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spindles so very long and heavy, that twine, probably intended for bird and fish nets, and not linen yarn, is the article manufactured. The spiral motion is given in a different way altogether to that commonly used for fine yarn, and the spindle is differently made, for it ends in a long tail, which is rubbed by the palm of the hand against a strap fastened on the woman's leg, by which means a rapid spiral motion is given to the bobbin, by an act not unlike that of the shoemaker, when twisting his wax-end.

Coarse woollens and linen yarns could certainly be manufactured by this process; but it is quite monstrous to suppose, for a moment, that these figures, if correctly drawn, represent the spinning process of the finer Egyptian yarns.*

Making allowances for the false proportions of the women, and the spindles they are using, we might suspect that they were employed in untwisting coarse Chinese silk thread; drawing it out and twisting it again, a process known to the ancients; or, we might suppose that they had a process not unlike a modern improvement in power spinning, of making a thread rather coarse, and then untwisting and drawing it out, and twisting it again. For such an operation, their flax appears to have been well adapted; for it is very fine, and the staple very short, apparently from its mode of preparation, performed chiefly by pounding it with a wooden beetle on a stone, and twisting the flax into a rope at the same time ; by this plan, the blow being oblique, it split the fibres, though it broke them at the same time, giving them very much the look and feel of cotton. Many of our specimens are so like cotton, that the best judges have been deceived by their unassisted sight; but when we have submitted the ultimate fibre to the microscope, we found it always to be exactly like the fibre of Irish flax, and altogether different to any kind of cotton, whether North or South American, Indian, Arabian, or Egyptian, with all of which it has been carefully and repeatedly compared.

• We have heard such statements of the doings of the Commission, of which Rossellini was a member, in Egypt, that we can place no dependance whatever on his publication, unless, indeed, other witnesses confirm his statements. In this instance, Wilkinson is deficient.

APPENDIX.

437

G.–PAGE 200.

PHYSICAL HISTORY OF THE KABYLES.

Of the many different nations inhabiting the northern division of the African Continent, or that portion denominated by writers Atlantica, few have caused more discussion, or become, in later years, a subject of stricter investigation than the Kabyles or Berbers. These rude and primitive people, who form a part of one great nation divided into several distinct tribes, but still preserving a sufficiency of analogies in language, manners, customs, and physical conformation, to prove their common origin, are by some supposed to be of Punic or Phænician descent; while others, look upon them as the aborigines of the country, who, by intermixture with, or contiguity to, the Phænicians who settled on these coasts, adopted some of those traits and characters that have given rise to the former opinion.

Africa, as known to the ancients, was divided into four parts - Barbary, Numidia, Lybia, and Negroland. Barbary included all that district lying between the Atlas mountains and the Mediterranean, and extended from the point of the Atlas, near Messa, to Gibraltar; on the west to Mount Meies, situate about 300 miles from Alexandria.

Numidia, called by the Arabians Beledulgerid, or the Land of Dates; its boundaries were the city of Eloacat, about 100 miles distant from Egypt on the east; on the west, the town of Non; on the north, the southern side of the Atlas; and on the south, the sandy deserts of Lybia.

Lybia lay still further south, having the ocean on the west; the Nile on the east; and the adjoining territory of Negroland forming its southern border. Negroland was still more remote, but parallel with the former; its western extremity was Gualata; and its eastern Gaoga. Its southern boundary was unknown. Thus there were four great bands of country lying nearly parallel to each other; and beyond that it was a terra incognita. This is the description of John Leo Africanus. Marmol and Ptolemy have given a more complex subdivision.

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John Leo gives the following account of the inhabitants of Africa:—“In ancient times, Negroland was the only inhabited country of Africa; at least Barbary and Numidia were for many years destitute of inhabitants, till the Tawny people settled in that country, who were called by the name of Barbar, an Arabic word, probably derived from Barbara, i. e. to murmur; because the Arabians looked upon the African language as an articulate sound of beasts. Others will have the Barbar to be only the repetition of Bar, i. e. Desert ; supposing Bar-Bar 'to the Desert, to the Desert,' to have been the word among Ifricus's followers when they fled out of Arabia Felix.

These Tawny Moors are divided into five tribes—namely, the Zanhagi, inhabiting the western and southern part of Mount Atlas ; the Musmudi, inhabiting the provinces of Hea, Sus, Guzula, and the territory of Morocco ; the Gumeri, possessing the Barbary mountains upon the Mediterranean Sea, and the river Rif, which takes its rise near the Straits of Gibraltar, and runs eastward to Tremeson, or Mauritania Cæsariensis ; the Haoari and Zeneti, who were dispersed all over Africa. These tribes are distinguished from one another by certain marks ; and wage continual war among themselves. In former times, they had their habitations and tents in the field; every one favouring those of his own tribe, and labouring for their interest and common benefit.

