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Benedict VI. Pope, his character and fate, Berne, an account of the cruel and impie,
ii. 97.

ous fraud acted in xvi cent. upon one
VII. Pope, account of, ii. 97. Jetzer. by the Dominicans, ii. 18. k.

- VIII. is raised to the pontificate, - - church of, opposes Calvinism, iij.
ii. 147.

278.
- IX. his infamous character, ii. 147. Bernard, St., Abbot of Clairval, preaches
- XII. his good character, ii. 461; up the Crusade in sii cent. ii. 235; draws

is censured for the festival he added to up a rule of discipline for the Knights
the ritual, 496.

* Templars, 240; exposes in his writings
-- XIII. Anti-Pope, an account of the views of the pontiffs, bishops, and
ii. 518, 521.

monks, 257 and w, x; considered as the
- XIII, Pope, his character, iv. 189. second founder of the Cistercian monks,

- XIV. Pope, Prosper Lambertini, who are called from him Benardin
his great character, iv. 189; attempts monks, 274; his great influence, ibid.

to reform the clergy, but in vain, ibid. apology for his own conduct in the di-
Benedictine order of monks, its rise in vi visions between the Cistercian monks,

cent. i. 414; the founder's views in this and those of Clugni, ibid. and h; and
institution, ibid. degeneracy among answer to it by Peter of Clugni, 275 and
them from his practice, 415; its rapid i ; combats the doctrine of the school.
progress in the west,ibid. their founder's men, 294; his charge against Abelard,
discipline neglected and forgot by the 295 and t; as also against Gilbert de
monks in x cent. ii. 102.

la Porée, 296 ; opposes the doctrine of
Benefices, the right of nomination to them the immaculate conception of the Vir-

assumed by the Romish pontiffs, who gin Mary, 304; combats the sect of the
are opposed by the civil power in xiji Apostolics, 320.
cent. ii. 348, 349.

Bernard, of Sens. a mystic writer in xv
Bennet, Gurvas, gives the denomination of cent. his character, ii. 558.

Quakers to the sect so called, and why, Bernoulli, two astronomers in Switzerland
iv. 145.

in xvii cent, their character, iii. 431.
Berenger, introduces logic into France, ii. Bertramn, Ratramn, monk of Corby, emi-
141, his dispute with Lanfranc against nent for refuting Radbert's doctrine of
the real presence of Christ's body and the Eucharist, ii. 31 and b; prepares to
blood in the Holy Sacrament, ibid. 199 draw up a clear and rational esplication
and a ; commentary on the Revelations, of this important subject by the order of
ibid. explains the doctrines of Scripture Charles the Bald, 50 and 1, m; an ac-
by logical and metaphysical rules, ibid. count of this explication, ibid. defends
maintains his doctrine of the Eucharist Godeschalcus, 53; his dispute with
against synodical decrees, and the Hincmar, about the hymn Trina Deitas,
threats and punishment of the civil pow. 55; maintains the cause of the Latin
er, 207; abjures his opinions, but teach church against Photius, 59.
es them soon afterward, 208; his con- Berulle, Cardinal, institutes the order of
duct imperfectly represented, ibid. Oratorians in svii cent. iji. 501.
makes a public recantation with an oath, Beryllus denies the proper subsistence of
and yet propagates his real sentiments Christ before his coming into the world,
of the Eucharist, 209; his second de- i. 238; confuted by Origen, he returns
claration before Gregory VII. ibid. sub- to the church. ibid. and 239.
scribes a third confession with an oath, Bessarion, how employed by the Greeks
211; yet retracts publicly, and compo- in the council of Florence, ii. 536;
ses a "refutation, ibid. and &; whence terms of reconciliation made by him
appear Gregory's sentiments of the Eu on their part with the Latins not lasting,
charist, ibid. and s; his fate, and the ibid. created soon afterward a cardinal,
progress of his doctrine, 212, 213; his ibid. his character, 547 and m.
real sentiments, ibid. and c; the weak. Beza, Theodore, teaches the sciences at
ness of the arguments used by the Ro Geneva with success, iii. 275; his La-
man catholic writers against the real tin version of the New Testament, and
sentiments of this divine, ibid. d; the notes, 210.
nature and manner of Christ's pre- Bibliander, an eminent writer in xvi cent.
sence in the Sacrament not fixed by the iii. 320.
church of Rome in xi cent, ibid. sub fin. Biblical colleges, what so called, and their
not. d.

