« הקודםהמשך »
able pretenee to a very remote antiqui- q; two principal sects, ibid, their doc-
ty, and that Elias was their founder, trine and subdivisions, 309; sentiments
ibid. and u; the absurd arguments concerning the birth of Christ, ibid.
brought in support of this pretence, church constitution, discipline, 310 &u.
279; their arrival in England, 280; sub. Cedrenus, a historian in si cent. ii. 136.
fin. not. y; transplanted into Europe, Celestine I. Pope, sends Palladius and
and favoured hy Honorius III. Pope, Patrick to convert the Irish in v cent.
369; reformation introduced among i. 336.
them in xv. cent. iii. 148 ; divisions
III. Pope, excommunicates the
among them ibid. and 149.
Emperor, the Duke of Austria, the
Caro, Cher, Hugo de St. his Concordance King of Gallicia and Leone, ii. 272.
to the Bible, the first that appeared, ii.
V. Pope, obnoxious to the cler-
400 and l; collects the various readingssy, and why, ii. 363; his good charac-
of the Hebrew,Latin, and Greek Bibles, ter, ibid. resigns the papal chair, and is
founder of the Celestines, ibid. is saint-
Carpathius, John, his moral writings, i. ed, ibid.
Cellites, their rise at Antwerp in xiy cent.
Carpathias, Philo, his character, i. 359. ii. 484; called Alexians and Lollards,
Qarpocrates, an Egyptian Gnostic, i. 181; with the reason, 485 and u ; their fame
his impious tenets, which destroy all and progress, 486, 487; oppressed by
the clergy, ibid. privileges granted
Cartes, M. des, an astronomer, iii. 431: them by the Popes, 487.
his character, 438; philosophy, 439; Celsus, his objections against Christianity
method adopted by him, and the clergy refuted by Origen, i. 135.
alarmed, 440 ; charged with atheism, Celts, learning among them in icent. i. 83,
ibid. opposed by other sects, and the their Druids and priests eminent for
consequences to science, 440 ; his me. their wisdom, ibid.
thod applauded, yet several faults found Cene, Charles le, propagates Pajon's doc-
in it, 441; Gassendi his chief adversary, trine, see Pajon, iv. 90 ; his singular
ibid. has a great number of followers, translation of the Bible condemned,
442; metaphysical, improved and pro ibid and b; he rejects the doctrine of
pagated with success, 445; by Male- original sin and human impotence, &c.
branche and Leibnitz, with the cha- ibid and c.
racter of each, ibid, and r.
Century, i its Ecclesiastical history, i. 29.
Cartesian controversy in Holland, an ac --ii cent. 123-iii cent. 191.-iv cent.
count of, iv. 115, philosophy, why 245.-v cent 331.-vi cent. 377.-vii
considered as a system of impiety, 116; cent. 439.-viii cent. 477.-ix cent. ii
edicts against it, but ineffectual, ibid. 3.-X cent. 73.—xi cent. 119.--xii cent.
Carthusians, a monastic order, its rise in 227.-xiii cent. 323.-xiv cent. 441..
xi cent. ii. 189; founder and severe xv cent. 507.-xvi cent iii. 9-Appen-
laws, ibid. and h; why so few nuns of dix 1.383.-xvii cent. 102.--xviii cent.
that order, 190 and k.
iv. 183.--Appendix II. 214.-Appendix
Cassian, his character, i. 355 and q.
Cassidorus, his character, i. 418; exposi- Cerdo, founder of an heretical sect in
tions of Scripture, 420.
Asia, i. 175; his principles and tenets,
Castalio, Sebastian, opposes Calvin, and 176.
his character, iii. 316 and y; is banish- Ceremonies, rites, two only instituted by
ed Geneva, and received into Basil, Christ, i. 104; the Jewish retained in
ibid. and z.
some, but not at all places, 105; why
Castilions, the extraordinary method used multiplied in ii cent. 162--165; the es-
by them to determine the superior ex teem of modern Platonism a cause of
cellence of the Roman and Gothic ser their increase in iii cent. 226; their bur-
vice in xi cent. ii. 217.
den in iv cent. apparent from a saying
Castilione, Gilbert de, refutes the Jews in of Augustin, 301; how multiplied in
xii cent. ii. 298.
