« הקודםהמשך »
brought up to the chin, and the whole body secured as compactly as possible by cords. The bones of the arms were sometimes broken to facilitate the process of compression. In this posture the remains were dried. This required a good deal of attention, the exuding moisture being carefully wiped off from time to time. When thoroughly dried the cords were removed, and the body usually wrapped in a shirt made of the skins of aquatic birds with the feathers ou, and variously trimmed and ornamented with exceedingly fine em
broidery. Over this were wrapped pieces of STANLEY'S PORTABLE BOAT,
matting made of elymus-fibre carefully prepared. This matting varies from quite coarse to exceedingly fine, the best rivaling the most delicate work of the natives of Fayal. The technical and artistic skill shown in the manufacture of this matting is one of the most suggestive facts elicited by these observations. In certain instances a further water-proof covering was added. This was made from the split intestines of the sea-lion sewed together. The exterior covering was usually made from the skins of the sea-otter or other fur-animals, and the whole was finally inclosed in a case of seal-skins, coarse matting, or similar material secured firmly by cords, and so arranged as to
be capable of suspension. This case was STANLEY'S PORTABLE RAFT.
sometimes cradle-shaped, especially when the
body was that of an infant. In the latter case three keels, to which are Jasbed the poles for. The communication to which we refer it was often composed of wood ornamented in shown above. The bow and stern consist of embodies the results of these observations in a crude fashion, and painted with red, green, triangular compartments, and the whole dur- one branch of research, and from it we con- or blue native pigments. The whole, being ing transportation may be packed in a con. dense as follows: The practice of preserving carved or adorned with pendants of carved venient form. Its whole weight is three hun. the bodies of the dead was in vogue among wood, was then suspended by braided cords of dred pounds, which can be divided into five the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands and whale-sinew from two wooden hoops like the loads of sixty pounds each. In the construc
the Kodiak Archipelago at the time of their arches used in the game of croquet. It is im
discovery, and probably had been the custom possible to read of these acts of devotion as tion of this rast the explorer has given to our
among them for centuries before. So hard exhibited in the very nature of the work desteamship companies a hint that might wise.
and unyielding is the soil in these regions that scribed without haviug awakened in the heart ly be heeded. As Stanley starts out on a burial is impracticable, and, owing to the diffi- sentiments of tender sympathy and pity for journey of general exploration, we doubt not culties attending the process of cremation, it is the devoted friends, and most of all the loving that these facilities for water-travel will add the present custom of the inhabitants of the mothers who, away among those rock-borgreatly to the success of his schemes. Pos- Chuckchee peninsula, on the Asiatic side of dered and sea-encompassed islands, centuries sibly it remains for him to explore that
Behring Strait, to expose their dead on some ago felt, as we feel, the same pure reverence mightiest of African rivers, the Congo
hill-side to the tender mercies of bears, dogs, for the dead and the same worthy desire to work which the Geographical Magazine re
and foxes. In the Yukon Valley, where tim- honor their remains. So constant and de
ber abounds, the dead are placed in wooden voted was this love of the Aleutian mother for gards as "the most worthy object of an Afri.
coffins, which are elevated on four posts. As a her child that we are told that the body of the can explorer," adding that he who succeeds
further protection against wild beasts, long little one, after being dressed in the richest of in laying open the bidden secrets of that fa
strips of fur or cloth are fastened to these garments that her industry and skill could mous stream will rank second to none in the posts, the agitation of which by the wind provide, was often retained in the house for glorious roll of English travelers.” Should serves to frighten away the intruders. In cer- months, where its presence doubtless taught it happen, however, that this honor slould tain instances the bodies are doubled up to the same lesson of love and hope that the fall upon an American, we are certain that our economize space, others are packed around mother of this day still heeds and hearkens to.
