« הקודםהמשך »
able pretence to a very remote antiqui 9; two principal sects, ibid. their doc.
ty, and that Elias was their founder, trine and subdivisions, 309 ; sentiments
ibid. and w; the absurd arguinents concerning the birth of Christ, ibid.
brought in support of this pretence, church constitution, discipline, 310 & u.
279; their arrival in England, 380; sub. Cedrenus, a historian in xi cent. ii. 136.
fin. not. y; transplanted into Europe, Celestine I. Pope, sends Palladius and
and favoured by Honorius III. Pope, Patrick to convert the Irish in v cent.
369; reformation introduced among
them in xv cent. iji. 148; divisions
· III. Pope, cxcommunicates the
among them, ibid. and 149.
Emperor, the Duke of Austria, the
Caro, Cher, Hugo de St. his Concordance King of Gallicia and Leone, ii. 272.
to the Bible, the first that appeared, ii.
V. Pope, obnoxious to the cler-
400 andl; collects the various readings sy, and why, ji. 363 ; his good charac-
of the Hebrew, Latin, and Greek Bi ter, ibid. resigns the papal chair, and is
founder of the Celestines, ibid. is saint-
Carpathius, John, his moral writings, i.
Cellites, their rise at Antwerp in xiv cent.
Carpathias, Philo, his character, i. 359. ii. 484 ; called Alexians and Lollards,
Carpocrales, an Egyptian Gnostic, i. 181; with the reason, 485 and u; their fame
his impious tenets, which destroy all and progress, 486, 487; oppressed by
the clergy, ibid. privileges granted them
Cartes, M. des, an astronomer, iii. 431; by the Popes, 487,
his character, 438; philosophy, 439; Celsus, bis objections against Christianity
method adopted by him, and the clergy refuted by Origen, i. 135.
alarmed, 440 ; charged with atheism, Celts, learning among them in i cent. i. 83,
ibid. opposed by other sects, and the their Druids and priests eminent for
consequences to science, 440; his me their wisdom, ibid.
thod applauded, yet several faults found Cene, Charles le, propagates Pajon's doc-
in it, 441; Gassendi his chief adversary, trine, see Pajon, iv. 90; bis singular
ibid. has a great number of followers, translation of the Bible condemned,
442 ; inetaphysical, improved and pro ibid. and b; he rejects the doctrine of
pagated with success, 445; by Male original sin and human impotence, &c.
branche and Leibnitz, with the charac-
ibid. and c.
ter of cach, ibid. and r.
Century, i its Ecclesiastical history, i. 29.
Cartesian controversy in Holland, an ac -ij cent. 123.-iii cent. 191.--iv cent.
count of, iv. 115; philosophy, why 245.-v cent. 331.-vi cent. 377.--vii
considered as a system of impiety, 116;
cent. 439.-viii cent. 477.--ix cent. ji.
edicts against it, but ineffectual, ibid. 3.-xcent. 73.-xi cent, 119.-xii cents
Carthusians, a monastic order, its rise in 227.-xiü cent. 323.-siv cent. 441.---
xi cent. ii. 189; founder and severe xv cent. 507.--xvi cent. iii. 9. -- Appen.
laws, ibid. and h; why so few nuns of dix ). 383.-xviicent. 102.-xviii cent.
that order, 190 and k.
iv. 183.- Appendix II. 214.- Appendix
Cassian, his character, i. 355 and q.
Cassidorus, his character, i. 418; exposi- Cerdo, founder of an heretical sect in
tions of Scripture, 420.
Asia, i. 175; bis principles and tenets,
Castalio, Sebastian, opposes Calvin, and 176.
his character, iii. 316 and y; iş banish- Ceremonies, rites, two only instituted by
ed Geneva, and received into Basil, Christ, i. 104; the Jewish retained in
ibid, and z.
some, but not at all places, 105; wiy
Castilions, the extraordinary method used multiplied in ii cent. 162--165; the es-
by them to determine the superior ex tecni of modern Platonism a cause of
cellence of the Roman and Gothic ser their increase in ii cent. 226; their bur-
vice in xi cent. ii. 217.
den in iv cent. apparent from a saying
Castilione, Gilbert de, refutes the Jews in of Augustin, 301; bow multiplied in
· xii cent. ii. 299.
