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Do not ecclesiastical divisions ozituata (except those that are friendly, and mutually consented to for the better promotion of the same cause,) commonly grow out of differences in doctrine? Did they not here in the Corinthian church? Instead of meaning the same thing, the terms hold to each other the relation of cause and effect, and heresies (false doctrines) are the cause.
The next passage is Gal. v. 20, where heresies are coupled with various sins; such as idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, &c.; a connexion, surely, in which it would be strange to find sect. Let us learn from this instance, to distrust a criticism, however fair in some respects, which teaches that the word heresy, in the modern acceptation, never suits the import of the original word, as used in Scripture. The word may mean in this passage divisions, or the contentions out of which they grow, or (more radical suill, and which is more probable,) the errors which so often cause both.
I pass to the only remaining passage in the New Testament, namely, 2 Peter ii, 1; “ But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who shall privily bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bringing upon themselves swist destruction.”— In this passage, αιρεσεις 1s connected with another word, απαλειας, which must be considered. This word is found in the New Testament twenty times; in one of which it is rendered damnation ; in two waste; in four by a phrase, as in this passage; in five destruction; and in the remaining eight, perdition. In this passage, instead of “damnable beresies," which is more conformable to our English idiom, the phrase might be rendered “ heresies of damnation.” This would seem to suggest, what appears to be the fact as to the use of ăspesis, that while it may have originally meant a sect merely, or been used " in a general and indeterminate signification," it soon came to mean something more, as has been shown in this discussion, and that before “the close of the two first centuries,” yea, before the writing of this Epistle, it came to mean destructive or damnable doctrine,—" denying the Lord that bought them.”
I might extend this investigation to one passage more, Titus iii, 10, where, though not the abstract asperis we have the concrete, asperinis; “ A man that is an heretic, aster the first and second admonition reject.” But here I should come to the same conclusion as before, and therefore I pass it without further notice ; while, with a single thought in relation to the application of the passage in Peter, my communication will be concluded.
And here I would say, that as Christ crucified, or the atonement of Christ, is the foundation of all hope for sinners, so those who deny this doctrine, differing or agreeing in whatever else they may, are the persons referred to by the apostle, when he speaks of “ damnable heresies.” It is not necessary to suppose that he referred to any particular sect or heretical doctrine, in distinction from all others. He may have referred to many, or to any which should arise, some denying in one form, and some another, the Lord that bought them.
Inasmuch as there are heresies in our own time, and heresies of destruction, let every one be on his guard, lest he be ensnared and destroyed. “Denying the Lord that bought us,' what have we on which to rest ? " There is no other name given among men whereby we can be saved, but the name of Jesus.” Let us all pray, " Lead us not into temptation.” May God save the writer and readers of this article from all those heresies, which, if imbibed and persisted in, must inevitably destroy the soul. VERAX.
ANALYSIS OF THE PRINCIPLES OF RHETORICAL DELIVERY, AS
APPLIED IN READING AND SPEAKING. By Ebenezer Porter, D. D., Bartlett Professor of Sacred Rhetoric in the Theological Seminary, Andover. Third Edition. Andover : Flagg & Gould. 1830.
(Concluded from page 323.)
The subject of modulation is “environed with difficulty" truly embarrassing, especially as it has been presented by most rhetoricians. The variety of sentiment expressed in composition requires variety in managing the voice. This is what we understand by modulation. To communicate instruction on this subject by writing, has been the least successful attempt of the elocutionist. Here the aid of the living voice is needed. No rules or system of notation, however perfect, can be considered as an adequate substitute for the living teacher. But where no such teacher is at command, much assistance may be derived from a work like the one before us.
Among the faults of modulation two are noticed, namely, monotony, “ that dull repetition of sounds, on the same pitch, and with the same quantity,” and mechanical variety, which consists in uttering a sentence with “ the greatest possible number of notes" or with “ a frequent change of stress”-or, more frequently, “ in the habit of striking a sentence at the beginning, with a high and full voice, which becomes gradually weaker and lower, as the sentence proceeds.” In treating of the remedies, Dr. P. suggests, that “ the most indispensable attainment towards the cure of bad habits in managing the voice, is the spirit of emphasis.” Another attainment necessary, is “ some good degree of discrimination as to vocal tones and inflections." The remedies here suggested, and illustrated in the work, are not difficult in their application; and we know of no apology that the public speaker can offer, for neglecting the means placed at his command, to correct his defective habits of elocution, and learn to speak well.
« With discriminating ear,” says our author, “ and perfect command of his voice, why has he a bad modulation in delivery? His talent is hid in a napkin ; -he is too slothful to use a gift of his Creator, which in possession of another man, might be an invaluable treasure. Paradox as it may seem, it is only the plain statement of a well known fact, to say, that many a man, while devoting ten years to studies preparatory to professional life, deliberately louks forward to his main business, as one in which his success and usefulness must depend on his talent in speaking ,yet takes no pains to speak well! Perhaps of these ten years, he does not cmploy one entire week in all, to acquire this talent, without which all other acquisitions are, to his purposes, comparatively useless”!
The just modulation of the voice requires judgement and discrimination in respect to several essential points. The pitch, recommended as the most suitable at the commencement of delivery, is the middle key. This is the key of animated conversation, and admits of that elevation and depression, variety and energy, which are absolutely indispensable to a good delivery. The rule of Dr. Blair, to commence speaking as if addressing the most distant persons in the audience, would require so high a pitch that, to rise from it, as emotion might prompt, would put in requisition Stentorian lungs, or carry up the voice to an " unmanageable elevation.” The opposite extreme, to which Walker's rule would be likely to lead, should be avoided; for hearers are soon weary with the effort of listening.