v cent. with a general view of the new
Casuists, ancients, not so good as the Lu rites, which are attended with much
theran, iii. 227.
pomp, i. 369 ; several introduced into
Catechumens, an order of Christians in the the Romish ritual in vii cent. 463; ad-
early ages of the Church, i. 88 ; how ditions by every Pope, with several
distinguished from believers, 100; not examples, ibid. their origin, nature,
admitted to the sacrament, 307.
and ends, become the subjects of many
Catharists, Paulicians, so called in xi cent. writers in xi cent. 61; these writings
ji. 220; their unhappy state in xii.cent. considered as to their use,ibid.a general
308 and p; resemble the Manichæans account of them in this cent. 62; many
in their doctrine, and hence called by of them drawn from Pagan rites 64 and
that name, ibid, their tenets, ibid. and k; their increase, and the nature of
them in x cent. 113; of the Romish for converting and retaining the Saxonis,
church, imposed on all the western ibid. i ; is canonized, 482; the judgment
churches, 216; the superior excellence to be formed of his conversions, 483;
of the Latin or Gothic ritual left to be his attempts against the Saracens not
determined by single combat and fiery very successful, 485 ; revives learning
trial in Castile, 217; absurdity of per among the Latins, through the assist-
forming divine worship in an unknown ance of Alcuin, 487 ; if founder of the
tongue, which prevails both in the La university of Paris, considered, 488 ; his
tin and Eastern churches, ibid. the munificence to the Roman pontiff, and
eagerness of the Grecian bishops to in the cause, 492 and n: his grant to the
crease their ritual in xii cent. ii. 303 ; see of Rome, and its extent uncertain,
multiplied in xii cent. 415; ridiculous, 498 and u; the motives to which this
and those instituted in relation to the grant is to be attributed, 499 ; opportu-
Eucharist, 416 andr; many and use nity opened for the western empire,
less ceremonies remain in xvi cent. iii. which he embraces, ibid. and w; his
179 ; where most prevalent, ibid. and rights, and the papal right to dispose of
an empire, considered, ibid. and y;
Cerinthus, founder of an heretical sect in 500 z; his works, 507, exposition and
i cent. i. 119; blends the doctrines of zeal for the study of the Scriptures, 510;
Cbrist with the errors of the Jews and misses his aim, and how, 511 and g;
Gnostics, and how, ibid, 120; an advo assembles a council at Francfort, at
cate for the millennium, and promises which the worship of images was unani-
his followers a sensual paradise for a mously condemned, 521 and s; his at-
thousand years, and an endless life in tachment to the Romish ritual, 523; at-
the celestial world, ibid.
tempts to stop the progress of supersti-
Celurarius, Michael, patriarch of Constan tion, how rendered ineffectual, 524.
tinople, revives the controversy be. Charles the Bald, a great patron of letters
tween the Greeks and Latins in xi cent. and the sciences, ii. 12.
ii. 202 ; accuses the Latins of various Charles V. Emperor, is persuaded to pre-
errors, and resents the Pope's arro vent the issuing of any unjust edict
gance, 203; violent measures used on against Luther, iii. 43; unwilling to of-
both sides, ibid. and 204; adds new fend the Pope, he calls a diet at Worms,
at which Luther is banished,44; ratifies
Chains, what so called by the Latins, i. the sentence of Luther's banishment,
ibid. and r; bis interview with the Pope
Chais, his letters concerning the jubilee
at Bologna, about calling a general
commended, ii. 288, a; 419, x.
council,and the answer of Člement VII.