While the ethnologist and historian acknowlcontemporary will be equally willing to grant with clay, while the Norvikakhat Indians him all the praise that he will merit. Al sometimes place their dead erect, surrounding edge their obligation to these explorers for the
the body by hewn timbers secured like the service rendered to science by their faithful ready Stanley has a rival in this field should
staves of a cask. On the Aleutian Islands, researches, others who read may not wait for he choose to enter it, but we doubt rot Lieuhowever, the soil is unfrozen, but wood is their decision before advancing to claim a willtenant Cameron would welcome bim as did
scarce, the only source of supply being that ing kinship with that race whose love and revLivingstone, and avail himself of these mod. which is drifted on the shore by ocean-cur- erence for their dead make their memory worern appliances to aid in the prosecution of a rents. Abundant caves also exist, and the ab- thy of all honor by the living. work that, according to the worthy authority sence of wild animals renders the exercise of above quoted, may be regarded as “the more imposing burial-rites possible. Hence it WHILE engaged in the same general field
of research as that indicated in the above regrandest geographical exploit achieved during is that in these quarters we find more attenthe present century."
tion given to the burial or preservation of the port of Professors Dall and Pinart, Henry dead. It is a singular fact, uoticed by Pro-Gilman, of Detroit, directs the attention of
fessor Dall, that no people have ever adopted | anthropologists to the artificial perforation of W. H. Dall, the Alaskan explorer, con- the plan of committing their dead to the sea. the cranium, a singular practice connected tributes to the American Naturalist for August Passing from these descriptions of the prac- with the burial ceremonies of the aboriginal inan exceedingly interesting and valuable paper tices of the ruder tribes, the writer describes habitants of this country. This practice or rite on Alaskan mummies. At the time of the the method adopted by the Kaniag and Aleut consisted in the boring, probably with a rude appointment of Alphonse Pinart as commis- branches of the Esquimau stock in preserving stone implement, of a circular aperture in the sioner of the French Governmeut to explore the dead. The body was prepared by making central portion at the top of the skull. This and report on the etlinology past and present an opening in the pelvic region and removing hole is of a diameter varying from one-third of our newly-acquired Territory of Alaska, all the internal organs. The cavity was then to one-half of an inch, and is flaring at the surwe ventured the assurance that, as the result filled with dry grass, and the body placed in face. The examples that suggest the present of the combined labors of Messrs. Dall and running water. This in a short time removed inquiry were taken respectively from the great Pinart, decided acquisitions to our present all the fatty portions, leaving only the skin mound on the river Rouge, Michigan, and from knowledge of that country might be looked and muscular tissues. The knees were then a mound on the Sable River. From this latter
mound from ten to fifteen skulls were taken, peared in the form of " a number of dark floc- fessors of recognized position, whose pledge all similarly perforated. These skulls were culent bodies floating slowly down through shall be exacted that the occasion is one which isolated, no other remains having been in- the air from a great height, appearing as if calls for the operation upon the conscious, liv. terred with them. A skull found at Saginaw, falling from a very heavy, dark cloud, which ing subject. Michigan, had three perforations, arranged 1 hung over the house." The pieces of hay about the central part of the cranium. While picked up were wet,
It is announced that Professor Proctor is
as if a very beavy dew Mr. Gilman hesitates to advance even an hy- had been deposited on it.
again to visit this country on a lecturing tour.
He will lecture before the same audiences pothesis regarding the purpose or cause of this weight of the larger flocks was probably not
which listened to him before, opening with a practics, Dr. Prunières regards the motive, as more than one or two ounces, and, from that,
second course of twelve lectures before the respects a similar treatment of the neolithic all sizes were perceptible down to a simple skulls of the Lozère, as either medical or su- blade. The air was very calm, with a gentle
Lowell Institute, Boston. After fulfilling his perstitious. Attributing disease to supernatu- under-current from southeast; the clouds were
Eastern engagements, he will extend his lives ral agencies, he deems it probable that the
so as to include San Francisco, New Orleans, moving in an upper-current from south-southopening was made in order that the evil spirit west." The air was tolerably warm and dry,
and Quebec. We have had frequent occasion, might escape through it. As these latter skulls and the phenomenon is thus accounted for by
since Professor Proctor's departure, to refer
to bis favorable commendations of American are those of men existing during the prehis- Dr. J. W. Moore: “ The coincidence of a hot
science and scientific methods, and, on the toric, polished Stone age, the signiticance sun and two air-currents probably caused the of this theory, should it be established as a devolopment of a whirlwind some distance to
principle that “ he who would have friends correct one, is apparent, in defining to a cer- the south of Monkstown. By it the hay was
must show himself friendly," Professor Proctain degree the intellectual status of these peo- raised into the air, to fall, as already described,
tor returns sure of a hearty welcome; add to ple, and the existence of certain crude, reli- over Monkstown and the adjoining district."