rise in xvii cent. iv. 39.
Berg, the famous form of concord review. Biblicists, Christian doctors so called, their

ed there, and its contents. iii. 254 and c. rise in xii cent. ii. 292: decline in xiii
Bermudes, John, sent into Abyssinia, with cent. 407: oppose the scholastic divines,

the title of patriarch, in xvi cent. ii. 409.
132; met with little or no success in Biddle, John, a famous writer among the
his ministry, ibid. a mistake about Loy- Socinians in xvii cent. iv. 173 and w.
ola being sent into Abyssinia, ibid. gi Biel, a scholastic writer in xv cent. ii. 548.

Bishops, appointed first at Jerusalem, i. 456 and 9; account of the war, and

91: the nature and extent of their dig. dreadful consequences of it to the King
nity at their first institution, ibid. their and the Bohemians, ibid. how defeated,
authority augmented by the councils, ibid. r and s; progress of the war unfa.
146 : acknowledge themselves the dele vourable to the confederates, with the
gates of their respective churches, and . Emperor's proceedings, 457, 458; Gus-
authoritative rules of faith and manners tavus Adolphus intervenes, 459; end of
when claimed by them, ibid. their pow the thirty years' war, ibid. the peace of
er vehemently asserted by Cyprian in Westphalia, advantages to the protest-
üi. cent. 209: their contentions with ants, and the disappointment of the
each other about the extent of power, in Pope, 460, 461 and y.
iv and following centuries, produced Bohemian, Moravian, brethren, from
violent commotions in the church, 276: whence descended, iii. 297; their cha-
disputes between the bishops of Rome racter ibid. recommend themselves to
and of Constantinople in v cent. i. 346 : Luther's friendship, and embrace the
their court when first established, 351 : sentiments of the Reformed, ibid.
their ambition to extend their jurisdic- Bohemians, converted to Christianity in
tion in x cent. ii. 100 : aspire after, and ix cent ii.4.
obtain, temporal dignities, ibid. admit Boineburg, Baron, deserts the Protestant
persons to the order of saints indepen religion, in xvii cent, and the cause ex-
dently on the power of the Roman pon- amined, iii. 477.
tiff, 110 : oppose the arrogance of the Bois, Abbe du, his ambition a principal ob-
pontiffs in xiii cent. 348 : disputes be- stacle to the project of union between
tween them and the Mendicants, 476: the English and French churches, iv.
sentiments of the Puritans concerning 243. See Girardin.
them, 510 and n.

Boleslaus, King of Poland, revenges the
Bisochi, a sect. See Tertiaries, ii. 391, murder of Adalbert, Bishop of Prague, ,
&c.

ii. 120 ; compels the Prussians to re-
Blanc, Lewis le, his writings to reconcile c eive Christianity, ibid.

the Romish and Reformed churches in Bolonia, the fame of this academy in xii

xvii cent. iv. 86: unsuccessful, 87. cent. ii. 248; spurious diploma of its
Blandrata, George, propagates Socinian antiquity, ibid. e; the study of the an-

ism in Transylvania, and his character, cient Roman law very much promoted
ii. 371.

in it, 250.
Blesdyck, Nicholas, charges David George Bolsec, Jerom, declaims against Calvin's

with maintaining blasphemous errors, doctrine of divine decrees, and his

and has his body burnt, iii. 350, 351. character, iii. 316; his treatment from
Blesensis, Petrus, his works, ii. 283 and o; Calvin causes a breach between the
refutes the Jews in sii cent. 298.

latter and Jacques de Bourgogne, 317.
Blount, Charles, his oracles of reason and Bonaventura, an eminent scholastic divine
death, iii. 424 and 2.

in xiji cent. ii. 380 ; his prudent en-
Blumius, Henry, his change of religion in deavours to establish concord among

xvii cent. and character, iii. 477 and q. the Franciscans unsuccessful, ibid. and
Bockholid, John, a tailor of Leyden, and 384 ; his great learning, 400 and g.

