sect in iy cent. i. 296, 297.
conversion completed in xiv cènt. 443. Lucopetrus, founder of a fanatical sect in
Liturgy of the church of England, a plan xii cent. ii. 305; his chief disciple, and
designed for introducing it in Hanover tenets, ibid.
and Prussia, iv. 406.
Ludolph, his learned labours, iii. 561.
Livonians, converted to Christianity in xii Luitprand, a monkish historian in a cent.
cent. ii. 229; compelled to embrace the ii. 89.
gospel by the greatest cruelty and op- Lulty, his new philosophy in xiv cent. ij.
pression, 230; being converted, are vio- 452; character, and different opinions
lently oppressed, ibid.
about it, ibid. and c.
Locke, John, a great promoter of natural Lupus, Servatus, ii. 14; his great abilities
knowledge, iii. 445.
and works, 17 and i ; character, 31.
Logic, the study of, much admired and fol. Luther, Martin, obnoxious to the Domi.
lowed in xii cent. ii. 139, 140; the most nicans, iii. 20; few able to oppose his
eminent logicians, 140, 141.
doctrine from Scripture, 21 ; his great
Logicians, disputes among them in xi cent. character, iii. 25; warmly opposes Tet-
and hence the Nominalists and Realists, zel's preaching of Indulgences, and
ii. 142, 143 and q.
hence the rise of the Reformation is to
Lollard, Walter, an account of, ii. 501 ; be dated, 26, 27; his motives for oppo-
mistakes of the learned, in suppoging sing the doctrine of Indulgences vindi-
cated from unreasonable calumnies, Macedonius, his heresy in iv cent. i. 325;
ibid. p; debate with Tetzel clearly tenets opposed and crushed by the
stated, 28 ; is violently opposed, and of council of Constantinople, ibid. the de-
fers to abjure any erroneous sentiments crees that passed in this council, 326.
that can be proved against him, 36 ; bis Madura, account of that successful mis.
fruitless coulerence with Cajetan at sion, and its author, iii. 390 and i ; the
Auusbury. 30. 31 and r: conference singular method used, ibid. that king.
with Miltitz, and the issue, 31; pro- dom described, 391; sub m; this and
mises silence, on the condition of silence the like missions, why suspended by
being observed by his adversaries, 32; the Pope, ibid.
his generous behaviour to Tetzel, 33 Magnus, Albertus, an eminent philosophi.
and y; dispute with Eckius on papal cal divine in xin cent. ii. 400 and g;
power, at Leipsic, 35; is excommuni. his didactic writings, 406.
cated by Leo X. 40; separates himself Magus, Simon, not properly termed an
from the church of Rome, 41; offers heretic, and why, i. 116; blasphemous.
submission to the determination of a ly assumes to himself the title of the
general council lawfully assembled, and supreme power of Gud, ibid. his history,
consequently of the universal church, ibid. his fate, and the doctrines he held,
42 and 0; unjustly banished at the diet of 117 and s; 118 and a, b.
Worms, 44, 45 and r; translates a great Mahomet, appears in vii cent, i. 443 ; his
part of the New Testament into the character, and report of his total igno-
German language, 45 and s; censures rance of learning examined, ibid. m;
the rash proceedings of Carolostadt, 47 444 n; his public declarations al out
and t; his doctrine of the Eucharist, religion, ibid. delivers the law called
49 and s; draws up the Articles of Tor Koran, ibid. and 0; his project of form.
gaw, 60; refuses to admit the friends ing an enipire, ibid. the judgment we
of Zungle to the diet at Smalcald, 75 are to form of him, ibid. his success in
h; his catechisms, 209; form of con propagating his doctrine accounted for,
cord, ibid. explications of the Scripture, 445 ; dies, 447 ; testament in favour of
224; Golden rule of interpretation, 226 the Christians, with arguments for and
and a ; prevents the divisions which the against its authenticity examined, 465
disciples of Munzer attempted to ex and k; his successors employ the Nes-
cite, 231; his debates with Carolos torians in the most important matters,
tadt, 392 and g; ibid. and h; 233 i; 466; dispute in xii cent. concerning
appeases the tumult at Wittemberg, his God, ii. 300.
