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'Perhaps it was wanting when the tablets were hidden away in the wall; perhaps it was among the confused and broken fragments which Gan-kwS says there were in addition to the 58 Books which he recovered. As he found in the tablets of this Book a beginning of it and an end, he did not say anything of the intermediate portion being deficient.'

Ying-ta was thus of opinion that the Book was deficient; but it does not appear that he had any doubts as to the relative order in which the several portions stand. He thought some tablets were lost; but did not suppose that any of those preserved had been displaced. In the Sung dynasty, however, the critics assumed not only that there were portions missing, but that the remaining tablets were all disordered

and confused. Ch'ing E-ch'uen (^jg; J11),

Lew Gas-she ^ j{J_-), and others, had

their several ways of arranging them so as to produce the consistent narrative; and Ts'ae Chin, profiting by the determinations of his master C'hoo He, produced an edition <Sf the Book, which has superseded the old one in the copies of the Shoo which are now taught in schools. It will be found, with a translation, in an appendix. scholars of the present dynasty for the most part acquiesce in his views, when they do not discard the old text altogether. There are some, however, who think they can improve on him, and Wang Loo-ehae has given a disposition of the paragraphs somewhat different in his edition of 'Doubts about the Shoo.'

Maou K'e-ling will not admit either of disorder or defect in the Book. He has certainly

proved by references to the and the

that the prayer of Woo to the spirits was a part of his speech or announcement to the princes i-- see the jpj ^£ on

the jg^ m£. So far it is established that the

disorder in the parts which the Sung critics complained of and tried to remedy,—if indeed we should call it disorder,—existed even during the Chow dynasty. Maou says, 'If the text be not good, we have only to be content with it as it is.' In this he is right. The ingenuity of the critics has not been of service either to history or the classic.

Contents. Those are summarily and correctly stated in the prefatory Notice.—' King Woo smote Yin; and the narrative of his proceeding to the attack, and of his return and sending his animals back to their pastures, with his governmental measures, form ' The Completion of the War.' The whole is divided in Yungching's Shoo into 9 parr., which I have rearranged in 10, including them also in three chapters. The first chapter, containing 4 parr., consists of brief historical notes of the commencement and close of Woo's expedition. The second also contains 4 parr., and gives the address (or a part of it) delivered by Woo to his nobles and officers on occasion, we may suppose, of their solemn recognition of him as emperor, and of his confirming some of them in their old investitures or appointments, and giving new ones to others. The third, in the two concluding parr., is again historical, and relates several incidents of the battle between

Woo and Show, going on to subsequent events, and important governmental measures of the new dynasty. Ch.I. Pp. 1—4. The March To The Attack,


1 , 'the first month'; but whether we

are to understand the first month of the Hea year,—the first month of spring; or the first month of the Chow year,—the second month of winter, cannot yet be determined. Ts'ae endeavours here to reinforce his view that the month is the first of the Hea year, by

calling attention to the language, ■ ,

and not IE ;but this circumstance is of little weight. I JFjJ^ is the calendaric

name of the day, and it was (read p'anp,

3d tone, = jjp ' near to' 'close by ') ^£

'next to the day of the dead disk.' This expression is generally understood to be descriptive of the first day of the new moon. In p. 4 we

find the phrase denoting the 15th

day or full moon. In p. 2, again, we have

M, 'the beginning of the birth of light," as denoting the third day, when the moon first becomes visible. It is clear therefore that the term was applied to the disk of the moon from the the time it began to wane until the new moon reappeared. How it came to be so used, I do not perceive. The gf£ has instead of but pronounced in the same way; and in the diet, we find the definition quoted,

of the moon when dark is called

Tan Sze-lin observes that

after the 1st day of the moon, the light went

on to grow, and the darkness of her disk

to disappear; that if the previous month was 'great' (consisted, that is, of 80 days), then on the second day of the month, the ' light' began. He concludes that this was the case here, and

that the day denoted by ^Jj was not

the second but the first day of the month. The editors of Yung-ching's Shoo are inclined to agree with him, saying it is more natural and in rule to find a specification of the first day of the month than of the second. This view does not seem unlikely.]