Chalcedon, fourth general council, called to his request, 59, 60; is an advocate
by Marcian the Emperor, i. 385; the for Papal authority at the diet of Augs-
legates of Leo I. Pope, preside at the burg, 72; concludes a peace with the
council, ibid. condemns, deposes, and Lutherans, and the conditions of it, 76;
banishes Dioscorus, ibid. annuls the listens to the sanguine councils of Paul
acts of the second council at Ephesus, III. 83; his designs give occasion to the
ibid. the doctrine relating to Christ es Protestants to take up arms, ibid, raises
tablished here, what, ibid. the melan an army against the Protestant princes,
cholyconsequences of this council,ibid. for opposing the council of Trent, 84;
Chalcidius, his notions of the agreement his base and perfidious behaviour to
between the Christian and Pagan reli Philip Landgrave of Hesse, s5 and y;
gions, i. 261; this philosopher not alone his real views, 89; disconcerted by
in this opinion, ibid. whether a Chris Maurice of Saxony, 90; his attempts to
tian or not, i. 401, n.
impose on the Germans the edict called
Chapters, controversy about the three, in Interim, and consequence, 240.
vi cent. i. 425 and o; condemned by Charles I. of England, his character, iii.
Justinian, and warm opposition, ibid. 464; three principle objects of his ad-
Charenton, synod of, pacificatory at ministration, iv. 95 ; intrusts the exe-
tempts at, in xvii cent. iv.8; but inef cution of his plan to Laud, ibid. his
fectual, 9 and h.
proclamation in favour of Calvinism
Charily, feast of, called Agapæ, what, i. perverted by Laud,96, sub. not. m; dis-
61; celebrated at the conclusion of the sensions between him and the Parlia.
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, 108; ment increase, 98; the latter abolish
suppressed in v cent. i. 370.
Episcopal government, and bring the
Charlemagne. his expedition against the King to the scaffold, ibid. reflections
Saxons in viii cent. i. 481 ; his design upon this event, and tbe conduct of
of propagating Christianity, ibid. the ''the Puritans, ibid.
aversion of the Saxons to the gospel, - II. patron of arts, iii. 432; bis
and whence, ibid. and ! ; his methods character, 465 and l; state of the
church under him, and his successors, ry or essential to Christianity, ibid.
iv. 110; Act of Uniformity, called also comparison between him and the philo-
Toleration Act, under him, 111 and h; sophers, and its fatal consequence, 201,
consequences to the Non-conformisis, 202; a parallel arrogantly drawn be-
and fluctuating state, ibid. suffering tween him and Apollonius Tyanæus,
state of the Quakers under him, 260; disputes about the nature of his
149; grants Pennsylvania to William body in vi cent. 436; debates about the
manner of his birth in ix cent. ii. 56;
Chamsi, or Solares, an account of, in xvi the festival of his body, or the Holy
cent. iü. 199 and g.
Sacrament, in xiii cent, and its origin,
Charron, an enemy to the Gospel, iii. 119. 359, 417; controversy in xv cent. con-
Chaumont, French ambassador to the King cerning the worship due to his blood,and
of Siam, with the latter's acute answer how decided by Pius II.561 ; his divine
to the former's memorial, iii. 394 and q. nature denied by the Socinians, iii. 354;
Chemnitz, Martin, his examination of the omnipresence of his flesh, a subject of
council of Trent commended, iii. 218; debate in xvii cent. iv. 52; generation
Harmonies of the Evangelists, 224. of, according to Roell's sentiments, 120,
Ghilderic III. King of France, deposed by 121 ; his humanity denied by the Qua-
pope Zachary in viii cent. i. 495, 496 kers, with their opinions concerning
him, 157, 158.
Chillingworth, a leader of the Latitudina Christian religion, the whole comprehend-
rians, in xvii cent. his great character, ed in two great points, and what these
iv. 109; his work entitled the Religion are, i. 98; rites or ceremonies multipli-
of Protestants, a safe Way to Salvation, ed in ii cent, and the reasons, 162; re-
mark of Lord Bolingbroke concerning
China, Christianity planted there in vii the elevation of the host in the Romish
cent. by Jesujabas of Gaddala, i. 439; church, ibid. n; first reason, a desire to
the state of Christianity here in xiv cent. enlarge the borders of the church, ibid.
a passage in Gregory Thaumaturgus's
missions, there in xvii cent. iii. life illustrating this, 163,0; second rea-
395; their astonishing success, 396; son, to refute calumnies and reproach-
owing to the Jesuits, with their dexteri es, with a remark thereon, ibid. third
ty in arts and sciences, ibid. progress reason, the abuse of Jewish rites, ibid.
