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on account of the diminution of their height, drew after them gradually the lighter parts, and in procels of time cleansed the valleys of these accumulations of mud and fand ; so that there remained only the heavy and unwieldy masses, and those whole position resisted the action of the waters.

Our Author's voyage round the famous Mont Blanc, or White Mountain, was made in company with two young philosophers, of very uncommon merit, and it is highly interesting. That ftupendous fabric of Nature's simple and majestic architeclure, and the surrounding mountains, furnish our Author with materials for a great variety of instructive remarks relative to the height and situation of these awful masles, to magnetic experiments, to the nature of the soil, its strata, and natural productions. We find here, allo, new observations concerning the structure of the primitive mountains, and their greater or less resemblance of the secondary ones, together with all the lights that the formation of mountains exhibit to improve our know., ledge of the true theory of the earth. Our Author unfolds che caules that contribute to the formation of the Glaciers, or Icy. mountains of Faucigny and Switzerland, and thole likewise that occafion their growth or diminution.--The remarks, relative to the formation of granit which terminate this volume, are curious and instructive.

F R A N C E. II. Precis Hiforique et Experimental des Phenomenes EleEtriques depuis l'Origine de cette Decouverte jusqu'à ce jour. i. e. An Hir. torical and Experimental Summary or View of Electrical Phe. nomena, from the Origin of that Discovery to the present Time. By M. SIGAUD DE LA Fond, Professor of Experimental Philosophy, and Member of several Academies. Svo. 742 Pages, with Cuts. Price 6 Livres (about 5 s.) Paris. 1781.- The electrical phenomena which, in the early periods of their dir.. covery, were only objects of curiosity, become daily more interesting from their tendency to advance many important branches of natural philosophy, and also from their subserviency to public utility. They have therefore an undoubted right to the attena: tion of the learned ; and it is of consequence to make them known in a certain degree to the generality of those that read. The work before us is a very elegant and judicious history of the progress of electricity. It contains an account of all that has been attempted or done, and also a variety of hints, relative to what may be done farther towards the improvement of this important branch of natural philosophy. The facts are related, and the subject is treated with the greatest accuracy and perfpicuity; so that the reader, with this book alone before him, may repeat the experiments himself. The work is divided into five large sections. In the first, the Author treats of the electrical 9 ..


matter or Auid, and indicates the bodies that were found to be fusceptible of electricity, so far down as the famous experiment of Leyden. The second contains a circumstantial account of the Leyden experiment, and of the theory of Dr. Franklin. In the third, the Author treats of the analogy between the electrical matter, lightning, and magnetism. In the fourth, he points out the different applications of the electrical fluid to the animal system, to vegetation, and its use in several chymical operations. The electricity of the Torpedo, of the eel of Surinam, of the Tourmaline, and other electrical phenomena, are explained in the fifth section, in which we find also the method of constructing the electrophorus, and making with it all the experiments; also an account of the two curious electrical machines for the pocket, contrived, the one by Mr. Canton, the other by Mr. Ingenhouz. The details into which the Author enters in these fečtions are ample and instructive, and prove the great merie of compilations, when the materials are happily chosen, and well digested. This work is terminated by an explication of the electrical machine, ingeniously contrived by Dr. Watson, so as to communicate the ele&rical shock to the person who opens a door to come into an apartment.

III. Reflexions Philosophiques sur l'Origine de la Civilisation, &c. i.e. Philofophical Reflections on the Origin of Civilization, and on the Means of correcting the Abuses that accompany it. By M. DE LA CROIX, Advocate. Paris. 1780.-This work, which comes out in Numbers, contains a multitude of excellent observations relative to political economy, and the administration of justice. It is certain, that if the state of natural liberty be unfavourable to the progress of the human inind in knowledge and virtue, the state of civil society has given rise to innumerable abufes, calamities, and miseries. To redress thefe is the first duty of fovereignty; but is, generally speaking, the laft object of its attention. The good citizen that composed this useful work, has a right to be heard; because he speaks the language of humanity, good sense, and public spirit. Will he be heard? That is another question.


For NOVEMBER, 1781.

POLITICAL. Art. 14. Authentic Rebel Papers, seized at St. Eustatius, 1781.

460. 18. Kearly. . L AD these curbentic papers been more formally authenticated, their 11 publication might have proved more fatisfactory to the wary and circumspect reader, who has often been taken in by the catcbe


pendy productions of the press. " Who is the Editor ?” he will na-
turally alk, -and “ by what means do these papers come into his
poffeffion?"- Suppofing these queftions facisfactorily answered, the
pamphlet is nor unworthy the attention of the Public.
Art. 15. Obfervations on the Natural and Civil Rights of Man-

kind, the prerogatives of Princes, and the Powers of Government.
In which the equal and universal Right of the People to Election
and Representation, is proved by direct and conclusive Arguments.
Addressed to the People of England. By the Rev. Thomas North-
cote, Chaplain in the Royal Artillery. 8vo. Is. Dilly, &c.

The great object of this pamphlet is, to prove the people's equal and universal right of election and representation. Although, in our opinion, this proposition needs no proof, yet, to those who may have thought otherwise, we recommend this argumentative and animated essay. The author's accurate discrimination between the rights of nature, and those civil rights which are derived therefrom, are new and matterly; and his refutation of the absurd and dangerous notion, that “ Men give up their natural rights when they form communities, and seek the prote&tion of government,” does him fingular honour. Every true and intelligege friend to a parliamentary reformation who . shall read this little work, will feel his mind grow stronger, his hopes expand, and his ardoor increase : he will love the fellow. citizen, who so feelingly defends the rights of men ; and he will re. vere the patriot, who, with equal contempt of every faction, teaches his countrymen the way to be free.