= Ejjj £J , 'the morrow :' |^ follows in the calendar. E -}J? Q

~^~^ri''to travcv *to m*rch; ■ 3E

is, literally, 'the king paced it.' a is understood to stand here for Woo's capital,

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In the fourth month, at the first appearance of the moon, the king came from Shang to Fung, when he hushed all the movements of war, and attended to the cultivations of peace. He sent back his horses to the south of mount Hwa, and let loose his oxen in the open country of T'aou-lin, showing the empire that he would not use them again.

called Haou (J^J, which was SO le south of the pres. dis. city of Ch'ang-gan. dep. of Segan, SheD-ie. In the next par. it is stated that he returned to Fung, which had been the capital of his father Wan, in the pres. dis. of Hoo

of the same dep. The two places were only about 8 miles apart; Haou on the east of the river Fung, and Fung on the west of it. The life of Raoul was converted into a lake (

f$ yfe) by the emp. Woo ( \ft ^ i£ jf£ B.c. 139-87) of the Han dyn. -J1

'Be "f^fi ,to g0''<t0 Proceed-'

[We saw, in the 'Great Speech,' Pt. ii., p. 1, that on the day mow-woo, the 28tli day of the 1st mouth, king Woo halted on the northern bank of the Ho. On that same day he had crossed the river;—see the 9th par. below. The distance from Haou to Mfing-tsin is said by Ying-tS to be 1,000 le, and I have seen another estimate of it at 900 le. Taking the larger number, we have 25 days' marches, of 40 h, each, or about 14 miles per day, which could be accomplished without difficulty. Five days

after (the day 5§> \ Woo drew up his army in the borders of Shang, and waited for the dawn of the next morning, the 4th day of the 2d month, to decide the contest between himself and Show.

After the battle, Show fled to the 'Stag tower,' and burned himself to death. In the mean time, Woo, having received theconirratulalions i:f the princes on his victory, pressed on after the tyrant. On arriving at the capital, the people were waiting outside the walls in anxious expectation, which the king relieved by sending his officers among them with the words,—' Supreme Heaven is sending down

blessing'(J^ ^ The multitudes

reverently saluted the king, who bowed to them in return, and hurried on to the place where the dead body of Show was. Having discharged three arrows at it from his chariot, he descended, struck the body with a light sword,

and cut the head off" with his 'yellow' battleaxe, and made it be suspended from the staff of a large white flag. Much in the same way he dealt with the bodies of two of Show's concubines who had killed themselves; and then returned to his army. These accounts are taken from the 'Historical Records,' and are put down by subsequent writers as lying legends, inconsistent with Woo's character.

Next day he entered the capital of Shang in great state, attended by his brothers and the chiefs of his host, and solemnly accepted the charge of the empire. It was said to him, on behalf of all the nobles, 'The last descendant of the House of Yin having destroyed and disowned the bright virtue of his forefathers, having insolently discontinued the sacrifices to the spirits, and having blindly tyrannized over the people of Shang, the report of his deeds

ascended to the great God in heaven ' (

m m T * m±f»

W oo bowed twice, with his head to the ground, and said, 'It is right that I should change the great charge; that I should put away the House of Yin, and receive myself the great appointment of Heaven' He then again bowed twice, with his head to the ground, and went out.

In this way king Woo took on himself the sovereignty of the empire. One of his first

steps was to appoint Show's son, Luh-foo (Jffjjfc

A), prince over the domain of Yin; and he

appears to have remained in the capital of Shang between two and three months, employed in the measures described in the last two parr, of this Book, and in others requisite to the establishment of the dynasty of his House.]

Pp. 2, 8. Measures in the 4M month showing

that the war was over. 2. Q'fj- J/UJ fl

d£ ( = ^ 1^-this was the 3d day of the month ;—see on the last par. But there had been an intercalary month between This is proved in the following manner.—The day T -^J^ of par 3 evidently belonged to the 4th

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On the day ting-\ve he sacrificed in the ancestral temple of Chow, when the chiefs of the imperial domain and of the teen, how, and wei domains all hurried about, carrying the dishes. Three days after, he presented a burnt-offering to Heaven, and worshipped towards the mountains and rivers, solemnly announcing the successful completion of the war.