v cent. with a general view of the new
Casuists, ancients, not so good as the Lu rites, which are attended with much
theran, iii. 227.
pomp, i. 369; several introduced into
Catechumens, an order of Christians in the ihe Romish ritual in vii cent. 463 ; ad-
early ages of the Church, i. 88; how ditions by every Pope, with several
distinguished from believers, 100; not examples, ibid. their origin, nature,
admitted to the sacrament, 307.
and ends, become the subjects of many
Catharists, Paulicians, so called in xi cent. writers in xi cent. 61; these writings
ii. 220 ; their unhappy state in xii cent. considered as to their use, ibid. a general
308 and p; resemble the Manichæans account of them in this cent. 62; many
in their doctrine, and hence called by of them drawn from Pagan rites 64 and
that name, ibid. their tenets, ibid. and k; their increase, and the nature of
them in x cent. 113; of the Romish for converting and retaining the Saxons ,
church, imposed on all the western ibid. i ; is canonized, 482; the judgment
churches, 216; the superior excellence to be formed of his conversions, 483;
of the Latin or Gothic ritual left to be his attempts against the Saracens not
determined by single combat and fiery very successful, 485; revives learning
trial in Castile, 217; absurdity of per among the Latins, through the assist-
forming divine worship in an unknown ance of Alcuin, 467; if founder of the
tongue, which prevails both in the La university of Paris, considered, 488 ; bis
tin and Eastern churches, ibid. the munificence to the Roman pontiff, and
eagerness of the Grecian Bishops to in the cause, 492 and n; his grant to the
crease their ritual in xii cent. ij. 303 ; see of Rome, and its extent uncertain,
multiplied in xiii cent. 415 ; ridiculous, 498 and u; the motives to which this
and ihose instituted in relation to the grant is to be attributed, 499; opportu-
Eucharist, 416 and r; many and use nity opened for the western empire,
less ceremonies remain in xvi cent. iii. which he embraces, ibid. and w; bis
179; where most prevalent, ibid. and rights, and the papal right to dispose of
an empire, considered, ibid. and y;
C'erinthus, founder of an heretical sect in 500 z; his works, 507 ; exposition and
i cent. i. 119; blends the doctrines of zeal for the study of the Scriptures, 510;
Christ with the errors of the Jews and misses his aim, and how, 511 and g;
Gnostics, and how, ibid. 120; an advo. assembles a council at Frankfort, at
cate for the millennium, and promises which the worship of images was upanj-
his followers a sensual paradise for a mously condemned, 521 and z; his at-
thousand years, and an endless life in tachment to the Romish ritual, 523; at-
the celestial world, ibid.
tempts to stop the progress of supersti-
Celurarius, Michael, patriarch of Constan tion, how rendered ineffectual, 524.
tinople, revives the controversy be- Charles the Bald, a great patron of letters
tween the Greeks and Latins in xi cent. and the sciences, ii. 12.
ii. 202 ; accuses the Latins of various Charles V. Emperor, is persuaded to pre-
errors, and resents the Pope's arro vent the issuing of any unjust edict
gance, 203; violent measures used on against Luther, iii. 43; unwilling to of-
both sides, ibid. and 204; adds new ac fend the Pope, he calls a diet at Worms,
at which Luther is banished, 44; ratifies
Chains, what so called by the Latins, i. the sentence of Luther's banishment,
ibid. and r; his interview with the Pope
Chais, his letters concerning the jubilee at Bologna, about calling a general
commended, ii. 235, a ; 419, x.
council, and the answer of Clement VII.