of Christianity how retarded, with a fourth reason, the imitation of the hea-
change of affairs, ibid. great success, then mysteries, 164 and p ; fifth reason,
397; Romish missions in xviii cent. iv. the symbolic manner of teaching among
184; state of Christianity somewhat the eastern nations, 165 ; sixth reason,
prejudices of converted Jews and Gen-
Chinese monument discovered at Signanfu tiles, ibid. an example brought for an
in vii cent. i. 439 and a; Christians illustration of this last reason, 166; as-
dispute about allowing them their old semblies when and where held by the
religious rites in xviii cent. iv. 185. primitive Christians, ibid. the state of
Choniates, Nicetas, a good historian in its doctrine in iïi cent. 214; vicious me-
xiii cent. ii. 336.
thod of controversy practised by its de-
Chorepiscopi, their origin and office, i.92; fenders in this cent. and spurious wri-
permitted to baptize, but not to confirm, tings among them, 220, 221, its pro-
as confirmation was reserved to the bi gress in the east in vi cent. 397; in the
shop alone, 108 and i.
west, 398 ; many converts retain their
Chosrves, King of Persia, a violent perse idolatrous customs through the vicious
cutor of the Christians in vicent. i. 404; lenity of the missionaries, 399 and i;
a patron of the Aristotelian philosophy, miracles supposed to be wrought by its
missionaries in this cent. examined,
Christ, his birth, i. 53; accounts of him in 400; three methods of explaining its
the four gospels, 54; his choice of doctrine about this time, 421, 422.
twelve apostles and seventy disciples, Christianity, causes of its rapid prog ress
and reason for this particular number, supernatural, i. 63, 127 ; it success asa
56; extent of his fame beyond Judea, cribed to absurd causes, 65; its progress
57 ; his death,58; resurrection and as in the Roman empire, 123; in Germa-
cension, 58, 59; pours out the Holy ny, 125, 478; in Gaul, 125, 263; the
Ghost on his apostles, 60; his gospel conversion of the philosophers in ii
preached first to the Jews and Samari. cent. if advantageous or not, consider-
tans, ibid. respected among the Gen ed, 129; is gradually corrupted, with a
tiles, 62, 63 ani c; left the form of the proof, 150, 151 ; deprived of its primi-
church undetermined, 85 and <; insti tive simplicity, and whence, 162, 165;
tutes only two Sacraments, 104; hence its success in iii cent. must be imputed
a multitude of ceremonies not necessa partlyto divine,partly to human causes,
193, 194; embraced by the Goths, 195,
263; interpreted according to the prin-
ciples of the Platonic philosophy, 215;
Julian attempts its destruction,256, 257;
the efforts of the philosophers against
it, 260; and the prejudices received by
the Christian cause from them, ibid. es-
tablished in Armenia, 262 ; its progress
among the Abassines and Georgians,
ibid. the causes of the many conversions
in iv cent. 264; corrupted by the intro-
duction of various rites, 301 ; embraced
by the Burgundians,334; by the Franks,
ibid. 335 ; by the Irish, 336; conver-
sions in v cent. causes of, examined,
337; attempts of the Pagans to destroy
its credit, 339; its decline in Britain,
through the cruelty of the Anglo-Sax.
ons, ibid. opposed by secret enemies,
341; authorities and logical discussions
thought more useful in proving its prin-
ciples, than the word of God, 362; its
progress in the east, 397 ; the conver-
sion of Ethelbert, King of the Anglo-
Saxons, and of many others in Britain,
398, 440; many Jews converted, 399;
Platonic philosophers oppose its success
in their writings, 401; introduced into
China by Jesujabas of Gadala, 439 ;
many Jews compelled to embrace it by
the Emperor Heraclius, 442; propaga-
ted in Hyrcania and Tartary, 477, 1.73;
suffers through the success of the Turks
and Saracens, i. 484, 485; embraced by
the Danes, ii. 3, 78; by the Swedes and
Cimbrians, 3, 4; by the Bulgarians,
Bohemians, and Moravians, 4; Slavo-
nians send an embassy to Constantino-
ple with their resolution to embrace it,
5 and f; conversion of the Russians,
who are misrepresented by Lequien,
ibid. 6 and h, and 76 ; authority of the
Pathers made the test of truth in ixcent.
41; embraced by the Poles in x cent.
