תמונות בעמוד

V. Ts'oo ts'ze.



1 Thick grew the tribulus (on the ground],

But they cleared away its thorny bushes.
Why did they this of old?
That we might plant our millet and sacrificial millet;
That our millet might be abundant,
And our sacrificial millet luxuriant.

When our barns are full,
L. 3 in st. 3. km is defined in the Urh-ya by Ode 5. Narrative. SACRIFICIAL AND FESTAL

SERVICES IN THE ANCESTRAL TEMPLE; AND THEIR 1, 'to be agitated.' The Shwoh-wăn gives the CONNECTION WITH ATTENTION TO HUSBANDRY. character as with at the side.

This piece and the nine others which follow are

all said, in the Preface, to have been directed Ll. 4, 5, in stt. 1, 2, 3. By the good men, the against king Yëw; but there is nothing in them keun-tsze,' are understood the good sovereigns to lead our thoughts to him, nothing to indicate of an earlier date. -1, “truly.–The dissatisfaction in the mind of the writer or writer cherished them in his heart, and indeed critics explain the statement of the Preface can

The device by which the could not forget them. le) = 71, crooked,' hardly be called ingenious :=The sad experience • perverse;' 7 le], 'without a crook,' i. e., = the scenes of a happier time in the past

of the writers,' it is said, 'leads them to describe * without a flaw. 734,-'was not as,' i. e., (495). On this view these odes as or like the conduct of Yëw.

tell us not what the writers saw passing Ll. 3—6 in st. 4. Maou and many others take beneath their own eyes, but of what they might as the name of a certain kind of k‘ing have seen if they had lived two or three hundred

years earlier;-and this without the slightest or sounding stone; but there is no necessity for indication that they are doing so! I confess doing so, and the la certainly agrees better that this decade of odes shakes any confidence with the natural construction of them as two

which I have been disposed to put in the Pre

face very much. different instruments. Maou and Ch‘ing again In fact, these odes are out of place among take Ya and Nan as the names of certain dances the mass of others belonging to a degenerate or certain pieces of music; but even the critics time ( M), and fully deserved to be ranked who generally defer to their authority do not

with the first eighteen pieces of this part, which agree with them here. The Nan are the odes of

are ascribed to the duke of Chow, the Chow-nan and the Shaou-nan. We need Choo thinks the piece celebrates the services have no difficulty in admitting that they existed in the temple of some noble landed proprietor, as a collection in the time of Yëw, Nor need and he says that the in l. 4 of st. 1 is that we hesitate in admitting that a portion of the individual's designation of himself. I incline Ya also existed as a collection,—those, perhaps rather to the view of others, put in a strong attributed to the duke of Chow. This equiva- light by Këang, that the services spoken of are lent to 'to dance, -as in I. iii. XIII. 3. The those of the king's ancestral temple. The W 以: are all = 7, 'to use. 71,-'with is simply the poet's identification of himself

with the Parties of whom he sings. out transgressing,' i. e., violating the rules of the music or the dance.

St. 1, # ,—see on I.iv.II. iki is another name The rhymes are—in st. 1, , for it as a thorny bush. that expresses the 忘, cat. 10: in 2, ple), cat. 15, t. luxuriance and denseness of the growth. i 1: in 3, ., *91, nih, 3G, cat. 3, t.2: in 4, the initial particle ; and tih - B9, 'to take X. M. cat. 7, t. 1. away.' 1.3 = 5 E

祝祭于誌 或

祝亨。 爾 濟福。以變以盈。

卡濟 有 以為

羊。 验 祀 市。 以幽。 介以食。

將或往絮 景安以億。



And our stacks can be counted by tens of myriads,
We proceed to make spirits and prepare viands,
For offerings and sacrifice;
We seat the representatives of the dead, and urge them to eat: -

Thus seeking to increase our bright happiness. 2 With correct and reverent deportment,

The oxen and sheep all pure,
We proceed to the winter and autumnal sacrifices.
Some flay [the victims]; some boil [their flesh];
Some arrange (the meat]; some adjust [the pieces of it).