Chalcedon, fourth general council, called to his request, 59, 60; is an advocate
by Marcian the Emperor, i. 385; the for Papal authority at the diet of Augs.
legates of Leo I. Pope, preside at the burg, 72 ; concludes a peace with the
council, ibid. condemns, deposes, and Lutherans, and the conditions of it, 76 ;
banishes Dioscorus, ibid. annuls the listens to the sanguine councils of Paul
acts of the second council at Ephesus, III: 83; his designs give occasion to the
ibid. the doctrine relating to Christ es Protestants to take up arms, ibid. raises
tablished here, what, ibid. the melan an army against the Protestant princes,
choly consequences of this council, ibid. for opposing the council of Trent, 84;
Chalcidius, his notions of the agreement his base and perfidious behaviour to
between the Christian and Pagan reli Philip Landgrave of Hesse, 85 and y;
gions, i. 261; this philosopher not alone his real viows, 89; disconcerted by
in this opinion, ibid. whcther a Chris Maurice of Saxony, 90; his attempts to
tiap or not, i. 401, n.
impose on the Germans the edict called
Chapters, controversy about the three, in Interim, and consequence, 240.
vi cent. i. 425 and 0; condemned by Charles I. of England, his character, iji.
Justinian, and warm opposition, ibid. 464; three principal objects of his ad-
Charenton, synod of, pacificatory attempts ministration, iv. 95; intrusts the exe-
at, in xvii cent. iv. S; but ineffectual, cution of his plan to Land, ibid. his
9 and h.
proclamation in favour of Calvinism
Charity, feast of, called Agapæ, what, i. perverted by Laud, 96, sub. not. m; dis.
61; celebrated at the conclusion of the sensions between him and the Parlia-
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, 108; ment increase, 98; the latter abolish
suppressed in v cent. i. 370.
Episcopal government, and bring the
Charlemagne, bis expedition against the King to the scaffold, ibid. reflections
Saxons in viii cent. i. 481 ; his design upon this event, and the conduct of the
of propagating Christianity, ibid. the Puritans, ibid.
aversion of the Saxons to the gospel,
Il. patron of arts, iii, 432 ; his
am whence, ibid. and h; his methods character, 465 and 1: state of the
church under him, and his successors, ry or essential to Christianity, ibid.
iv. 110; Act of Uniformity, called also comparison between him and the philo-
Toleration Act, under him, 111 and h; sophers, and its fatal consequence, 201,
consequences to the Non-conformists, 202; a parallel arrogantly drawn be-
and factuating state, ibid. suffering tween him and Apollonius Tyanæus,
state of the Quakers under him, 149; 260; disputes about tảe nature of his
grants Pennsylvania to William Penn, body in vi cent. 436 ; debates about the
manner of bis birth in ix cent. ii. 56;
Chamsi, or Solares, an account of, in xvi the festival of his body, or the Holy
cent. iii. 199 and g.
Sacrament, in xiii cent. and its origin,
Charron, an enemy to the Gospel, iii. 119. 359, 417; controversy in xv cent. con-
Chaumont, French ambassador to the King cerning the worship due to his blood,
of Siam, with the latter's acute answer and how decided by Pius II. 561 ; his
to the former's memorial, iii. 394 and q. divine nature denied by the Socinians,
Chemnitz, Martin, his examination of the iii. 354; omnipresence of his flesh, a
council of Trent, commended, iii. 218 ; subject of debate in xvii cent. iv, 52 ;
Harmonies of the Evangelists, 224. generation of, according to Rocll's sen-
Childeric III. King of France, deposed by timents, 120, 121; bia humanity denied
Pope Zachary in viii cent. i. 495, 496, by the Quakers, with their opinions
concerniog him, 157, 158.
Chillingworth, a leader of the Latitudina. Christian religion, the whole comprehend-
rians, in xvii cent, his great character, ed in two great points, and what these
iv. 109; his work entitled the Religion are, i. 98; rites or ceremonies multipli-
of Protestants, a sase Way to Salvation, ed in ii cent. and the reasons, 162 ; re-
commended, ibid. d.
mark of Lord Bolingbroke concerning
China, Christianity planted there in vii the elevation of the host in the Romish
cent. by Jesujabas of Gaddala, i. 439; church, ibid. n; first reason, a desire to
the state of Christianity here in xiv cent. enlarge the borders of the church, ibid.
a passage in Gregory Thaumaturgus's
missions, there in xvii cent. üi. life illustrating this, 163,0; second rea-
335; their astonishing success, 396; son, to refute calumnies and reproaches,
owing to the Jesuits, with their dexteri with a remark thereon, ibid. third rea-
ty in arts and sciences, ibid. progress son, the abuse of Jewish rites, ibid.