mock King of Munster, an account of, Boniface III. Pope, engages the Empe-
ii. 329 : his enthusiastic impiety and se rorand tyrant Phocas to deprive ihe
ditious madness, particularly at Mun. Bishop of Constantinople of the title of
ster, ibid. and p, 9 and r ; short reign Universal Bishop, and to confer it upon
and ignominious death, 350.

the Roman pontiff in vii cent. i. 452.
Bodin, à supposed infidel writer in xvi

V. Pone enacts the law for ta-
cent. iii. i 19.

king reluge in churches in vii cent. i.
Boethius, an account of, i. 406: the only 463.
philosopher in vi cent. 407.

Winfred, converts the Germans
Boetius, his controversy with Balduin in in viii cent. i. 478 and c; his other pious
xvii cent. iv. 55.

exploits, ibid. advancement in the
Bogerman, presides at the Synod of Dort, church, ibid. and death, 479; entitled
and hates the Arminians, iv. 137.

the Apostle of the Germans, and the
Bogomiles, a sect of heretics in xii cent. ii. judgment to be formed about it, ibid.

306 : founder Basilius, ibid. their name, and d; an account of, 507.
whence, 307 and n.

attempts the conversion of the
Bohemia, commotions in xv cent. excited Prussians in si cent. ii. 121 ; his fate,

by the ministry of John Huss, ii. 552: ibid. and h.
how terminated, 555: troubles there

VIV. Pope, makes a collection
excited against the Protestants in xvii which is called the sixth book of the
cent. iii. 456 : who defend themselves Decretals in xiii cent. ii. 346 ; his arro.
furiously, and choose Frederic V.King, gant assertion in favour of papal power,

349; infamous character, 363 ; abo. of eminent piety, ibid. place the whole
lishes all the acts of his predecessor, of religion in internal devotion, ibid.
387; institutes the jubilee, 418; his in their shocking violation of decency,432
solent letters to Philip the Fair of and y; execrable and blasphemous doc-
France, and quarrel, 453; excommuni. trine of some among tbem, 432 and %;
cates the king, 454 ; is seized by the their first rise seems to have been in

order of Philip, and dies, ibid and g.. Italy, 434 a; several edicts against them
Borri, Joseph Francis, his romantic no in xiv cent. 500; prevail over all oppo-

tions, iii. 547; is sentenced to perpetual sition, 501; called by various names,
imprisonment, 548,

563; undergo severe punishments from
Bosius, George, bis doctrine in xvii. cent. the inquisition in xv cent. 564 and h;
iv. 51.

as also from Ziska, 565 and i,
Bossuet; Bishop of Meaux, his character Brethren, and clerks of the common life,
and works for reconciling the Frerich an account of them in xv cent. ii. 445;
Protestants, iii. 469, 470 and u; follow divisions into the lettered and illiterate,
ed by others of their own private au and their several employments, ibid.sis-
thority, 471; plan of reconciliation re ters of this society bow employed, ibid.
commenced by the bishop of Tinia, the fame of the schools erected by them
who was commissioned for this purpose, and of some eminent men educated in
ibid. but in vain, ibid. his defence of the them, ibid. 546 and h, i.
Regale, 490, k; dispute with Fenelon, - white, their rise in xv cent. ii.
and the occasion, 545.

566; their name, whence, and what
Boulanvilliers, Count, character of him, doctrines were taught by their chief.

with his defence of Spinoza, iii. 428 ibid. and k; their leader apprehended
and y.

by Boniface IX. and burnt, with the sup-
Bourgogne, Jacques de, his breach with pression of the sect, ibid, and l; vari.

Calvin, and the occasion, iii. 317. ous opinions concerning the equity of
Bourignon, Antoinette, an account of her the sentence passed upon their leader,

enthusiasm, in xvii cent. iy. 179; her 567 and m.
main and predominant principle, 180 British, ecclesiastics, successful in their
and f; patrons of her fanatical doc- ministry among the Germans in viii
trine, ibid. and g, h.

cent. i. 478.
Bowenson, Leonard, excites a warm con- Brito, Guil. and his character, ii. 340 and i.

test about excommunication in xvicent. Britons, if converted as early as king Lu-
iii. 335; severe doctrine concerning it, cius, i. 125.
336.