this his recognized ability as a student and gious ideas among them. It is the opinion of
popular lecturer, and we feel safe in promising Dr. Prunières that, in certain instances, the The announcement is now made that the
for him full and appreciative audiences. subjects lived for several years after having Bessemer Steamboat Company is in liquida- During the early preparation for the Enghad their skulls trepanned in the manner in- tion, and that the Channel steamship Besse
lish Arctic Expedition, we announced that a dicated. As there is no evidence that these mer is for sale. At the same time we are in
request had been made for the privilege of prehistoric surgeons or sorcerers worked with formed that the Casta!' . 'receiving praise for
using the provisions that were left at Disco any but stone instruments, it is evident that her sea-going qualities. Our readers, who, by
by the American party led by the late Capwith these they had become exceedingly ex- the aid of illustrated descriptions, have been
tain Hall; we now learn that these provisions pert, since the operation of trepanning, even fully instructed as to the peculiarities of these
have been found, in a fair state of preservation, with all the modern appliances, is yet regarded two rival vessels, will recall the novel features
and it is certainly a source of congratulation as one calling for the exercise of great skill in their construction --- the Bessemer being a
that what miglit well have been supposed to and professional knowledge. four-wheeled steamship, and fitted up with
be lost may yet serve to aid in the prosecution an oscillating cabin, while the Castalia is a of the work for which they were originally inA NOVEL method for propelling or towing double-hulled vessel. The failure of the Bes
tended. canal-boats has recently been introduced in semer is said to be “in consequence of the Belgium, which is described in the Scientific want of requisite accommodations in the French American as follows: "The tow-path is laid harbors." Notwithstanding this statement, with a single rail, weighing some sixteen the public will doubtless be persuaded that pounds to the yard, and fixed on traverses a the real trouble is with the oscillating cabin,
NOTEWORTHY THINGS GLEANED HERE little more than three feet apart. The locomo- which proved to be unwieldy and useless in a
AND THERE. tive has four wheels, two of which are placed | rough sea. Should it, however, be proved that directly along the axis of the vehicle, one in the defect is with the harbors and not the resadvance of the other, and the others one at
E either side. The first pair are directing and i sist in his plan, and adapt his cabin to a ves
Lewis Farley, Esq., on “ The Decline the second driving wheels. The directing- sel of less draught. That so experienced an
of Turkey,” a few significant statements : wheels are grooved and fit the rail; the others engineer should have intrusted the modeling have rubber tyres, which give purchase on the and construction of his vessel to those who No matter what their origin, however, the macadamized road, and which press thereon were so incompetent as to build it of too great first thought of inodern Turkish statesmen is to the extent of 0.07 pounds to the square a draught for the well-known harbor of Calais, to make money. They know their tenure of inch. By means of a simple mechanism, the can hardly be believed. Hence this enterpris- | office is insecure, and they seize their opporweight of the machine may be thrown upon ci- ing and experienced engineer will be com- tunity. It is true, there was always peculather the driving or directing wheels at will. In pelled to demonstrate the practicability of his tion and corruption at the Porte, but these the former case the maximum, and in the lat- | cabin or own up to its failure, and the conse- habitual vices were, to some extent, kept in ter the minimum, oť adherence is obtained, to quent sale of the Bessemer.