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month. f|5 the day of the battle of Muh, was the 4th of the 2d month, which we may suppose had 29 days. This brings us to

for the first day of the next month, the I » tl,e Le Ke' t,,e Bk" IE' PP" 29-22' ■r* . I there is an expansion of the text, celebrating

18th of which was a yn~ day; but it could King Woo. It may be that the author had benot be that of the text. We have to count 00 fore him some copy of the it f^, current in days before we come to the next "T day, I the Han dynasty, fuller than that which we which would consequently be in the 5th month, unless there was an intercalary month between

the 1st and the 4th. Tlie chronologers are all agreed in supposing that there was a second month intercalary this year; and consequently the ting-we day of the text would be the 18th

or 19th of the fourth month. E "^"^^-i

—Fung was the capital of Wan and here was the ancestral temple of the princes of Chow. That was the reason, as we gather from the next par., why Woo went in the first place to

Fung and not to Ilaou. /|J§; Jj£

—in the rest of the par. we have two instances

of the 'hushing of military measures,' (/f|§; is

defined by JjJ^, 'to sleep,' 'to send to sleep);' what 'the cultivations of peace' were, we are not told. ^[jj^l^ll^^

'the south of mount Hwa.' For mount Hwa, see on 'The Tribute of Yu,' Pt. i., p. 62.

The ' wild of T'aou-Hn' (Peach forest) is referred to the country about the hill of Muhnew ^{~)< ca"l-'t' n'so "ie l'>" of K'wa-foo (2^51 3^), in the south-east of the pres. dep.

of T'ung-chow (JgJ jj']'])- An objection has been taken to the credibility of the account here on the ground that the horses and oxen belonged to the people,—were only contributed by them for the expedition ; and that to appropriate them to himself in this way, instead of returning them to their owners, was an act befitting Show, and not at all to be expected from king Woo. But we may be sure these were Woo's own horses and oxen. If it be granted that the people did supply a portion of the animals used iu war, the sovereign himself furnished a larger

now have. In p. 19, it is said—-| JjJ*


3. Various sacrifices, and solemn announcement of the completion of the War. J j]j[J f

Jijjljj—the fourth month would commence on or M tit, according as the pre

vious one had 29 or 30 days, and J -^J^ must have been the 18th or 19th day. Before setting out on his enterprise, Woo had sacrificed to his father, to God and the earth (' The Great speech,' Pt. i., p. 10) ; here at its close he sacrifices, and, we may suppose, gives thanks at the same

altars. -^|$, RI, RI, —see the account and figure on pp. 148, 14'J, of the divisions of the empire under the Chow dynasty. By the we must understand, I think, the central

division,—the imperial domain lUifc) an(* Al, we have three of the divisions

which lay beyond it,—a part for the whole of the five domains which constituted the' middle kingdom.' We cannot account for the irregularity of the order in which they are given. After jj^j we must understand gt, equivalent to 'the chiefs,' which I have supplied in the translation.

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After the moon began to wane, the hereditary princes of the various States, and all the officers, received their appointments from Chow.

Gan-kwo defines by 'great,' 'in groat state;' it is better to take it with Ts'ae after the gf ^ as=J||. J3 see Con. Ana., VIII, It. 3. It was an honour to the chiefs and primes to assist at the sacrifice.

^ rr. 0 J^t ^.—between ting-we and kiing-seuh there are two days, so the bitter was the 21st or 22d day of the month. In Ilk.

XII., p. 2, we have >f ^ = fj $ p|j, where both ping-woo and mow-shin must be reckoned to make up the three days;—the writers had different methods equally legitimate, of reckoning. ^j^,—see on the 'Can. of

Shun,' p. 8. —see on the 'Can. of Shun,'

p. 6. This sacrifice was offered, I suppose, at the altar of the great earth, mentioned in Bk. I., l*t. i., p. 10. 4. The princes and officers

receive their appointments from Woo, as the jirst

emperor of the dynasty of Chow. pjfc tip, fjl^, —the moon begins to wane,—the darkness is born—after the lull moon. The day indicated in the text is generally supposed to be the Kith; but Grin Leih, observes that, if that had been the day, the phrase would have !>cen

