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a rock, and also a purple fish, taking his derivation as the origin of the Greek Tupos, or the Latin, Sar or Sarra.

Volney states, that in the present name Sour, we with difficulty recognise that of Tyre; and then remarks, “but if we recollect that the Y was formerly pronounced OU, and observe, that the Latins have substituted T for the ~ of the Greeks, and that o has the sound of the English TH in the word think, we shall be less surprised at the alteration,” It will be seen, that the two last letters in an, (Mibtsar,) are those used to express both white and rock as well as the proper name 78, Tsor, itself, so that we may translate it The white fortified rock. This evidently. became a proper name similar to our own Cashel,—the rock, and of which a thousand instances could be collected in every country. It may be added, that in the rock of Marshuk, now crowned by the mosque, we have exemplified all the significations that have been enumerated.

The name of Palæ, which has been generally applied to Old Tyre, means also a well; and the “Tyrus of the Well” is probably that mentioned by Josephus, who tells us, as I mentioned at page 367, on the authority of Menander, that in the days of Eululæus, king of Tyre, Shalmanazar, king of Assyria, besieged Tyre for five years ; and on returning to Nineveh, left a part of his army near the rivulets and aqueduct, (perhaps the fountains at Ras-el-Ain,) to cut off the supply of water; and that then “the Tyrians had no other water but what they procured from the wells which they dug ;"—in all likelihood, those which I described as still to be found on the south-eastern side of the rock of Marshuk.

It seems strange, that Volney, who appears to know that this well was in the ancient city, should have placed Palæ Tyrus at the fountains; for he says that, “in order to secure the aqueduct, it was necessary that a number of inhabitants should settle there, and hence the origin of Palæ Tyrus.”

With regard to its position, Strabo informs us that it was distant thirty stadia, or about three miles, from Insular Tyre; this can only mean from the extreme end of both cities. Pliny says, that the compass of the two was nineteen miles, provided we include the old city—the very town itself taking up twenty-two stadia. Both those authorities wrote in the second century, five hundred

appenly reached to the nec point of the island.de rock, it will be


375 years after Alexander completely obliterated the ruins of the city they allude to, in order to form the famous mole, so often spoken of in the Scriptures; and the city then existing must, therefore, have been Peninsular Tyre. This rock is rather more than a mile and a half from the present village ; and if we include the peninsula, and the city that once surrounded the rock, it will be nearly four miles from the point of the island ; and as its ruins probably reached to the new city, the statement of Pliny will not appear to be greatly exaggerated. And were I allowed to offer a conjecture, I would add, that on this rock stood the famous temple of Hercules mentioned by Herodotus, and to which Alexander was recommended by the Tyrian ambassadors.

Several proofs from analogy might be cited, that rocks of this description were chosen as the nuclei around which cities were built, from their affording a citadel or place of strength to the inhabitants, under shadow of which they could sit down in safety when the city was attacked, or on which, in time of peace, they could erect temples to their gods. Such natural citadels we see in Mount Sion, the Capitol at Rome, the Acropolis of Athens and of Corinth, and also that at Argos, at Mycenæ, at Cairo, and even at Jaffa. The rock that I have described, was the only one on this plain whereon a citadel, which term exactly expresses its name, could be erected.

In confirmation of this view, we have also another proof from prophecy, where it says, that “Tyre shall be utterly destroyed and never rebuilt.” This must, surely, apply to the continental city, as that on the peninsula has been often rebuilt, and still partly exists; while, not a single vestige of the original city remains, or can be discovered by the traveller. We can only conjecture its probable site, and see that the prophetic predictions have been fully verified, for it has, indeed, become like to “the top of a rock.” The expression of “never found again,” will not at all interfere with, or invalidate any attempt to fix its probable position: for, perhaps, of no city that history records, has there been so complete an obliteration as that of ancient or Palæ Tyre-the sand now covering the greater part of where it stood. It is remarkable, how frequently this material has been used for thus wiping out cities from the face of the earth ;Babylon, Thebes, Memphis, Luxor, Carthage, ancient Alexandria, Jericho, Balbec, and Palmyra, have been all more or less invaded

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by this destroying agent, which though slower than the flame or the torrent, is not the less sure and fatal.

The probable site of Palæ Tyrus may also be ascertained from its vicinity to the tombs. Perhaps no one object serves more accurately to mark the site of an ancient city than its tombs. By them alone we could determine the topography of ancient Jerusalem, even if no modern city pointed out the spot. So, likewise, in the cities of Egypt; and at Telmessus, as well as at Latakia (the ancient Laodicea), scarcely any thing else remains but the tombs to mark their sites. The sepulchral chambers were placed just outside these cities; and the peculiar construction of those I have described at page 361, as existing near Tyre, show the early date at which they were formed; while their situation determines the probable site of the old city, which, in all likelihood, extended thus far.