75; by the Hungarians, 77; by the
Norwegians, and through whose en-
deavours, 79, 80 and u; the zeal of
Christian princes in propagating it in
this cent. and the cause, 84, 85; no
writers in its defence at this time, 111;
conversion of the Pomeranians in xii
cent. by Otho, Bishop of Bamberg,227,
228 ; received by the inhabitants of the
island of Rugen, through the pious la-
bours of Absalom, Archbishop of Lun-
den, 228 and b; by the Finlanders, 229
and c, d ; by the Livonians, ibid. what
judgment must be formed of the con-
versions in this cent. 232; its doctrine
corrupted, and by what means, 285; its
decline in Asia in xiv cent. 445, 446;
as also in China and Tartary, ibid. con-
versions of the Samogetæ and Indians
in xv cent. considered, 508; propagated
by Spanish and Portuguese missions,
and the methods examined, iii. 116 and
Q; propagated in India, 390; how first
conveyed to Siam, Tonquit, and Cem
chin China, 392 ; its enemies in Eng-
land, and how audacious in the reign of
Charles II. 418; the ingenious treatises
in defence of religion, and Boyle's lec-
tures founded, ibid. and x; Burnet's
abridgment of these, 419, y, chief lead-
ers of this impious band against Chris-
tianity, and characters, ibid. 424 and
notes; its enemies on the Continent,
424, 429, and notes; its prosperous state
in xviii cent. iv. 183; propagated in
Asia, Africa, and America and by whom,
with its different fruits, 184; its enemies
in Europe, and more especially in Eng-
land, 187 and c; Atheists, but few, 188;
Deists, who, and may be divided into
different classes, ibid.
Christians, ten persecutions of them, by
the Gentiles, i, 67; what emperors
made laws against them, ibid. why per-
secuted by the Romans, 68; loaded
with opprobrious calumnies 70; false-
ly charged by Nero with burning the
city of Rome, 73; their persecution
under him, ibid. and the extent, 74;
why persecuted by Domitian, and the
martyrs, who, 74, 75; a perfect equali-
ty among the primitive, 88; divided
into believers and catechumens, 99;
first, their care in the education of their
youth, 100; their schools and Gymna-
sia different, ibid. secret doctrine, what
101; lives and manners, ibid. contro-
versies early among them, 102; adopt
the Jewish rites in several places, but
not in all, 105; unanimous in conse-
crating the first day of the week to pub-
lic worship, ibid. churches established
among them, and how the public wor-
ship was conducted, 107; the Lord's
supper, feasts of charity and baptism,
107, 108; the sick anointed, and fasting
introduced, 109; the persecution un-
der Trajan, 130; under Adrian, 131 ;
under Antoninus Pius, 132; the calumny
of impiety and Atheism charged upon
them, refuted by Justin Martyr, ibid.
persecuted under Marcus Antoninus,
ibid. and the chief martyrs, who, 133;
the clemency of Commodus towards
them, 134; the calamities they suffer
under Severus, 134, 196; rendered odi-
ous by calumnies, 134; at Alexandria,
captivated with the principles and dis-
cipline of the modern Platonics, 138;
their learning in ii cent. 144 ; why ma-
ny become Ascetics, 158; pious frauds,
whence, 160; excommunication found
necessary, ibid. penitential discipline
gradually modelled by the Heathen
mysteries, 161 : and the expediency of
this custom considered, ibid. their im-
munities increased under various empe-
rors in iii cent. 191, 192; their numbers
increased, partly by divine, and partly
by human cause9,193, 194; persecution
They suffered under Maximin, 196; ma- m; joins with Lewis XIV. against Pope
ny revolt from the Christian faith under Innocent XI. 490 n.
Decius,197; and the opprobrious names Chrysoloras, Manuel, his character ii. 449
given them, ibid. certificates from the and t,
Pagun priests to those who apostatized, Chrysostom, a general account of him and
ibid. and s; warm disputes concerning his works, i. 277, y, 2; his commenta-
the re-admission of the lapsed, upon ries on the Scriptures, 285; moral trea-
their request to be restored to the com tises, 288; the rigorous proceedings of
munion of the church, 198 : persecuted Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria
by Gallus Volusianus, and Valerian, against him, and on what account, i.