of Christianity how retarded, with a fourth reason, the imitation of the hea-
change of affairs, ibid. great success, then mysteries, 164 and p; fifth reason,
397; Romish missions in xviii cent. iv. the symbolic manner of teaching among
184; state of Christianity somewhat the eastern nations, 165; sixth reason,
prejudices of converted Jews and Gen-
Chinese monument discovered at Signanfu tiles, ibid. an example brought for an
in vii cent. i. 439 and a; Christians illustration of this last reason, 166 ; as-
dispute about allowing them their old semblies when and where held by the
religious rites in xviii cent. iv. 185. primitive Christians, ibid. the state of
Choniates, Nicetas, a good historian in its doctrine in iii cent, 214; vicious me-
xiii cent. ii. 336.
thod of controversy practised by its de-
Chorepiscopi, their origin and office, i. 92 ; fenders in this cent. and spurious wri-
permitted to baptize, but not to confirm, tings among them, 220, 221, its pro-
as confirmation was reserved to the bi gress in the east in vicent. 397; in the
shop alone, 108 and i.
west, 398; many converts retain their
Chosroes, King of Persia, a violent perse idolatrous customs through the vicious
cutor of the Christians in vicent. i. 404; lenity of the missionaries, 399 and i ;
a patron of the Aristotelian philosophy, miracles supposed to be wrought by its
missionaries in this cent. examined,
Christ, his birth, i. 53 ; accounts of him in 400; three methods of explaining its
the four gospels, 54; bis choice of doctrine about this time, 421, 429.
twelve apostles and seventy disciples, Christianity, causes of its rapid progress
and reason for this particular number, supernatural, i. 63, 127 ; its success as-
56; extent of his fame beyond Judea, cribed to absurd causes, 65 ; its progress
57 ; his death, 58; resurrection anilas. in the Roman empire, 123 ; in Germa-
ceusion, 58, 59 ; pours out the Holy ny, 125, 478; in Gaul, 125, 263; the
Ghost on his apostles, 60; his gospel conversion of the pbilosophers in ii
preached first to the Jews and Samari cent, if advantageous or not, consider-
tans, ibid. respected among the Gen ed, 129; is gradually corrupted, with a
tiles, 62, 63 and c; left the form of the proof, 150, 151 ; deprived of its primi-
church undetermined, 85 and z; insti tive simplicity, and whence, 162, 165;
tutes only two Sacraments, 101; hence its success in iii cent. must be imputed
a multitude of ceremonies not necessa partly to divine, partly to human causes,
193, 191; embraced by the Goths, 195, conveyed to Siam, Tonquin, and Co-
263; interpreted according to the prin chin China, 392; its enemies in Eng-
ciples of the Platonic philosophy, 215; land, and how audacious in the reign of
Julian attempts its destruction, 256, 257; Charles II. 418; the ingenious treatises
the efforts of the philosophers against it, in defence of religion, and Boyle's 'lee-
260; and the prejudices received by the tures founded, ibid. and x; Burnet's
Christian cause from them, ibid. esta abridgment of these, 419, y; chief lead-
blished in Armenia, 262; its progress ers of this impious band against Chris-
among the Abassines and Georgians, tianity, and characters, ibid. 424 and
ibid. the causes of the many conversions Hotes ; its enemies on the Continent,
in ir cent. 264 ; corrupted by the intro 424, 429, and notes ; its prosperous state
duction of various rites, 301; embraced in xviii cent. iv. 183 ; propagated in
by the Burgundians, 334 ; by the Franks, Asia, Africa, and America and by whom,
ibid. 335; by the Irish, 336; conver with its different fruits, 184; its enemies
sions in v cent. causes of, examined, in Europe, and more especially in Eng-
337; attempts of the Pagans to destroy Jand, 187 and c; Atheists, but few, 158;
its credit, 339 ; its decline in Britain, Deists, who, and may be divided into
through the cruelty of the Anglo-Sax different classes, ibid.