232; suppresses the Antinomians, 235 ; - II. takes Constantinople in xv
publishes his Confession of Faith, oppo. cent. ii. 509, 510 and k.
site to the doctrine of Zuingle, 268; Mahometans, their behaviour towards the
indulges the Bohemian brethren, 297; Christians in vii cent. i. 447; their livi-
his plan of Reformation disliked by the sion into two sects, and others subordi.
Lutherans, esteemed by the Spaniards as Maieul, St. See Regular Clerks.
better subjects than the Calvinists, iii. Maigrot, Charles, acts as Delegate from
296 ; progress of learning among them the Pope, his decision against the Je-
in xvii cent. iv. 15; their ecclesiastical suits, concerning the observance of
law and polity, 23; adopt the maxim of Chinese rites, iii. 401.
the Arminians, 25; the state of the Major, George, controversy about the
ology and moral science among them, necessity of good works with Amsdorf,
Lutkeman, Joachim, his singular opinions, Maitre, le, a celebrated lawyer, retires
and character, iv. 55.
into the convent of Fort Royal, iï. 538
Lyons, a council at, in xiïi cent. ii. 360; a sube.
famous decree concerning the Cardi- Maldonat, John, his commentary on St.
nals, during the vacancy of the Pontifi- Paul's epistles, iii. 160.
Malebranche, Father, charged with Athe-
Lyranus, Nicholas, his exposition of the
ism by Hardouin, and the justice of the
Scriptures, and great character, ii. charge examined, iii. 444; sub not. p;
his philosphy, 445 and r.
Mandeville, his impious Deism, and hypo-
Macarius, i. 278; his character as a mo thesis, iv. 188 and c.
ralist, 288 and l.
Manes, Manichæus, account of him, i.
--- of Ireland, his enormous error, 230; his doctrine of two principles,
ii. 16; refuted by Ratram, ibid.
232; various reports about his death,
Maccovius, introduces subtleties into theo-
ibid. e; summary concerning Man,
logy, iii. 311 n; followed by others, Christ, and the Holy Ghost, 232, 233;
inid. sub n.
concerning Christ's office, and the Com-
jorter, 233; concerning the state of pu- tion of opinions the issue of this con-
rified and unpurified souls, 234; his ference, 59.
opinions of the Old and New Testament, Marriages, fourth, prohibited by a council
ibid. his rule of life austere, 236; di- at Constantinople in x cent. ii. 112.
vides his disciples into two classes, Martial, first bishop of Limoges, controu
versy concerning him in xi cent. ii. 214,
Manicheans, their general assembly, and 215; Pope John xix. declares him wor-
president who represented Christ, i. thy of an apostleship, upon which he is
236; his assistants, &c. ibid. and fi sainted, 215.
conceal themselves under various Martin, Bishop of Tours, converts the
names, through fear of persecution, in Gauls in iv cent. i. 263; erects the first
iv cent. 308; their state vi cent. i. 431; monasteries in Gaul, 291; hence the
continue in xv cent. and where, ii. great progress of Monkery, ib. the dif-
ference between an Eastern and Wes-
Mapes, Walter, his character, ï. 340 and k. tern monk in austerity, as described by
Marca, Petrus de, writes against, the papal Sulpitius Severus, 292 s; his arrogant
claims in xvii cent. iii. 486.
assertion of the ministerial dignity,
Marcellinus, Tribune, sent into Africa by
Honorius, to decide the affair of the Bishop of Braga, bis summary of a
Donatists, and declares in favour of the virtuous life, i. 423.
Catholics, i. 372; if this was not more
Pope, condemns the Ecthesis of
properly a judicial trial than a confer Heraclius, and the Type of Constans,
ence, ibid. e; the consequences to the in vii cent. i. 469; anathematizes the
Donatists, who were upon the decline Monothelites and their patrons, ibid.
till relieved by Genseric on his invading is banished for one year by Constans,
and the consequence of this rigorous
Marcellus, of Ancyra, his erroneous no proceeding, ibid.
tions of the Trinity, i. 324, 325 and e.
of Poland, a historian xiii cent.