The priest sacrifices inside the temple gate, E, 'Why was it that the ancients did this ? ( the Le Ke, was neccessarily inferior in rank to The writer ascends, in the line, in thought, to the principal sacrificer, yet for the time he was the first founders of the Chow dynasty, who superior to him, occupying the place of his delaid its foundations in the attention which they parted ancestor. This circumstance, it was paid to agriculture. The answer to the question supposed, would make him feel uncomfortable; is given in 114–6. til Hil and XX are temple, the sacrificer was instructed, by the synonymous expressions, denoting the plentiful director of the ceremonies, to ask him to be app. of the crops. in l. 7 is incompatible seated, and to place him at ease; after which he with the view of the old interpreters, that the which is here expressed by if(-). (The

was urged to eat, and to take some refreshment, piece is descriptive of the practices of an ancient time. 1,-the stacks in which the practice of using these representatives of the

dead was disused after the Chor dynasty.] sheaves of grain were built up in the fields.

St. 2 describes the progress of the sacrifice, L. 10- Tie,' wherewith to offer sacri- but still only a preparatory stage of it, L. 1 is fices.' Ying-tah observes that we are not to explained by ## 'were of correct deportdistinguish between 3 and ML, and that the ment,' and is to be understood of the various line stands as it does from the necessity of the officers whose functions are described in 11. 4, 6.

so that poet. -, 'to make comfortable. The In l. 2, at must be construed with

the two characters,='pure-like are.' If we take object of this character is the p, mentioned

爾 as the pronoun, the line is to me altogether in st. 5, a representative or personator of the worthy who was sacrificed to. The dead, exist

out of connection. L. 3,-see i.VI. 4. The names

of the sacrifices are used for the offering them; ing now in their TT or spirit-state, of course and while only two of the seasonal sacrifices were not visible, and one of the sacrificer's rela- are mentioned, we must extend them so as to tires was selected to represent him in the cere- include the other two.亨, , - as in I. xv. I. 6. mony. The representative was supposed to be taken possession of for the time by the repre- Choo interprets of putting the prepared sented, so that we read in the Le Ke- ftit meat on the trays or stands for it, and 8 of , 'The She was the visible image of the then carrying the trays into the temple. This spirit.' The person selected for this part, ac

is the view of the characters given by Ch'ing; cording to certain rules found, up and down, in but these operations are appropriate more to

[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]


皇孔 碩

明。 FL 婦或醬。

保 獻應莫幡為 萬慶是祖



And all the service is complete and brilliant.
Grandly come our progenitors;
Their Spirits happily enjoy the offerings ;
Their filial descendant receives blessing :-
They will reward him with great happiness,

With myriads of years, life without end.
3 They attend to the furnaces with reverence;

They prepare the trays, which are very large;-
Some for the roast meat; some for the broiled.
Wives presiding are still and reverent,
Preparing the numerous (smaller] dishes.

The guests and visitors the service described in the next st. I have I must therefore take it with Maou, as – therefore followed Maou, who defines by , •quietly,' “ happily,' and construe as in the B F#, and by #arrunge translation

. L.9. , ' filial grandson, the meat on stands,' and adjust the pieces of filial descendant, is the name given to the sacriit' Keang supports this view. L. 6. TEZ, 'to ficer. pray,','one who makes or recites prayers. It St. 3 goes on to the setting forth and further is evident that the word is here the designation business of the sacrifice. - 'a furof an officer, and not a verb,-as Lacharme makes it, 'Ritus precationum peraguntur.' I trans- #t 'to hold,' – to attend to. 踏踏 late it by priest, for want of a better term; see

expresses ‘reverence of manner.' L.2. The AH Ana., VI. xiv. is “the space inside the

were stands, of no great height, on which the gate of the temple; -as if to give the Spirits of meat and its accompaniments were placed. L.3. the dead a welcome on their entrance into the Choo takes plates of the roasted flesli generally; edifice. L. 8. By A TA we are to under

# of the broiled liver. Ying-tah says that stand all the ancestors to whom the sacrifices were presented. This defined by t, 'great,' meat on which the operation of passed was

more difficult to cook, and required to be kept and , 'ruler. The Complete Digest' gives

nearer the fire than that which was subjected to the meaning as I have done-先祖胤君多, L. 4. 婦 - 主婦, the presiding 臨之尊, L. Choo takes 神保 wives;'--the queen and other ladies of the

harem ;-see the note on the Interpretation of honourable designation of the F, which we

denotes 'a still and reverent might translate . surety of the Spirits.' The structure of the line, corresponding to the one

manner.' = as in I.xv.V.2; dishes conbefore, so that seems to answer to # ago. Che guests and visitors were nobles


taining , , serves to recommend this view; but

officers of different surnames from the sacrificer,

chosen by divination to take part in the sacri. 15 in st. 5 is evidently different from the ficial service. L. 7 describes the ceremonies of


as an


如下孝祖莫我漏,保度酬 式爾賽孔萬

交 百神孝工懷譯格 错。 齊福。 福嗜孫矣。

報 如飲芯致式 酷。 以 稷幾食。芬告禮 介神


Present the cup, and drink all round.
Every form is according to rule;
Every smile and word are as they should be.
The Spirits quietly come,
And respond with great blessings:-

