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We may, however, confidently hope that the China merchants will not be disappointed in regard to the further progress which they desiderate, and especially as regards the right of Foreigners to reside in the interior; the introduction of steam carriage on land, with its further introduction on water; and the development of the mineral resources of the country. Already steamboats are freely used in China by the Government as well as by the mercantile classes; the local Viceroys possess steam gunboats. Docks have been constructed, and at least one arsenal is worked successfully. A college has been established at Peking for the study of European languages and science ; a Chinese Commissioner has visited Europe; and the Celestials have appointed a representative, albeit he is a Foreigner, to the Courts of Europe. Further changes, however, are still urgently required. After the questions of over-population and the military organisation of China, there comes the position of the Mandarins. At present they have nothing to fall
estimated value of the trade of China with Foreign countries and coastwise was as follows:—
This may appear to contradict my statement that the Chinese will not pay for articles from abroad, “except out of the profits which accrue from the sale of their own products.” One explanation is, that the Chinese do make profits to speak of on their side of the trade; they do not sell tea at less than it costs themselves or otherwise, try to force a trade.
WAN SEE-ANG's PROPHECY. 381
back upon, in the event of unsuccess in the discharge of their duties, except concealed funds which they may have levied illegally when in office. The highest among them, as well as the lowest, stand in danger of being degraded to intolerable positions simply for want of success; and, consequently, they seek to lay up private funds when in office, regardless of the general interests of their class and of their country. The evils thus arising could easily be obviated by a reconstruction of the Civil Service of China on a footing, in this respect, resembling that of India; and such a change would be the most efficient means of putting an end to any illegal transit-dues which may at present be levied. What it seems to me we have to dread is, not China hanging back but going too quickly for our own interests and comfort. Wan See-ang is reported to have said some time ago to Mr Hart, “Foreigners complain at present that China is changing too slowly, but fifty years after this you will make war upon us for going too fast.” This astute Mandarin was not speaking thoughtlessly. It takes a considerable time to wheel round a very populous and democratic people like the Chinese to an unaccustomed stand-point, but once get them round and their action from it comes to be something tremendous. In Japan, a feudal country, any individual Daimio who takes it into his head may introduce a European improvement, such as the use of steam; but in China the mass of the people must be to a certain extent prepared for the innovation before it can be introduced. Hence progress in some respects is very slow in that country; but what will be the state of the case when the people of China have got fairly turned round to the point of accepting and using the practical appliances of Western civilisation ? I doubt whether then there will be any great English mercantile houses on the coast of Cathay. It is to be feared that the native Chinese merchants will very quickly take their maritime commerce into their own hands, and try to dictate prices in London as they are already doing at Hankow and Shanghai. Already the Anglo-Saxons of Australia have had recourse, and not very effectively, to a heavy capitation-tax in order to keep down the competition of Chinese emigration, which is nothing compared with what it is capable of becoming. Without doubt we shall open up the Flowery Land effectively enough ; but the results of that opening promise to be somewhat different from our fond anticipations. At all events, any change for the better in our position with reference to that country must come from England out
wards. In order that Great Britain may extend, or even
continue to hold, its once grand position in the East, it must be more worthy of doing so than it is at present, and there must be a return to some tolerable connection between its higher intelligence and the wielding of its power: otherwise, Britannia will soon share the fate of Carthage and Venice, of Spain and Holland; while delenda est, or the capta of the Arch of Titus, enscrolled after its name, will afford another instance of the Confucian benevolence of Heaven towards trees which are prepared to fall.
LIST of CHINESE TITLES, CIVIL AND MILITARY.
* In China proper, or the “Middle Kingdom,” which contains eighteen provinces, there are eighteen Ti-tus only employed in times of peace, but in time of war this rulé is departed from, and other Ti-tus, sometimes in all to the number of 200, are em. ployed under the Governors, or Futais of each province, in command of distinct levies raised for a specific purpose. Legitimately there could no more be two Ti-tus in a Province than two Futais. Colonel Gordon's force was one of those raised for a specific Purpose—the suppression of rebellion, and so was General Ching's. The Ti-tū of a Province is Commander-in-Chief of its naval as well as of its military forces.
LIST OF OFFICERS AND OTHER EUROPEANS KILLED AND
Rank. Names. At what Place. Killed or Wounded.