The reason why some speakers are heard with difficulty is not, in general, that their key-note is too low, but that it is not swelled to a full sound. The defect is in quantity, a term used to designate both the fullness of tone, and the time of utterance. Power and compass of voice are indispensable to a commanding elocution. Where the organs of speech are perfect, the lungs sound, and the chest well constructed, all that is necessary to acquire a powerful voice, and skill to command its various keys, is vocal exercise. How was it that David Garrick could make himself distinctly heard by an audience of ten thousand, when he spoke on his under-key? He exercised his voice on that key. How did Bridaine and Whitefield acquire such energy of vocal power, that they could, in open air, make the thunder of their eloquence distinctly audible to an assembly of twenty thousand! They exercised their voice, till it was capable of trumpet-tones that would command and silence“ the
tumult of the people.” The directions which are given by Dr. P., as means of preserving the lungs and strengthening the voice, are well worthy of attention.
As to time or rate of utterance, he observes, that the habits of different men may differ considerably, without being chargeable with fault. “But,” says he, “I refer rather to the difference which emotion will produce, in the rate of the same individual. Those passions which quicken or retard a man's step in walking, will produce a similar effect on his voice in speaking. Narration is equable and flowing ; vehemence, firm and accelerated ; anger and joy, rapid. Whereas dignity, authority, sublimity, awe,assume deeper tones, and a slower movement.”
The accomplished speaker, whose soul is warmed and moved with his subject, will so time his pauses, that by "expressive silence" he will produce a powerful effect. We recollect hearing a gentleman remark of Dr. Chalmers' manner in the pulpit, that “his pauses were tremendous." Garrick and Whitefield managed the « rhetorical pause” with prodigious effect. “It occurs," as Dr. P. remarks, “ sometimes before, but commonly aster a striking thought is uttered, which the speaker thus presents to the hearers, as worthy of special attention, and which he seems confidently to expect will command assent, and be fixed in the memory, by a moment of uninterrupted reflection."
The general subject of transition assumes, in the hands of our author, an original aspect, especially as it respects the system of notation, designed as a substitute for the assistance of a living teacher. As the standing law of delivery is, “ that vocal tones should correspond in variety with sentiments, in contradistinction from monotony, and from that variety which is either accidental or mechanical," something like this system of notation will be found, we doubt not, of practical utility. We are not without apprehensions, that in some cases it may be liable to perversion ;-in many, however, it will be resorted to with desirable effect. The author, with his characteristic caution, suggests it merely as an experiment. There may be diversity in the taste of good critics respecting the application of this notation in numerous passages; but this might be expected, even if the system were as perfect as the nature of the subject would admit. We would recommend to all, who wish to correct a bad manner of delivery, or to acquire a good one," critical and patient attention to this part of Dr. Porter's work, as illustrated and applied in the Exercises which are appended.
Another thing pertaining to modulation is expression. This quality is that “ modification of the voice, which accompanies awakened sensibility of soul”—and which “ constitutes the unction of delivery.” Expression, in most cases, defies mechanical imitation, and the government of rules. Very few will succeed in imparting
VOL. III.-NO VII.
to their elocution the thrilling influences of this inimitable quality, whose hearts are not moved.
Si vis me flere, dolendum est
Primuin ipsi tibi. An affected sensibility will generally be detected. It must be real pity, that would express “pathetic exhortation.” On this point we subjoin what our author has expressed :." The indescribable power communicated to the voice by a delicate sensibility, especially a Christian sensibility, it is quite beyond the reach of art to imitate. It depends on the vivid excitement of real feeling; and, in Christian oratory, implies that expansion and elevation of the soul, which arise only from a just feeling of religious truth. The man whose temperament is so phlegmatic, that he cannot kindle with emotion, at least with such degree of emotion as will show itself in his countenance and voice, may be useful in some departments of learning, but the decision of his Creator is stamped upon him, that he was not made for a public speaker."
It was our intention to have gone into a more particular consideration of Rhetorical Action, than the limits of this article will admit, after what has been said on the management of the voice. It is a subject which claims, in our opinion, more attention than it has generally received. We admit that some powerful speakers are reckless of all rules or care, as it respects their action in delivery ; it does not follow, however, that the power of their eloquence would not be augmented by a correct and dignised action. Gigantic genius, whose splendid creations are accompanied with fervid emotion, possesses a spirit-stirring energy, that always produces effect, in despite of awkwardness of manner. This does not prove that those who are not favored with an equal power of intellect may dispense with the advantages derived from just and graceful action. Rhetorical action, as treated in the work before us, includes attitudes and expression of countenance. It is what Cicero calls "sermo corporis," and what ancient orators studied with care, and practised with surprising effect. In the judgment of Demosthenes, it was the first point of excellence in the public speaker.*
Two extremes relating to this subject are noticed by Dr. Porter, viz—" that which encumbers a speaker with so much technical regulation of his movements as to make him an automaton ;” and " that which condemns all precepts, and all preparatory practice too, as mischievous in their influence.” The action which belongs to good delivery is such as corresponds with thought and emotion, and hence it arises from nature. The attitudes of men are significant, often indicating the personal qualities of individuals; as "the measured pace of the ploughman, the strut of the coxcomb, and the dignified gait of the military chief.” That gesture may be significant is proved by the fact, that it furnishes a medium of rapid communication between deaf-inutes. The speaker who delivers himself with the grace and majesty of appropriate attitude and expression of countenance, will, other things being equal, possess
* Cicero de Oratore, Lib. iii.