ons, ibid. opposed by secret enemies, Christians, ten persecutions of them, by
341; authorities and logical discussions the Gentiles, i. 67; what emperors
thought more useful in proving its prin made laws against them, ibid. wby per-
ciples, than the word of God, 362; its secuted by the Romans, 68; loaded
progress in the east, 397; the conver with opprobrious calumnies, 70; false-
sion of Ethelbert, King of the Anglo ly charged by Nero with burning the
Saxons, and of many others in Britain, city of Rome, 73; their persecution
398, 440; many Jews converted, 399; under him, ibid. and the extent, 74;
Platonic philosophers oppose its success why persecuted by Domitian, and the
in their writings, 401; introduced into martyrs, who, 74, 75; a perfect equali-
China by Jesujabas of Gadala, 439; ty among the primitive, 88; divided
many Jews compelled to embrace it by into believers and catechumeas, 99 ;
the Emperor Heraclius, 412; propaga first, their care in the education of their
ted in Hyrcania and Tartary, 477, ii. 73; youtb, 100; their schools and Gymna-
suffers through the success of the Turks sia different, ibid. secret doctrine, what,
and Saracens, i. 484, 485; embraced by 101 ; lives and manners, ibid. contro-
the Danes, ii. 3, 78; by the Swedes and versies early among them, 102; adopt
Cimbrians, 3, 4; by the Bulgarians, the Jewish rites in several places, but
Bohemians, and Moravians, 4; Slavo not in all, 105 ; unanimous in conse-
nians send an embassy to Constantino crating the first day of the week to pub-
ple with their resolution to embrace it, lic worship, ibid. churches established
5 and f; conversion of the Russians, among them, and how the public wor-
who are misrepresented by Lequien, ship was conducted, 107; the Lord's
ibid. 6 and h, and 76 ; authority of the supper, feasts of charity and baptism,
Fathers made the test of truth in ix cent. 107, 108; the sick anointed, and fasting
41; embraced by the Poles in x cent. introduced, 109; the persecution under
75; by the Hungarians, 77 ; by the Trajan, 130 ; under Adrian, 131; un-
Norwegians, and through whose en der Antoninus Pius, 132; the calamny
deavours, 79, 80, and u; the zeal of of impiety and Atheism charged upon
Christian princes in propagating it in them, refuted by Justin Martyr, ibid.
this cent. and the cause, 84, 85; no persecuted under Marcus Antoninus.
writers in its defence at this time, 111; ibid. and the chief martyrs, who, 133 ;
conversion of the Pomeranians in xii the clemency of Commodus toward
cent. by Otho, bishop of Bamberg, 227, them, 134 ; the calamities they suffer
228; received by the inbabitants of the under Severus, 134, 196; rendered odi-
island of Rugen, through the pious la ous by calumnies, 134; at Alexandria,
boars of Absalon, Archbishop of Lun captivated with the principles and dis-
den, 228 and b; by the Finlanders, 229 cipline of the modern Platonics, 138;
and c, d; by the Livonians, ibid. what their learning in ji cent. 144 ; why ma-
judgment must be formed of the con ny become Ascetics, 158 ; pious frauds,
versions in this cent. 232 ; its doctrine whence, 160 ; excommunication found
corrupted, and by what means, 285; its necessary, ibid. penitential discipline
decline in Asia in xiv cent. 445, 446; gradually modelled by the Heathen
as also in China and Tartary, ibid. con mysterics, 161; and the expediency of
versions of the Samogetæ and Indians this custom considered, ibid. their im-
in xv cent, considered, 508; propagated munities increased under various empe-
by Spanish and Portuguese missions, rors in iii cent. 191, 192; their numbers
and the methods cxamined, iii. 115 and increased, partly by divine, and partly
a; propagated in India, 390 ; how first by human causes, 193, 194 ; persecution
they sufiered under Maximin, 196; ma m; joins with Lewis XIV. against Pope
ny revolt from the Christian faith under Innocent XI. 490, n.
Decius, 197; and the opprobrious names Chrysoloras, Manuel, his character, ii. 449
given them, ibid. certificates from the and t.
Pagan priests to those who apostatized, Chrysostom, a general account of him and
ibid. and s; warm disputes concerning his works, i, 277, y, z; his commenta-
the readmission of the lapsed, upon rics on the Scriptures, 285; moral trea-
their request to be restored to the com tises, 288; the rigorous proceedings of
munion of the church, 198 ; persecuted Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria
by Gallus Volusianus, and Valerian, against him, and on what account, i.