Brown, George, Archbishop of Dublin,
Boyle, Robert, his lectures, iii. 418 and y, his zeal in the cause of the Reformation
431; his great character, 446..

in Ireland, iii. 96: his character, ibid. I.
Brabantinus, an account of his treatise on Moshem's mistake here, and Queen
bees, ii, 493.

Mary's cruel designsin Ireland prevent-
Brachmans, veneration paid them by the ed, ibid. m; deprived under her, who '

Indians, iii. 390; their title assumed by encourages Popery, that afterward re-
Robert de Nobili, ibid. and 391, i; and ceives under Elizabeth a final and irre.
by other Jesuits, ibid. and m.

coverable blow to the interest of the
Bradwardine, Archbishop of Canterbury, Romish cause, 97 and n; his singular

an eminent mathematician in xiv cent. account of the genius and spirit of the

ii. 449; his book on Providence, 493. Jesuits, 141, a.
Brahe, Tycho, a celebrated astronomer in - Robert, founder of the Brownists
xvii cent. ii. 431.

in xvi cent. iii. 292; his notions, 293
Breckling, Frederic, his uncharitable wri and u; renounces his separation from
tings, and character, iv. 62 and h,

the church of England, 294.
Bredenberg, John, a collegiate, defends Brownists, a sect of Puritans, iii. 292; their

the doctrine of Spinoza, in xvii cent. sentiments on church government, 293
iv. 176; debate between him and Cui and u; retire into the Netherlands, 294;
per concerning the use of reason in re their fate on their founder's renouncing
ligious matters, ibid and 2.

his separation, ibid. x and y; doctrine
Bremen, republic of, embraces Calvin's and discipline censured, iv. 103.

doctrine and institutions, iii. 280 and b. Brulifer, an eminent scholastic writer in
Brethren and sisters of the Free Spirit, a XV cent. ii. 549.

sect in xiii cent. ii. 428,429 and r,s; va- Bruno attempts with Boniface the con-
rious names and singular behaviour, version of the Prussians, ii. 121; is mas-
ibid. and t; dangerous and impious con sacred, with his colleague and other
clusion drawn by them from their mys. followers, ibid.
tic theology, 430, 431; sentences from -- founder of the Carthusians in si
some more secret books belonging to : cent. ii. 189, h.
them, ibid. and w; some among them -- two of that name, ii. 194.

Bruno, Jordano, a supposed infidel in xvi Cælestius, bis doctrine of original sin one
cent. jjj. 119.

main source of Pelagianism, i. 391; ac-
Bruys, Peter, attempts to reform the abu- count of, ibid. g.

ses and superstition of his times, and is Cæsarius of Arles, his works, i. 417,423,
charged with fanaticism, ii. 311, found. 450.
er of the Petrobrussians, ibid. is burnt, Cajetan, Cardinal, his conference at Augs.
ibid. some of his tenets, ibid.

-- burg with Luther on the nature and ex-
Bryennius, Nicephorus, an eminent histo- tent of indulgences, iii.30; insolent be-
rian in xii cent. ii. 246.

haviour, and fruitless issue of the de."
Josephus, his works, ii. 546. bate, 31 and r; absurd expression con-
Bucer, Martin, endeavours to bring about cerning Christ's blood, 33 and x; cha-

a reconciliation between the Reformed racter of his exposition of the Bible,
and the Lutherans, iii. 267; how defeat. 160.
ed, 263; his attempts to modify the Cainites, an account of their tenets, i. 185.
doctrine of the Swiss church to that of Callistus, Nicephorus, his character and
Luther, and how defeated, 274.:

works, ii. 446, 487.
Budneians, a sect of Socinians, their doc- Calixtines, in Bohemia, their rise in xv
trine, iii. 363; their founder, with his cent. ii. 553; four demands, ibid.
character and sentiments, 379, 380; Calixtus, George, his zeal for reconciling
who is excommunicated, but re-admit. . the Protestants and Catholics in xvii
ted, ibid. and followed by William Da- cent. iii. 472; as also the Lutherans and

vides, Francken, and others, ibid. Reformed, iv. 13; his peculiar method
Bugenhagius, draws up a form of religious and form of theology, 27; system of

government and doctrine, according to moral theology, 29; author of Syncre.
the principles of the Reformation, for tism, and character, 31; opposed by
the Danes, iii. 65; the salutary effect of whom, ibid, his death, 33 and d; doc-
this work in perfecting the Reformation trine condemned, and creed drawn up
in Denmark, ibid. and u.