Another means for determining the site of an ancient city is, the direction of its aqueducts. The fountains of Ras-el-Ain are now, as no doubt they originally were, the principal, if not the only supply of water to Tyre. But, if the original city was situated either at these fountains or on the island, there would be no occasion to conduct the water in an aqueduct to this solitary rock, where it either ended, or was continued as far as the three great arches that rise up in the midst of the plain between it and the peninsula. I am inclined to think, that after Palæ Tyrus was sacked by Nebuchadnezzar, instead of conducting the water to the port by a new aqueduct, the Tyrians merely extended the former one from the rock where we see it, forming something more than a right angle with that which conveyed the water to the peninsular city.

It is to be regretted, that more has not been done to explore the site of this great city, although other places of less note and less interest have been made objects of untiring research ; and yet when we come to examine into its history, we find it more frequently referred to in sacred and profane history than any city of like antiquity.

Volney, in his description of ancient Tyre, has mixed up the different cities; yet he rightly conjectured that “its original situation must have been on this rock,” which remains in the same state in which he visited it in 1783 — still “a terror and a desolation.” With the exception of Volney, traveller after

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traveller have in modern times visited this spot, and like the priest and the Levite, came, looked on it, and passed by on the other side, without making any effort to explore its site or ascertain its topography, until the Count de Bertou, in his late visit, devoted some attention to the subject, and, as I have said before, published an interesting account of his investigations ; but these were chiefly with regard to the insular city.

The present town is situated entirely on the peninsula, of which it occupies about a third part. The houses are all built of gray sand-stone, and are flat-roofed ; they are surrounded by courts, and are much scattered. Opposite the landing-place on the north side, and about one hundred yards from the shore, are some portions of the ancient town wall, now surrounded by the sea; they are of immense thickness and Cyclopean architecture, and marked on the map, “ Ancient Wall.” Within these is a pool of water about three feet in depth, which has generally been mistaken for part of the ancient cothon or harbour, but it is a portion of the town, over which, in my opinion, the sea has encroached. Some old castles and several rows of Gothic arches mark the days of the Crusaders; these require to be distinguished from the ancient city on whose ruins they stand, and above which they are raised about six or eight feet.

Towards the south-eastern angle are the remains of a large Christian church, the east front forming three semicircles, flanked by towers with winding staircases leading to the top of each. As it was built when this country was the seat of religious warfare, it is probable it was thus constructed as well for a place of defence as of worship. In the immediate vicinity of this church are three of the largest granite pillars I have ever seen in any country but Egypt. I think they must have been brought from that country, as no such material occurs in the neighbourhood of Tyre. Maundrell supposed this church to be the cathedral of Tyre erected by Paulinus, and asks, whether it may not be the identical one in which Eusebius preached his remarkable consecration sermon. The present inhabitants, who are mostly Christians, amount in number to about fifteen hundred.

Ibrahim Basha commenced the erection of a cloth manufactory here, but the building has been discontinued since the late disturbances in the Houran. A custom-house, market-place, and

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bazaar, have been lately established; and I may remark, en passant, that either the population must have greatly declined in numbers latterly, or a gross imposition was practised upon a well-known traveller, who made it amount, in 1816, to from five to eight thousand. My information with regard to the number of its inhabitants, &c. was derived from the governor, our consul, and the bishop.

Some sarcophagi are to be found in the gardens outside the town, remarkable for having a pillow hewn for the head to rest on in each.

Proceeding southward across the isthmus, you arrive at the remains of a considerable pier, extending all along the water's edge; the stones of which it is composed are of great size, and scattered about it are numbers of pillars, of granite and variegated marble, many of them piled up into landing-places for boats.

The shore here demands particular attention, as it contains the remains of the ancient houses, the foundations of some of which are in many places still to be seen. In the perpendicular face of the beach we found the floors of these ancient houses, marked by whole strata of tesselated pavement, which show that the level of the peninsular city was from eight to ten feet below the present surface - the intervening portion being composed of broken crockery-ware, pieces of marble, and rubbish. This pavement was of three different kinds: the first was composed of small bits of marble of from one-half to three-fourths of an inch square; the second, of small bricks or tiles, all placed together with great accuracy; and the last, of small portions of broken brick thrown into a bed of mortar, in which they were wrought together, and afterwards smoothed down and polished.

While examining the remains along the shores of this harbour, I found a number of round holes cut in the solid sandstone rock, varying in size from that of an ordinary metal pot to that of a large boiler. Many of these holes were seven feet six inches in diameter, by eight feet deep; others were larger, and some were very small. They were perfectly smooth on the inside, and many of them were shaped exactly like a modern iron pot, broad and flat at the bottom, and narrowing towards the top. Some were found detached, and others in a cluster; where the latter occurred, two or three of the holes were connected by a narrow channel cut

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