Myriads of years as the (fitting] reward. 4 We are very much exhausted,

And have performed every ceremony without error.
The able priest announces (the will of the Spirits],
And goes to the filial descendant to convey it.
•Fragrant has been your filial sacrifice,
And the Spirits have enjoyed your spirits and viands.
They confer upon you a hundred blessings;
Each as it is desired, each as sure as law.

You have been exact and expeditious; drinking which took place between them, the the strength of our sinews is exhausted.' which it would be tedious to attempt to describe & is explained by ; but we need hardly in detail. crosswise and diagon- seek to translate it. #FI, TO ally,' about equal to our “all round.' ## be skilful at one's business is called I. * altogether: 度 -合於法度, ac- 告一致神意以告主人, conveya cording to rule;獲得其宜,- as the mind of the Spirits, and announces it to the in the translation. It seems to me, however, sacrificer;' having learned their mind from their that these four lines are out of place at this representatives. -F, 'to give;' but we part of the service, and that they would come

must understand the term here of the conveyin better in a description of the feast, which followed the sacrifice. L. 9. Tā -as in ing the message he was charged with. Wilast stanza. # 'to come. I suppose , 'fragrant.' ,-'to delight in," "to relthe spirits would come in the persons of their ish.

' |-, -as in i. VI. 4. L. 8. His explainrepresentatives. L. 12. - #B, 'to recom

ed by W, 'to expect,' 'to prognosticate;' m pense.' This would be the reward of the sacrificer

一法 . what is law or rule.' The meaning St. 4. In this stanza and the next we have must be, I think, as I have expressed it. I canthe conclusion of the sacrifice. Keto, to be not understand Choo, when he says that #A exhausted,' and the critics expand it by th intimates the number of the blessings.'

for his filial dutifulness.


兄廢鼓 鼓醉工既禮爾纸 弟徹歸鐘止。祝戒。儀極。 備 X 不


敕。 燕諸 諸君神載神 祖鐘日 私父起具




[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors]

You have been correct and careful:
They will ever confer on you the choicest favours,

In myriads and tens of myriads.'
5 The ceremonies having thus been completed,

And the bells and drums having given their warning,
The filial descendant goes to his place,
And the able priest makes his announcement,
'The Spirits have drunk to the full.'
The great representative of the dead then rises,
And the bells and drums escort his withdrawal,
[On which] the Spirits tranquilly return [to their place).
All the servants, and the presiding wives,
Remove [the trays and dishes] without delay.
The [descendant's] uncles and cousins

All repair to the private feast.
LI. 9, 10 are complimentary to the master of taken from the master to the representative.
the sacrifice on the manner in which all the -L'all.' We cannot suppose to mean
ceremonies of the service had been attended to anything more than the translation expresses.

, 'to arrange,” “exact;', 'L.8. This line was referred to in connection be expeditious; E-E, correct;' DEL 'to

with the 8th of st.2, as proving that no charge," "careful.' , 'to the utmost.'

could not be another vame for the F. Even

Choo seems not to identify them here, for he - which we may consider as meaning says,–** PTT when the She are *to be,' or=#At hereupon;' but we can escorted away, the Spirits return.' Where do hardly translate it.

they return to? The answer to this given by St. 5 brings us to the conclusion of the sacri- Ch'ing K'ang-shing is—'to heaven' fice. # in 1.2 is defined by to announce, 'a steward.applies to all the the meaning being that the music now announced

servants about the household, or the royal estabthe end of the service ( ). L. 8. The sacri- lishment. #hits -as in st. 3. ficer now left the place which he had occupied during the service, descended from the hall of 'to remove;' kindred in meaning with . The ceremony, and took his place at the foot of the removal of the dishes terminated the sacrificial stair on the east,--the place appropriate to service, but the sacrificer proceeded to enterhim, I suppose, in dismissing his guests. L. 4,as in the last st. The priest took the message

tain his relatives at a private feast. presentative of the Spirits. Piring-tam ish quite 135,-all, old and young, who were of the incorrect in supposing that the message was

the sacrificer.' W\'all."

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

same surname as

« הקודםהמשך »