against it by the Lutheran doctors, ibid.
John, bis Harmonies of the opinions, 35 and f; his real design, ibid.
Evangelists, iii. 224.

sub fin. not. f; two great principles,
Bullinger, his character, iii. 310; writings, with debates carried on with the doctors
319.

of Rintelen, Coningsberg, 36; and Je-
Bulgarians, converted to Christianity in na, 37; the candid examination of Glas-
ix cent. ii. 4.

sius on this occasion, ibid. and k.
Burchard, Bishop of Worms, character of

Frederic Ulric, opposes the
his Decreta, written in x cent. ii. 105. creed of the Lutheran doctors against
Burckhard, Francis, writes against the Syncretism, iv. 34.
treaty of Passau, iii. 215.

- II. Pope, his great character, ii.
Burg, Gibbon de, his pacificatory attempts 261; disputes concerning investitures
in xviii cent. iii. 469 and s.

subside by his prudence, ibid.
Burgundians, spontaneously embrace --- III. institutes in xv cent. the fes.

Christianity, i. 334; the cause to which tival of the Transfiguration, ii. 562.
this is imputed, ibid. inclined to Arian- Calovius, a Lutheran writer in xvii cent.
ism, ibid.

iv. 26; attacks Calixtus, 32; his malig-
Bulæus, Walter, the use of bis works, ii. nity against the disciples of Calixtus,
450; his character, 488.

even after his death, 33.
Bus, Cæsar de, founder of the order of the Calvin, John, a short character of him, iii.

fathers of the Christian doctrine in svi 68 and a,b; facilitated a reconciliation
cent. iii. 151.

of the Reformed and Lutherans, 268,
Buscherus, Statius, opposes the pacific pro 269 and g; error here, 269 ; set on foot

jects of Calixtus in xvii cent. iv. 31; the the controversy about predestination,
conduct of the latter upon this occasion, 270; his opinion, and that of the ancient
32; an account of the Crypto Papismus. Helvetic doctors, ibid. the former, pro-
of Buscherus, ibid.

pagated with discord, carried to the
greatest height, 271; founder of the

Reformed church, 274 and.0; his grand
Cabasilas, Nicholas, an eminent mathema views how in part executed, ibid. 275,
tician in xiv cent. ii. 447.

276 and p; doctrine and discipline al-
Nilus, his character, ii. 448. tered from that of Zuingle in three
Cabballa, the source of many errors among points, ibid. first, the power of the ma-

the Jews, i. 50; derived from the Orien gistrate, ibid.second, the eucharist, little
tal philosophy, ibid. much taught and different from the Lutherans, though
admired by the Jews, 82.

much from Zuingle, 277, 278 and 9,r:
Cæcilianus, Bishop of Carthage, condemn. different from the Romanists, ibid. third,

ed in iv cent. i. 309; the reasons alleged in God's absolute decree, ibid. his
for it, ibid. meets with a violent opposi changes not approved or received by all
tion from Donatus, ibid. and e.

the Reformed, 278, 279; gains ground

in Germany 279; and in France, 281; Canons, regular, their useful lives and
in Scotland by Knox, and in England, manners in xii cent. ii. 275; contest
282 ; his system made the public rule with the monks about pre-eminence,
of faith in the latter place under Edward 276.
VI. 283; his system adopted in the New Roman, their luxurious lives, iii.
therlands, 295 ; bis rigid discipline, and 146.
resolution in establishing it, and the dan. Cantacuzenus, John, his history of his own
gers he is thereupon exposed to, 307, times, and confutation of the Mahome-
308 and d; his interpretation of the