M.C.tit. Art. 16. A second Address from the Committee of Association of

the County of rork, to the Electors of the Councies, Cities, and Boroughs within the Kingdom of Great Britain. To which are added, the Resolutions of that Committee, at their Meering, held 'on the 17th of Oktober, 1781. 8vo. 6 d. York printed; and sold by Debret, &c. in London.

In our Catalogue' for March lait, we mentioned the First Address from the Yorkshire Committee, and we intimated our sincere appro. bation of the public spirited views and proceedings of these worthy Northern patriots. We have now before us their second Address ; which is written in the same manly Atrain, and expressed with the same laudable regard for our ancient and true constitutional rights and privileges : particularly the great, inestimable right of ELECTION FRANCHISE.

The Committee have here, more especially, expatiated on their favourite object, the means of recovering the British Constitution froin that alarming decline into which it has fallen, through the prevailing corrupt influence of the Crown over the representatives of the people in parliament. They have given a clear and dispallionate survey of the various plans of parliamentary reformation wbich have been offered ; and their choice seems to be fixed on that in which, according to their judgment, effi ary and practicability are most ad. vantageously combined, -viz, Triennial Parliaments, and the addi. tion of 100 members to the reprefentation of the counties and the metropolis, The Committee have urged many things in support of this “ more


moderate scheme,” in preference to the “ more extensive plan" of annual elections.

We have, on former occasions, declared our preference of the latt mentioned, most original part of our parliamentary system ; and we are fill inclined to think that the revival of it would prove the most efficacious means for completely recovering the impaired Conftitution of this country. The gentlemen of the Yorkshire Committee, indeed, appear convinced of the superiority of this plan; but they are apprehensive that, under the present circumstances of the nation, the scheme is too extensive for ellablishment. This opinion it is not, at this time, our with to controvert. If, as the gentlemen contend, the syitem which we would vote for is impra&icable, we thould most sincerely rejoice to see the measures, which are here so ably recommended, carried into execution, as, at all events, a palliative remedy is, beyond and dispute, highly preferable to a total, perhaps fatal, neglect of the disorder.

POLITICS OF IRELAND. Art. 17. A Review of the Conduct of John Earl of Buckingham

fire, Lord Lieutenant General, and General Governor of Ireland, during his Administration in that Kingdom ; in a Letter addressed to a Noble Lord. 8vo. 16. Dublin printed, and sold in London by Robinson. 1781.

A panegyric on the late Irish administration ; and so far countenanced by truth, that, perhaps, laws more favourable to the essential interelts of that country were obtained within the term of it, than within any former period of the same duration. PoE тгс A L.

N. Art. 18. Poetical Amusements at a Villa near Bath. Printed for

the Benefit of the Pauper-Charity in that City. Vol. IV. 8vo.

38. Baldwin. 1781. · It is sufficient commendation of this elegant Miscellany to mention, among other respectable names, those of Ansty, Seward, Porter and Hayley, as contributors to it. There are, besides these, several whole names appear in the poetical world for the first time, who amply me. rit the dellinction they have obtained. Indeed, we scarcely recollect any publication of this kind, in which thc materials have been se. lected with more care.

That it may not be thought we have a predilection in favour of any particular name, our specimen of this publication shall be


By Anonymous,

They, who content on earth do stay,

To earth their views confine;
With rapture, Miller, will survey
This Paradise of chine!

' II.
J, too, my willing voice would raise,

And equal rapture shew;
But that the scenes which others praise,
For me are much too low.

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I grant the hills are crown'd with trees,

" I grant the fields are fair;
But, after all, one nothing sees
But what is really there.

True taste ideal prospects feigns,

Whilst on poetic wings;
'Bove earth, and all that earch contains

Unbounded fancy springs.
To dwell on earth, gross element,

Let groveling Spirits bear;
But I, on nobler plans intent,
Build Castles in the Air.

No neighbour there can disagree,

Or thwart what I design;
For there, not only all I see,
But all I wish, is mine,

No, surly Landlord's leave I want,

To make, or pull down fences;
I build, I furnish, drain, and plant,
Regardless of expences.

One thing, 'tis trae, excites my fear,

Nor let it seem surprising;
Whilf Ministers, from year to year,
New taxes are devising;

Left, Earth being tax'd, as soon it may,

Beyond what Earth can bear;
Our Financier a tax should lay
On Castles in the Air,

Well with the end the means would suit,

Would he, in these our days,
Ideal plans to execute,

Ideal taxes raise.
Art. 19. An Essay on Death, a Poem.' In Five Books. By

James Kenton. 410. 2 s. 6 d. Moore, in Drury-Lane, This was printed in the year 1777 ; but having been very little, if at all, advertised, it escaped our Collector's notice at the time of its publication. We have, however, lately, been advised of its exiftence, by a nameless correspondent, by whose direction we procured the copy now before us. But it mighi, perhaps, have been as well if Mr. Ki's performance had been suffered to remain in that obscuriry to which it seems to have been consigned ;' for, in truth, we never perused a less interesting, or less affecting production, on a subject, with respect to which every reader, not loft to nature's tendereft feel. ings, must be deeply affecled. The poem is serious, laboured, moral, Rev. Nov. 1781. Cc


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