check by Fuad and A'ali. Since the latter's suit the conditions of a loaded or an empty
death, however, all control has ceased, and boat. There is but a single road, with rotary Should the movement against the indis- corruption is the rule from the highest to the engines provided at suitable distances. Each criminate practice of vivisection, which is lowest. Their creed is : " The country is locomotive tows one boat; and when a meet- now being made in England, prove success- going hopelessly to the dogs ; let us take card ing takes place of two traveling in opposite ful, the efforts of American workers in the of ourselves.” When Mahmoud Pasha fell from directions, the engines change boats and re- same cause will be greatly lightened. For this power in August, 1872, amid the execrations trace their paths. The locomotives weigh four reason the contest becomes one of more than of the populace, there was a little sum of £100,tuns cach, and travel about three miles an mere local interest. While many of the most 000 found to be missing, for which he had hour, with full boats, carrying a cargo of one distinguished English physiologists have de- given an order under his own hand; and this hundred and fifty tons each.” This method clared in favor of greater restriction in the money has, I believe, never yet been accounted is doubtless a novel one, but the question nat- practice, others are coming forward in its de- for. In England, the richest country in the urally arises, In what degree is it better than fense. As it is probable that the final settle- world, the prime-minister receives £5,000 per the common two-track railway, since, though ment of the matter must come in the form of annum ; in Turkey, the poorest country in but one rail is used, there is need of a careful legislative action, it seems wise that the peo- Europe, the grand-vizier draws £30,000 a year, grading of the whole road-bed ?
ple, whose voice is law, should be so advised while the civil-list, and the salaries of all the
as to act intelligently on the question. The high officials, are vastly more than those of Our readers will recall the fact announced position we have heretofore taken is one that the queen and ministers of Great Britain. in these columns that the dust and ashes from still appears to us the only wise and tenable Mr. T. Brassey, the honorable member for the volcanoes of Iceland were conveyed upon one: viz., no vivisection shall be permitted Hastings, who is on a cruise in his yacht, the the wind to Sweden, where they fell in dense the only purpose of which is to establish or Sunbeam, bas sent home for publication a seclouds, thus announcing in advance of the regu- demonstrate a recognized physiological truth; ries of letters relating to bis voyage. Dating lar news-channels the disasters that occasioned no such operation shall be permitted when from Constantinople, he writes, relative to the them. Another incident illustrating the power every needed result can be obtained after the Government of Turkey : “ The authorized of the wind as a conveyer of solid matter is previous administration of an anæsthetic; and civil-list of the sultan is about £1,200,000, given by Dr. Hawtrey Benson, of Dublin. finally if, in the course of original research, and, by means of more or less arbitrary grants, This relates to a fall of hay that was observed vivisection is deemed necessary, it shall be it is actually little short of £2,000,000 a year. at Monkstown. As described in Nature it ap- practised either by or in the presence of pro- All along the shores of the Bosporus vast pal
, we doubt not that Mr. Bessemer will per- / W E glean from a recent pamphlet, by J.
to fall, she will owe her destruction to the want of honor and capacity in her rulers, and her decline will date from the death of A'ali Pusha. The root of the evil, which is fast bringing Turkey to ruin, is the unchecked extravagance of the civil-list, and the irresponsible expenditure iu the ministerial departments of the state.
The latest poem by Robert Buchanan is from an Irish legend, and bears the title of "The Faëry Reaper :"
'Tis on Eilanowen,
There's laughter surely!
Their golden grain.