corresponding to /fc fl^j in p. 2. lie would lay stress therefore on the as showing that the darkness was not only 'born,' but bad made some growth; and fixes the day as the 17th. But here there is a difficulty.—The historian goes backward instead of forward with bis narrative; the 17th would precede the day ting-we. Ying-ta calls attention to this circumstance, he himself supposing the day to be the 16th; and in the tact of the chiefs assisting at the sacrifice in the ancestral temple he sees a proof that they had previously received their appointments from king Woo. I should myself extend the force of the ^£ much more than Ch'in does. Why may not the phrase ^J^l^j^ indicate any between the 15th and the end of the month, when we should come to the 'death' or end of the darkness? The his torian has chosen to indicate thus indefinitely the day when the princes and officers received their appointments from Woo. As to their assisting on the day ting-we at his sacrificial service, that might ve-y well be. Things could not lie done in order while the revolution was in progress. From the taking the field against Show down to the new commissioning of rulers under the new supremacy, all was irregular and

only after this would a new order of things take its course.

[In the Books of the early Han dynasty,

Als' 5$ "> ~\*' colnPile<1 I'}' Lew Bin

we find three quotations as from the j(£ Jfj^.

The first agrees with the 1st par. of the ch.pter.-fg — £ Jfc % ft f|,

B # E-SC 17* IBifr

g J^. T ft # The second is not found in the received text, nor any trace of it; but it agrees sufficiently with the first par. of the ' Speech at Muh,' and the statement

in the 9th par. of this Book.—Ijp. ^jj^ (some editions have —■ , incorrectly) ,

3r wiT- 's then stated that there was a second month intercalary in this year which began with the day j|^f jp^ ; that the third month began with j^l ^J^-, and the fourth month with f~I jjk Then comes the third quotation.—

mmnmgtkm^* 0 fc&ft-zm^ mmm 0 ^jSfiiT%fam-m. 0 z,

'In the fourth month, on the day kSng-seuh, the 6th after the 16th, king Woo" made a fire in the ancestral temple of Chow. Next day,— the day sin-hae,—he sacrificed at the altar of Heaven; and five days after,—on the day yihmaou,—attended by the princes of the various States, he sacrificed and presented the heads of Show and his two concubines in the ancestral temple.' Here the intimations of time are different from those which we have in parr. 3

and 4 of the text. Possibly the jj^f here-=

the of par. 3;—and they are referred to the same day. We cannot trace any other correspondencies.

The question occurs,—Where did Lew Hin find the copy of the jj£ JjfJ£, from which he

made these quotations? Yen Sze-koo supposed they were taken from some copy of Fuh-shang's

Books; see an art. by Choo He in the

But Fuh-shang did not possess the jj£ Jj^.


II. The king spake to the following effect:—"Oh! ye host of princes, the first of our kings founded the State and commenced our territory. The duke Lew was able to consolidate the merits of his predecessor. But it was the king T'ae who laid the foundations of the imperial inheritance. Then king Ke was diligent for the royal House; and my deceased father, king Wan, completed his merit, and received the great decree of Heaven to soothe the regions of the great bright land. The great States feared his strength ; the

In nine years, however, the whole

small States cherished his virtue

Yen Jo-ku, Wang, Ming-shing and others think that he took them from the copy of the ' Old Text,' which Gan-kw6 had transcribed, and which was preserved in one of the imperial repositories. We know that Lew Hin bad access to this copy, and it is possible that he

might quote from the jj^ jfo in it.

There is, however, another way of accounting for the quotations. There was a copy of the j£ jjfo current in the Han dynasty, as we

have seen there was of the jif^. K'augshing states that it was lost in the reign of the founder of the eastern Han, A.d. 25-57. We do not know whence it was derived. From the last quotation we may suppose that its character was like that of the copy of the ' Great Speech,' which likewise disappeared. It appears to me more likely that the quotations by Lew Hin were made from it than from the 'Old Text' to which he had access. The authority of the received text, such as it is, need not be affected by the differences between it and the passages

in the ^ $g fe.

Ch. II. Pp. 5,7. Address or Kino Woo To

TITURES. 5. Sketch of the. historu of the
House, of Chow from its founder to kirn/ Woo.
See the introductory note to Book I. on the

name of this Part of the Shoo. -^Q jj- 'the

former kiug,'*='the first of our kings.' Yingta says that we know that K-e. Slum's mill, of agriculture, must be intended, because he is mentioned before the duke Lew. The predi

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