- his pacific attempt to reconcile ii. 340.
the Protestants, iii. 469.
in Raymond, character of his Pugio
Marchia, Jacobus a, opposes the worship Fidei Christianæ, ii. 341, 401, 412; well
of Christ's blood, and is accused of he acquainted with the Hebrew and Arabic
resy, in xv cent. ii. 561.
Marcion, founder of a heretical sect in - IV. Pope, his character and inson
Asia, i. 175; the principles he niaintain lence, ii. 361.'
V. Pope, chosen at the council of
Marculf, the monk, his works useful in Constance in the room of Benedict XIII.
describing the state of literature iti vii deposed, ii. 521, 522; assembles a coun-
cent. i. 456.
cil at Basil which attempts the Reforma
Mardaites. See Maronites.
tion of the church, but in vain, 532.
Margaret, of Navarre, favourable to the Martyr, Peter, zealous in propagating Cal-
Reformation in France, iii. 67; her v inism in England, iii. 283; a writer of
example encouraged many pious and common place divinity, 311.
learned men to promote it, ibid. who Martyrs, who entitled to this name, i. 71;
are put to death, with the contradictory veneration paid to them perverted, ibid.
behaviour of Francis I. towards the Pro- their number, ibid. lives and actions
testants, 68 and z.
why recorded, 72; and how lost and re-
Maria, Ave, added to the prayers of the trieved, ibid. and t.
Romish church in xiv cent. ii. 497. Mary, Queen, restores Popery, iii. 93;
Marino, Robert of, a historian in xiïi cent. puts Cranmer to death, ibid. her cruel
designs against the Protestants in Ires
Mark, the Hermit, his works and charac land, how prevented, iii. 96 m.
ter, i. 363.
- Virgin, when first worshipped, i.
Maronites, whence so called, 472 and 330; her image introduced into church-
s; retain the opinions of the Monothe es in v cent. 370; the innocence of her
lites till xii cent. ibid. the fruitless at title as mother of God examined, 380 r;
tempts of their learned to confute this veneration for her increased in x ċent.
accusation, ibid. t; their subjection to ii. 114; institution of the Rosary and
Rome in xvi cent. iii. 204 and x; and Crown in honour of her, what, ibid.
upon what condition, 205; expensive controversy concerning her immaculate
to the Popes, and wherefore, ibid. and conception in xii cent. ii. 302; and fes.
tival instituted in honour of it, 304; this
Marpurg, a conference held by the Re controversy renewed in xvii cent. bes
formers to terminate their disputes tween the Franciscans and Dominicans,
about the Eucharist, iii. 58; a tolera iii. 540, the Pope's declaration to both
parties, and a festival appointed, iii. 540 Maximin, persecution under that Empe-
ror, i. 196.
Masenius, a German Jesuit, his reconci- Maxims, two very dangerous, universally
ling attempt, iii. 469 and p.
adopted in iv cent. i. 293; the greatest
Masses, solitary, what, and when suppo men infected with the first for some
sed to be introduced, i. 523 and d. ages past, ibid. the second had its rise
Mathematical sect, their rise in xvii cent. in the reign of Constantine, and ap-
iii. 442; follow the principles of Gas proved by succeeding ages, 294.
sendi, an account of, 443; its progress, Maximus, Julian's master, a Platonist, and
being accused of magic, is put to death
Mathematics, their improvement in xvii, by the order of Valentinian in iv sent.
cent. iii. 431.
Mathilda, Dutchess of Tuscany, her dona- Maximus of Turin, an account of his homi-
tion to the see of Rome in xi cent. ii. lies, i. 355.
164, 165, and n, o.
the Greek monk, account of him
Matlhiæ, John, bishop of Strengnes in and his works, i. 455 ; expositions, 458.
Sweden, his pacific attempts in xvii Mayer, Michael, a leader of the Rosecru-
cent. and works entitled Olive Branches, cians in xvii cent. iii. 437.
iv. 13, and m, n; his writings suppress. Mayhew, a Puritan missionary in America,
ed, and he himself obliged to resign iii. 416.
his bishopric, and retire, ibid.