So stilly and purely,
Or silver rain;
No man may see,
It reaped must be;
With sickle keen,
A pure colleen!
aces and elaborate kiosks occur in succession at a distance of a little more than a mile apart. Some of these buildings are furnished in the most costly style. The daily dinner of the sultan - he always dines alone - consists of ninety-four dishes ; and ten other meals are prepared in case it should be his fancy to partake of them. He has eight hundred horses, seven hundred wives, attended and guarded by three hundred and fifty eunuchs. For this enormous household forty thousand oxen are yearly slaughtered ; and the purveyors are required to furnish daily two hundred sheep, one hundred lambs or goats, ten calves, two hundred hens, two hundred pairs of pullets, one hundred pairs of pigeons, and ifty greengeeso. Between the profligate luxury of the establishment of the sovereign and the miserable poverty of too many of his subjects, the contrast is truly melancholy. The incomes of the principal ministers of state are such as would grievously shock the radical reformers of our own country. The salary of the grandvizier is £30,000; of the Minister of Finance, £15,000 ; of the Minister of Public Works, £11,000; and so in proportion for the other principal ministers."
That, however, is not all. Each ministerial department is supposed to have its own separate budget, but that budget is always exceeded. Every department issues its own mandats or promissory notes, and these manduts are discounted at heavy interest by the local bankers, who thus realize enormous fortunes. I do not, of course, mean to state that the issue of treasury bonds is pernicious per 8€. It is the abuse, and not the use, of such obligations to which exception must be taken; the abuse consisting in converting that which should be a temporary-and, in such sense, a justifiable expedient for the assistance of the treasury-into a perpetual annuity on the imperial revenue. It is practically impossible to correctly estimate the income of the state, but it is even still inore impossible to estimate its expenditure. Expenditure without limit is, if any thing, worse than uncertainty of income, but when the two are combined, the difficulties of the situation are indefinitely increased. To remodel the fiscal system so as to insure a sufficiency of revenue, would, however, be a task far beyond the capacities of the present ministers of the Porte, whereas the issue of mandats and treasury bonds is an operation wbich commends itself for its simplicity and facility of execution.
This borrowing continues until the moneylenders bave no more cash to advance, and then comes the necessity for a new loan. Promises of financial reform are lavishly made, a prospectus is issued, the local bankers of Constantinople convert their mandats and treasury bonds into the new stock, and, when a quotation is obtained on the stock-exchange, the bonds are gradually transferred into the hands of the unsuspecting English investor. The government and the local financiers are then in a position to resume the same system of borrowing and lending, with the same inevitable result; the only persons really benefited being the ministers and saraffs. Not a piaster is spent in developing the resources of the country, or in improving the coudition of the people.
The whole financial system is, in fact, as far as the state is concerned, a gigantic sham -a sham, in the manipulation of which the ministers and the local bankers accumulato wealth, and the state accumulates debt; in wbielt the morals of the community are systematically sapped, and the estate of the citizen bystematically plundered. IfTurkey is doomed
Yes, pure completely
Must be that maiden, Just feeling sweetly
Her love's tirst dream. Should one steal thither
With evil laden, The crop would wither
In the pale moon's beam ! For midnights seven,
While all men sleep, Neath the silent heaven
The maid must reap;
Of soul is she,
Will that harvest be!
When the sun above her
Was brightly blazing, She'd bare (God love her!)
Each round white limb. Unseen, unnoted,
Save fay-folk gazing, Dark-haired, white-throated,
She'd strip to swim ! Out yonder blushing
A space she'd stand, Then falter flushing
Across the strand-
Would sparkle sweet,
From neck to feet!
With fond caresses,
My muiden fair!
From its crystal kisses, The bright drops flowing
From her dripping hair, Outleaping, running
Beneath the sky,
Iler limbs, she'd fly-
Of elfin bowers, The Fays ran after
With fruit and flowers ! Could the Fays behold her,
Nor long to gain her? From foot to shoulder
None white as she ! They cried, “God keep her,
No sorrow stain her! The Faëry Reaper
In troth she'll be !"
Ard silvern ears,
The grain appears. 'Tis harvest weather!
The moon swims ligh! And they flock together
With elfin cry! Now, long and truly
I'd loved that maiden ; And served her duly
With kiss and sign; And that same season
My soul love-laden Had found sweet reason
To wish her mine. For her cheek grew paler,
Iler laughter less, And what might ail her
I could not guess.