487.
precepts of Aristotle, 309; Commen- Cantipratensis, Thomas, his character, ii,
tary, and why sharply censured, 310; 50.
Institutes of the Christian religion, 312; Capistran, John, bis character, ii. 549 ;
Practical divinity, or life and manners eminent for his defence of papal autho-
of a true Christian, ibid. contest with rity, ibid.
the spiritual libertines, 313; with those Capito, Robert, an account of, ii. 341,400
of Geneva, 314; disputes with Castalio, and i : his commentaries on Dionysius,
315; with Bolsec, 316; with Ochinus, 410.
317; puts Servetus to death, 366 ; his Cappel, Lewis charged with making im-
method of interpreting Scripture scru. prudent and base concessions, through
pulously followed by the members of a desire of diminishing the prejudices or
the Reformed church, iv. 72.

resentment of the Papists against the
Calvinists, secret, favourers of, in Saxony, Protestants in xvii cent. iv. 86 ; the

iii. 250; whence called Crypto-Calvin voluminous and elaborate work under-
ists, 252 ; attempts to spread their doc taken by him, what, ibid q, r, and s;
trine, 257; and consequences, with the zealously opposed, ibid. the churches
death of Crellius, their chief patron, of Switzerland alarmed at his opinions,
259.

and the event, iv. 125.
Camaldolites, a monastic order, their rise Capreolus, John, his character, ii. 548.

in xi cent. ii. 186; founder Romuald,' Capuchins, their origin in xvi cent. and
whose followers are divided into two founder, iii. 147, 148 and i, k; envy
classes, the Cænobites, and the Ere against them, and why so called, ibid.
mites, ibid and s.

and m, n; banished Venice in xvii cent. -
Camateurs, Andronicus, his character, ii. iii. 483; but recalled 484, a.
281.

Caputiati, a sect of fanatics in xij cent. ii.
Cambalu, now Pekin in China, erected by

Clement V. into an archbishopric in Caracalla, Emperor, bis lenity to the
xiv cent. ij. 442.

Christians, i. 192.
Camerarius, Joachim, a promoter of uni. Cardan, a philosopher in xvi cent. iii. 122;

versal learning, and his character, iii. his character, ibid. n.
219; his Commentary on the New Tes- Cardinals, the right of electing to the see
tament, 224.

of Rome vested in them by Nicholas II.
Cameron, John, his reconciling doctrine in xi cent. ii. 150 and e; their origin
and endeavours, iji. 83.

and rights, 152 and h, i; divided into
Campanella, a philosopher in xvi cent. iii. two classes, of Cardinal Bishops and
123; his character, ibid. p.

Cardinal Clerks, 153; and the meaning
Campanus, his heretical notions, iii. 355, of these terms, 154 and n; their college
and a.

augmented by Alexander III. 155.
Canon of Scripture, supposed to be fixed

in Rome, their number, iii. 126 ;
about ii ceni. i. 93; and reasons for this what incapable of being elected to the
supposition, ibid.

see of Rome, 127 and b.
Canons, a religious order, their origin in Cario, an eminent historian among the

viii. cent. i. 503; their founder Chrode- Lutherans, iji. 218.
gangus, ibid. and h; encouraged by Carolostadt, his intemperate zeal and
Lewis the Meek, ii. 27; who orders a warm debates with Luther, iii. 232;
new rule to be drawn up for their ob excites a tumult at Wittemberg, ibid.
servance, which is condemned, and in and g; leaves Wittemberg, and oppo-
stitutes the first Canonesses, 28 and h; ses the sentiments of Luther concerning
the author of this rule, ibid. partiality the Eucharist, ibid. and h; propagates
of their historians, ibid. i; degenerate his doctrine in Switzerland, 233; fa-
from their primitive purity, 29; cor vourable disposition toward the Ana-
ruption among them in xi cent. 191; re baptists, and enthusiastical teachers,
formation attempted, and new laws ibid. charged with fanaticism. ibid,andi.
made, ibid. distinction into regular and Carmelites, a monastic order, their rise in
secular, 192 ; why called Regular ca xii cent. ii. 279; founded by Albert,
nons of St. Augustin, ibid. and p; in patriarch of Jerusalem, ibid. iheir rule
troduction into England, ibid. ?

of discipline, ibid. and t; unwarrant-

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