Mayronius, Francis, a scholastic divine in
Matthias, chosen to be an apostle, and in xiv cent. ii. 488.
how, i. 60.
Mazen, Nicholas de, very zealons in re-
Matthison, John, ringleader of the fana. forming the monks of Germany in xv
tics of Munster, iii. 329.
cent. ii. 542.
Maty, Paul, his notion of the Trinity, and Medicis, the zeal of this family in cultiva-
controversy hereupon in xviii cent. iv. ting learning in xv cent. ii. 511, 518.
209; unsatisfactory hypothesis, which — Cosmo de, zealous patron of the Pla-
amounts to two propositions, and is tonic philosophy, ii. 514.
only a repetition of Dr. Thomas Bur- Meier, an account of this follower of Spi-
net's sentiments on the same subject, noza and his works, iii. 428 and w.
ibid. and y.
Melancthon, Philip, his great character, iij.
Maur, St. congregation of, iii. 497 and 37, 38, and g, h; prepares the famous
w; select number of learned members, confession of Augsburg, 61 ; answers
and their adversaries, 498 and x; many and confutes Faber's objections to it,
and admirable productions, 499 and 72 ; his dispute with Eckius at Worms,
y; their reformation falls short of the 82, his sentiments of the famous edict
perfection of austerity, which had been called Interim, what, 88, and b; and
idly imagined by some, ibid. this severe the cause of a melancholy schism
plan adopted by the Jansenists, 500 and among the Lutherans, ibid. the method
; by Bouthelier de Rance and the oc of philosophy adopted by him, 122; his
casion, ibid. and b; his order de la unsuccessful attempt to unite the Greeks
Trappe gradually degenerates, 501. with the Protestants, and the Greek
Maurice, Elector of Saxony, obtains the translation of the Augsburg Confession,
electorate by perfidious measures, and which he sent to Constantinople, but
what these are, iii. 85; consents to a receives no answer, 185 ; eminent for
council being called at Trent on certain his knowledge of history, 218; his
conditions, 78 and c; how the cause of character, 219; is considered as the
the famous treaty at Passau, 91 and d.. great doctor of the Lutheran church, ib.
Landgrave of Hesse, deserts the his writings in philosophy, and of the
Lutheran church, and embraces Calvin sect of the eclectics, 220; his abridge-
ism in xvii cent. iv. 3 and b; the change ments, ib. commentaries on St. Paul's
thereon in his dominions, ibid. his con epistles, 224; explanations of the Scrip-
duct towards the Lutherans, and defence tures, 229; Loci Communes, ib. en-
of it by the doctors of the Reformed larges them, 226; destitute of the ran-
Church, 4 and c.
cour too frequently met with in the
Stadtholder, seemingly inclined to polemic writings of the Lutheran di-
favour the Arminians in xvii cent. iv, vines, 229; placed at the head of the
129; declares against them, with his Lutheran church, 237 ; compared with
ambitious views, 132, 133, and i ; his Luther, and different sentiments from
violent proceedings against them, and him, ib. and y, 239 and r; is accused
consequence, 133, 134, and notes.
of apostacy by the Lutherans, and the
Mauritius, Peter, refutes the Jews in xii reasons, 240, justifies himself, ib. de-
cent. ii. 298.
sirous of an union between the Re-
Maxentius, his works, į. 416.
formed and Lutherans, 268; which is
fácilitated by Calvin, ib. 269, and g; Metaphysical sect, their rise, and account
but meets with obstacles, ib.
of, iii. 442, 443 ; improvement and pro-
Melancthonians, a philosophical sect in xvi pagation, 445 ; falls into contempt, iv.
cent. iii. 220.
Melchites, who, 466. i. m.
Meth, Ezekiel, account of that fanatic, iv.
Meletian controversy, the true causes of, i. 61.
295 ; continued until v cent 296 ; con Methodists, Popish, most eminent in
demned by the first Council of Nice, France, iii. 473; dispute with the Hu-
318 and t.
guenots, ib. divided into two classses, ib.