We kissing met,
Her eyes seemed wet.
What ails ye nightly? For sure each morning
'Tis sad ye seem !” Her eyes not weeping
Looked on me brightly : • Each night when sleeping
I dream a dream. ''Tis on Eilanowen
I seem to be,
I surely see;
My fingers keep,
On what I reap!
In Lough Bawn's bosom
The isle is lying,
On a maiden's breast-
O'erhead is flying, And beneath the sea-gull
Doth build its nest. And across the water
A furm gleamed fair, And the farmer's daughter
Dwelt lonely there:
She'd sit and sing,
Their seeds in spring.
Nor see them peeping; Though she wandered near them
The spring-tide through, When the grouse was crowing,
The trout was leaping, And with harebells blowing
The banks were blue. But not by moonlight
She dared to stay, Only by sunlight
She went that way. And on Eilanowen
They walked each night, Her footprints sowing
With lilies white !
* The osprey.
“The moon is glearning,
The faëries gather,
Their eyes flash quick;
To name Our Father!' But round me leaping
They pinch and prickOn the stalks of amber,
On the silvern ears, They cling, they clamber,
Till day appears ! And here I'm waking
In bed, once more, My bones all aching,
My heart full sore!"
I kissed her, crying,
“ God bless your reaping ! For sure no sighing
Can set you free. They'll bless your wedding
Who vex your sleeping; So do their bidding,
Ma cushla chree! But oh, remember!
Your fate is cast, And ere December
Hath fairly past, The Faery Reaper
Must be bride, Or a sad, cold sleeper
On the green hill-side!”
in every town” for the punishment of the ill- and obsolete. We enter a world of buried conditioned and the ungrateful bay-maker not ideas when we peruse their preambles. Their content with the statutory penny a day, or the purpose is to
encourage " this or " discourthresher who stood out for more than two- age” that. They are inspired by a confident pence-halfpenny a quarter. This is not the belief that an act of Parliament can alter all only statute lately in force or regularly re- things, the laws of Nature or the heart of man printed which breathes a sublime disregard of alike. They recoil from no difficulties or obpolitical economy. How astonished would be stacles, and prohibit all commerce with France the city to learn that it is only a few years with as much coolness and conciseness as if since the statute-book declared that “no man they were making mere municipal regulations. shall take profit by exchange of gold or sil- Nothing is too minute or too large for them to ver!” What would be the reflections of our handle. They settle the religion of the realm great iron-masters if they were informed that and the wages aud dress of the people. by a recently-repealed act of Edward III. it Mr. Froude once wrote an ingenious essay, was expressly stipulated that "iron made in the nucleus of his greatest work, to show how England and iron brought into England and much neglected lore, useful to the historian, gold, these shall not be carried out of the realm lay in the statute-book. And it cannot escape of England on pain of forfeiting the double to the most careless reader of the schedules of the king.” We do not know that very many
the revision statutes that a multitude of inalien merchants would have settled among us teresting facts have been turned up and for had they been aware of the existence of a the first time exposed to general view. What statute declaring that they must prove that a picture do not these repealed statutes give they employ within the realm all the money of the relations between England, and Scotwhich they earn there. Mr. Ruskin, who is land, and Wales ! “No armor, victual, or never weary of descanting on the commercial other refreshment,” says one pithy and coniniquities of our time, would read some of cise enactment, “ shall be sent into Scotland the early statutes with pleasure, and would without the king's license upon pain of fordeplore their loss. He would be delighted to feiture thereof." A host of measures offenfind severe penalties against the makers of sive or disrespectful to Welshmen had to be shoddy-cloth, whose malpractices are minute- repealed. Not only was it a crime to carry ly and graphically described in the preamble armor or provision into Wales, but the Eisof one enactment: “Certain evil-disposed and tedfodd itself was menaced, seeing it was dedeceitful persons," says this garrulous statute clared that “no conventicula or congregation of the Elizabethan times, “ using to buy and shall be suffered in Wales for any council or ingross into their hands great store of linen other purpose without license of the chief cloth, do use to cast the pieces of cloth over a officers of that lordship and in their presence.” beam or piece of timber made for their pur- In