199 : their state under Gallienus and 363 and w; the injustice of his suffer-
Claudius, tolerable, 200 : persecution ings considered, 369.
under Aurelian prevented by his death, Chub, a Deistical writer in xviïi cent. iv.
ibid. attempts of the Jews against them, 188 and c; his hypothesis of Deism, ib.
202: their affairs reduced to a danger- Church, in general, its history in xvii
ous crisis under Dioclesian, 248: mise cent. iii.383; in xviii cent. and Romish
ries very greai under GaleriusMaximin, in particular, its prosperous state, iv.
249; happy state under Constantine 183; missions appointed by the latter,
the Great, ibid. calamities they suffer and success, with observations, ibid.
under Licinius, 253; letters revive famous contest concerning the obser-
among them in iv cent, and the causes, vance of the old Chinese rites in China,
266 : yet many illiterate among them, and how decided in two Papal edicts,
268: two most pernicious maxims adop 184; consequence of the execution of
ted by their teachers, 293; their immo- these edicts in China, 184, 185.
rality increases, 294: controversies fre- Church, Arminian, its history and rise in
quent among them, 295; suffer from xvii cent. iv. 137; by whom founded,
the success of barbarous invaders in v and whence denominated, ibid. and a;
cent. 338: the cruelty of the Goths and its commencement and doctrine of Ar-
Vandals to them in Gaul, 339 : their minius, 128 and b; who is opposed, and
calamities from the Picts and Scots in by whom, ibid. and c; progress of this
Britain, 340 : persecuted in Persia, and church after his death, with some hopes
the cause, ibid. the opposition they met of a toleration, 129 and d; pacific me-
with from the Jews, 341 : sufferings thods used by its members, but in vain,
from the Vandals in Africa, 374 : from ibid. and e, f ; their doctrine compre-
the Anglo-Saxons in England,403: from hended in five articles, and what these
the Huns and Lombards, ibid. from are, 130; last of the five articles changed
Chosroes in Persia, 404 : oppressed by by the Arminians, 131 ; resemble Lu-
the Saracens in Spain and Sardinia, ther's doctrine, with the Calvinists' opi-
485; their superstitious piety and mo nions concerning them, ibid. 132 and
rals in viii cent. 508 : persecuted in x h; Prince Maurice declares against
cent. by the barbarians in the west, ii. the Arminians, and consequence, ibid.
84; their affairs in Palestine in a decli 133 and notes ; synod convoked at
ning state, 234; oppressed by the Sara Dort, to examine their doctrine, and by
cens in xii cent, and the cause, 243; an whom, 135 and n; their tenets con-
important division of their doctors, demned by it, with the bad conse-
292; both faulty in the methods of de quences to them, 135, 136 and 0; the
fending and explaining Christian doc synod accused of partiality by the Ar-
trines, 293; the decline of their inter minians, and with reason, ibid. and p;
est in Palestine, and how occasioned in ibid. and q, r ; their fate after the synod
xjii cent. 332; endeavour to extirpate of Dort, 137; persecuted variously, 138;
the Saracens out of Spain, 441, 507. are invited into Holstein, and form
Christiern, II.King of Denmark,promotes themselves into a colony, ibid. and u;
the Reformation among the Danes, but recalled from exile, 138; their ancient
from bad motives, iii. 63; is deposed, and modern system, 140 and y; which
and the reasons 64, and r; the different was invented by Arminius, but embel-
conduct of his successor Frederic, ibid. lished by Episcopius, with the great
65 and t.
end proposed by it, and its principal
III. his laudable zeal in re heads, 140 and s; their confession of
forming the Danish church from Romish faith, but are not obliged strictly to ad-
superstition, and how he finished it by here to its doctrine, and consequence,
Bugenhagius, and the council at Oden 142 and c, d ; united only in their opi-
see, iii. 65 and u; suppresses episco nions concerning predestination and
pacy, and how far justifiable, 66 and grace, ibid. their Present state, 143;
success in England, ibid. fundamental
Christina, Queen of Sweden, her change principle embraced at most Protestant
of religion and character, iii. 476 and courts, and what it is, ibid, great pro-