Meliteniota, his pacificatory attempt be most eminent among the first, ib. those
tween the Greeks and Latins in xiii of the second, with their manner of
cent. ii. 399.
controversy, 474 and g, h; Bossuet
Melito, bishop of Sardis, his works, i. 153 ; among the latter, with a character of
gives the first catalogue of the books of his history, 475, 476 and k; remarkable
the Old Testament, ib. u.
instance retorted upon himself, ib. sub.
Menander, his wild and frantic notions, i. not.
Methodius, eminent for his piety in iii
Mendæans, or Christians of St. John, a cent. i. 213; his exposition on Genesis
sect in the Eastern churches, an account and Solomon's song lost, 219.
of, iii. 197 and d.
- the Confessor, his zeal for image
Mendez, Patriach of Æthiopia, his im- worship in ix cent. ii. 29; his panegyric
prudent zeal and arrogance, iii. 479; is on Dionysius, 42.
banished from the country, 480.
with Cyril converts the Mosians
Mendicants, their institution in xiii cent. ii. and other nations in ix cent. ii. 4, 5 and
367; principles or tenets, 368; con:
fined to four societies only, 369 and n; Metochita, George, his pacificatory at-
their universal fame, ib. pride and arro tempt to unite the Greek and Latin
gance, 376 ; impious wiles, with a spe- churches in xiii cent. ii. 399.
cimen, 377 and g; contest between the Metropolitans, whether any in; cent. i.
Dominicans and Franciscans, ib. ad- 92; whence their rights, 146 ; the ex-
dicted to the opinions of the scholastic tent of their power in iv cent. 271.
divines 408; in high esteem in xvi Mezzabarba, is sent into China as legate
cent. 466; through their enormous vices from Pope Clement XI. with his second
they fall under a general odium, ib. edict against the lawfulness of the Chi-
but are supported by the Pope, 467 and nese rites, and bad success, iv. 185, 186
c; charged with arrogance and a vi and b.
cious spirit of novelty, 542 ; offensive Michael, St. superstition about him in x
to the Bishops in xv cent. for the refuge cent. ii. 117.
given to the Beguins in their order, 543; Micislaus, Duke of Poland, converted to
their great aversion to learning, 17, Christianity in x cent. ii. 75; his zeal
for the conversion of his subjects, and
Menno, Simon, account of, 330; his tra methods used by him to obtain it, ibid.
vels into different countries, and re 76.
markable success in gaining proselytes, Middleton, Richard, a metaphysical divine
331 ; eloquence and writings, ib. 332 in xiii cent. ii. 400.
and t; his doctrine, ib. discipline, 333; Millennium, controversy concerning it in
imprudent conduct towards two sects iii cent. i. 222 ; violently opposed by
which arose, 336; his singular tenets, Origen, 223, and supported by Nepos,
343 ; his rigorous laws mitigated by the ibid. stopped by Dionysius of Alexan-
Anabaptists in xvii cent. iv. 163; disci- dria, ibid.
pline and singular opinions abandoned Milletiere, his pacific attempt to recon-
by the Waterlandians, 166.
cile the Protestants and Roman Catho-
Mennonites, their various forms in xvii lics in xvii cent. iii. 471.
cent. iv. 162 and e; different sects of Miltitz, holds a conference with Luther,
them, 163. See Anabaptists.
iii. 32 ; his character, ibid. prudent and
Messalians, Euchites, their antiquity, i. candid behaviour in the conference, 33;
329; when formed into a religious unhappy fate, 35 and a.
body, ib. their tenets, ib. borrowed Mingrelians, in Asia, their deplorable state,
many of their notions from the Eastern iii. 189.
philosophy, ib. a general name for Ministry, necessity of a public one, i.
Eastern Heretics and Enthusiasts in xii 84.
cent. ii. 305 and m.
Minucius, Felix, character and use of his
Mentz, Felix, his detestable character, iii. dialogue, i. 213.
Miracles, advantageous to Christianity, i.
Mercator, Marius, a warm opposer of Pe- 64; of the Thundering Legion, 127 and
lagius, i. 356.
n; which is more than dubious, 128 ; of