The governors of the country attended their droves and flocks, and the citizens followed husbandry, or some manual art. Ibnu Racco, who writes of the genealogies of the Africans, divides these people into 500 several families. Though their posterity is run out into innumerable branches, and at that great distance from one another, yet they retain one language, called by them Aquel Amarig, i. e. the Noble Tongue, which is the true African language, and branded by the barbarians for a barbarous tongue.” Marmol

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Barbary is so called either from Ber, a name given to that country before it was peopled, whence the inhabitants were afterwards called Bereberes, and are still possessed of a city called Barbara, and a large tract of lands in Genehoa and Zinque; or, as some will have it, this name must be derived from the Romans, who christened it so by reason of the barbarity of their language.” This seems to be also the opinion

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of Dr. Prichard. In another place the same old writer states that “the African authors assure us that Barbary and Numidia have been long inhabited, but they are not agreed upon the first inhabitants. Some say an Asiatic people, expelled their own country, and finding no security in Greece, went and peopled Barbary. Others allege that the people of Phænicia, in Palestine, being expelled their own country by the Assyrians, and coldly received by the Egyptians, passed on to the Deserts of Africa, where they settled.

“But the African authors of the best note assure us that the first inhabitants of Barbary and Numidia, now called Barbarians, were five colonies or tribes of Sabeans that came thither along with Melec Ifrique, a prince of Arabia Felix mentioned above, to which 600 families of Berebers, and the greatest lines of all Africa, owe their original. These tribes did first people the eastern parts of Barbary, and from whence they dispersed themselves over most of Africa, retaining the name of Berebers from Barbary, their first habitation; whereas the former inhabitants of Tingitana, Numidia, and Lybia, were called Chilohes. Though these five tribes lived first of all in tents of the fields, yet when they came to war with one another, those who were defeated and robbed of their flocks fled from the plains, where the conquerors remained, to the mountains, where, mixing with the ancient Africans, and Getulians, they built houses to screen themselves from the weather.

“ This occasioned the difference between the Berebers that live in the fields, and those that dwell in houses; the former of which have the preference for riches and power; though both of them are equally zealous in keeping their ancient customs, and celebrating the honour of their original.” This division can be seen even at the present day, in the Kabyles who live in tents or mud houses in the open country, and rear cattle, while the Moors reside in towns, and follow trade, or are engaged in traffic or merchandize.

“Besides these there was," says Marmol, “a noted people in Africa, called Azuagues, who are now scattered up and down the provinces of Barbary and Numidia, and most of them are shepherds, though they have some artizans among them that make linen and cloth," (in a manner similar to that in use among the

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ancient Egyptians.) “ They live upon mo:intains and hills, and nestle in little holes and chinks ; and, notwithstanding their extreme poverty, are commonly tributary to the kings, or Arabians. The African authors say they are Phænicians, expelled by Joshua, the son of Nun; who, being denied admission by the Egyptians, passed on to Lybia, where they built Carthage, 1268 years before Christ. And a long time after that, if we credit IbniAbraquyq, a great stone was found there, with these words engraven upon it in the Punic language — We fled hither from the presence of that notorious robber, Joshua, the son of Nun.' Before the arrival of this people, Asclepius and Hercules had reigned in Africa; but after the destruction of Carthage, before it was rebuilt by Dido, this people retired to the west part of Barbary, under Hermon, their leader, and then built Liby-Phoenician cities, in which they still continued, when the Romans invaded Africa."

Dr. Prichard gives the following solution of the term Barbar:"The only way of explaining, with any degree of probability, so extensive a diffusion of the term Barbarii or Barbari, and, at the same time, its local application to the country and the people of the African coast, is the conjecture that Barbar was originally an Egyptian term or name given by the Egyptians to the maritime country on the Red Sea, or its inhabitants. The word might be derived, as Leo derives it, from Bar, a desert, were it not improbable that an Arabian name could have been adopted by the Egyptians—the people so named not being Arabians. The Coptic word Bepeßep, signifying hot, may be the etymon of the name, if it originally belonged to the country. BopBep, as well as Bepßwp means to cast out. Could the people be hence termed Outcasts ?' These southern borderers on Egypt, probably ferocious Nomades, as are the Beshari at present, being dreaded and hated by the Egyptians, and their name being equivalent to that of Savages, it is possible that it may have been borrowed by the Greeks from the Egyptians in this sense. The Hindoos used, as it seems, the same name in both of its meanings—both as a national appellation, which was extended, however, from the natives of the Barbary coast to other crisp-haired Africans, and likewise in the sense of outcasts or barbarians.” This was also the opinion of Gibbon.

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