199; their state under Gallienus and 368 and w; the injustice of his suffer-
Claudius, tolerable, 200 ; persecution ings considered, 369.
under Aurelian prevented by his death, Chub, a Deistical writer in xviii cent. ir.
ibid. attempts of the Jews against them, 188 and c; his hypothesis of Deism, ib.
202 : their affairs reduced to a danger- Church, in general, its history in xvii
ous crisis under Dioclesian, 248; mise cent. iii. 333; in xvüi cent. and Romish
ries very great under Galerius Maximin, in particular, its prosperous state, iv.
249; happy state under Constantine 183; missions appointed by the latter,
the Great, ibid. calamities they suffer and success, with observations, ibid.
under Licinius, 253; letters revive famous contest concerning the obser-
among them in iv cent. and the causes, vance of the old Chinese rites in China,
266 ; yet many illiterate among them, and how decided in two Papal edicts,
268; two most pernicious maxims adopt 184; consequence of the execution of
ed by their teachers, 293 ; their immo these edicts in China, 184, 185.
rality increases, 294 ; controversies fre. Church, Arminian, its history and rise in
quent among them, 295 ; suffer from xvii cent. iv. 137; by whom founded,
the success of barbarous invaders in v and whence denominated, ibid. and a;
cent. 338; the cruelty of the Goths and its commencement and doctrine of Ar-
Vandals to them in Gaul, 339; their minius, 128 and b; who is opposed, and
calamities from the Picts and Scots in by whom, ibid. and c; progress of this
Britain, 340 ; persecuted in Persia, and church after his death, with some hopes
the cause, ibid. the opposition they met of a toleration, 129 and d; pacific me-
with from the Jews, 341 ; sufferings thods used by its members, but in vain,
from the Vandals in Africa, 374; from ibid. and e, f; their doctrine compre-
the Anglo-Saxons in England, 403; from hended in five articles, and what these
the Huns and Lombards, ibid. from are, 130; last of the five articles changed
Chosroes in Persia, 404 ; oppressed by by the Arminians, 131 ; resemble Lu-
the Saracens in Spain and Sardinia, ther's doctrine, with the Calvinists' opi-
485; their superstitious piety and mo nions concerning them, ibid. 132 and
rals in viii cent. 508 ; persecuted in x h; Prince Maurice declares against the
cent. by the barbarians in the west, ii. Arminians, and consequence, ibid. 133
84; their affairs in Palestine in a declin and notes ; synod convoked at Dort,
ing state, 234 ; oppressed by the Sara to examine their doctrine, and by
cens in xii cent. and the cause, 243; an whom, 135 and n; their tenets con-
important division of their doctors, demned by it, with the bad conse-
292; both faulty in the methods of de quences to them, 135, 136, and o; the
fending and explaining Christian doc synod accused of partiality by the Ar-
trines, 393; the decline of their inter minians, and with reason, ibid. and p;
est in Palestine, and how occasioned in ibid. and 9,7"; their fate after the synod
xiii cent. 332 ; endeavour to extirpate of Dort, 137; persecuted variously, 138;
the Saraceps out of Spain, 444, 507. are invited into Holstein, and form
Christiern, II. King of Denmark, promotes themselves into a colony, ibid. and u;
the Reformation among the Danes, but recalled from exile, 138; their ancient
from bad motives, iii. 63; is deposed, and modern system, 140 and y; which
and the reasons, 64 ard r; the different was invented by Arminius, but embel-
conduct of his successor Frederic, ibid. lished by Episcopius, with the great
65 and 1.
end proposed by it, and its principal
III. his laudable zeal in re heads, 140 and z; their confession of
forming the Danish church from Romish faith, but are not obliged strictly to ad-
superstition, and how he finished it by here to its doctrine, and consequence,
Bugenhagius, and the council at Oden 142 and c, d ; united only in their opi-
see, iii. 65 and u; suppresses episco nions concerning predestination and
pacy, and how far justifiable, 65 and grace, ibid. their present state, 143 ;
success in England, ibid. fundamental
Christina, Queen of Sweden, her change principle embraced at most Protestant
of religion and character, iii. 476 and courts, and what it is, ibid. great pro-