scarcely less evil odor were Irishmen. In pose, and do by sundry devices rack, stretch, our own day we have been familiar with the and draw the same both of length and breadth ; cry, " Ireland for the Irish;” but in the days and that done, do then with battledoors, pieces of the Tudors England for the English was of timber and wood and other things, sore an accepted principle of the legislature. We heat the same, ever casting thereupon certain find Parliament declaring that “ Irishmen and deceitful liquors mingled with chalk and other Irish clerks-mendicant shall quit the realm” like things, whereby the cloth is made to ap- in the interest of quietness and peace. Of pear not only much finer and thicker to the course the statute wils disregarded, and we eye than it is indeed, but also the threads observe that in a subsequent reign Parliament thereof be so loosed and made weak, that returns to the charge, and declares that all after three or four washings it will scarcely Irishmen repairing to the University of Oxford hold together.” It is curious to find that must take their departure. A vivid glimpse nearly two hundred years ago our ancestors, of the rapine and lawlessness of past ages is troubled as we are with the abuses of specu- got from an act recently in force, which emlation, were engaged in passing acts “to re- powered the justices of Northumberland and strain the number and ill-practices of brokers Cumberland to raise men to repel the Mossand stock-jobbers.” But for the most part Troopers of the Borders. It is one of many the objects of the repealed statutes are strange similar statutes only recently repealed.
The Royal Statute Revision Commission of England have, in their labors of condensing and revising the enactments of Parliament, unearthed many strange old laws. The sub. joined, pertaining thereto, is from the London Daily News :
In the course of their labors the commissioners have brought to light curious and forgotten pieces of legislation. They have dug up strange laws, quite as suggestive and as alien to our modern world as the flint knives of an early civilization found in the drift-deposits. Until the other day there were in force, or at least there were to be found in the statute - book, enactments more fitted for a community of Bushmen than for Englishmen. It provokes sometimes a shudder, and sometimes a smile, to read of the terrible or quaint engines which were slumbering in retirement. It is not generally known that until 1863 the Statute of Laborers was regularly printed as portion of the law of the land. The curious foreigner who consulted our statutes twenty years ago would there find that Parliament, to restrain the malice of idle and wicked servants who wished excessive wages, “to the great damage of the great men," had named the wages which servants must be willing to reseive, and had ordered that “stocks be made
SCIENTIFIC BOOKS.–Send 10 cents for General Catalogue of Works on Architecture, Astronomy, Chemistry, Engineering, Mechanics, Geology, Mathematics, etc. D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher, 23 Murray Street, New York.
TO RAILWAY TRAVELERS.-In order to save trouble and anxiety in reference to which route to select previous to commencing your journey, be careful and purchase a copy of APPLETONS' Railway Guide. Thousands and tens of thousands of Railway Travelers would as soon think of starting on their journey without their baggage as without a copy of the Guide. Price, 25 cents. D. APPLETON & Co., Publishers, New York.
MONTHLY PARTS OF APPLETONS' JOURNAL. —APPLETONS' JOURNAL is put up in Monthly Parts, sewed and trimmed. Two out of every three parts contain four weekly numbers; the third contains five weekly numbers. Price of parts containing four weekly numbers, 40 cents; of those containing five numbers, 50 cents. Subscription price per annum, $4.50. For sale by all booksellers and newsdealers. D. APPLETON & Co., Publishers, 549 & 551 Broadway, New York.
APPLETONS JOURNAL is published weekly, price 10 cents per number, or $4.00 per annum, in advance (postage prepaid by the publishers). The design of the publishers and editors is to furnish a periodical of a high class, one which shall embrace a wide scope of topics, and afford the reader, in addition
an abundance of entertaining popular literature, a thorough survey of the progress of thought, the advance of the arts, and the doings in all branches of intellectual effort. Travel, adventure, exploration, natural history, social themes, the arts, fiction, literary reviews, current topics, will each have large place in its plan. The JOURNAL is also issued in MONTALY Parts; subscription price $4.50 per annum, with postage prepaid. D. APPLETON & Co., Publishers, New York.
NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 25, 1875.
“ THE LAND OF THE SKY;"
OR, ADVENTURES IN MOUNTAIN BY-WAY S.*
BY CHRISTIAN REID.
tioned, Swannanoa, Nantahala, Tuckaseegee, | ing by her side, “I have been thinking, “ And always, be the landscape what it may
Hiawassee, Cheowah, Feloneke, and Iselica— while Mr. Markham spoke, of the names in Blue misty hill, or sweep of glimmering plain
all Cherokee names, and all possessing excel. Louisiana and Texas. None of them are It is the eye's endeavor still to gain lent significations."
ugly unless—forgive me !—they are English. The fine, faint limit of the bounding day.
“What are the significations ?" I ask. Many melodious Indian names are left, and God haply, in this mystic mode, would fain
“Swannanoa means ' Beautiful;' Nanta. | those which the first settlers gave are full Hint of a happier home, far, far away."
hala, ‘Woman's Bosom,' from the rise and fall of a religious poetry - such as Laguna del ND this is Beaucatcher in front of its breast of waters; Tuckaseegee, ‘Ter- Madre, Isla del Padre, Bay of St. Louis,
of us !” says Sylvia. “Such a rapin Water;' Cheowab, “River of Otters;' | Bayou St.-Denis, Île au Breton.” fine height certain
"Those are cerly deserves a bet
tainly very different ter name."
from Smithville and “ The name is vul.
Jonesville, and Big garly foolish,” says
Pigeon River," says Eric, “but, as far
Sylvia, “but I wish as absolute ugliness
the Indian names goes, there are we
could have been prewithin the borders
served everywhere." of Buncombe. What
This conversado you think of
tion takes place as creeks named Hom.
we walk out of Ashe. iny, Cane, Turkey,
ville along the wind Sandy Mush-?"
ing road which leads “O Eric !”
to Beaucatcher. The “Literally true,
sun is sinking low I assure you. Then
toward the western there Beaver
mountains, spreadDam, Bull, and Flat
ing a mantle of gold -all clear, rushing
over the uplands, mountain-streams."
and leaving the “It is infamous!”
glades and dells full says Sylvia, with
of softly-toned shadthe most feeling in
ows. Eric and I dignation. “ Some
form the advance. thing ought to be
guard of the party. done—the Legisla.
We have been tried ture ought to inter
friends and fere! If the Anglo
rades for many a Saxon settlers had
day, and, when we no sense of poetry
were younger, he in their own rude
often paid me the organizations, they
compliment of wish. might at least have SCENE ON THE FRENCH BROAD.
ing I were a boy. spared the Indian no
Sylvia and Victor menclature, which
come next, Charley is beautiful and appropriate wherever it is | Feloneke, ‘Yellow River ;' and Iselica-the and Adèle loiter in the rear. Scattered around found.”
Cherokee name of the French Broad—is the in every direction are villa-like houses “boYes, it is beautiful," says Eric, who has most expressive of all, for it means 'Racing somed high in tufted trees;” before us are a passion for all Indian names, and repeats River.'”
the green hills—that in a different country them with the lingering intonation which And no doubt there were any number, would be esteemed mountains—behind, the makes them tbrice musical. “Compare with just as admirable, which have been lost,” marvelous peaks at which we are forbidden such a nomenclature as I have just men. says Sylvia. “It is unbearable! We do not to glance.
find that the French or Spanish settlers left “Nobody must look round,” cries Adèle, ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by D. APPLETON & Co., in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at such barbarities behind them."
playfully, waving a flowering branch. “You Washington.
"No," says Victor Dupont, who is walk. shall all be turned to stones, like the princes