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or 禦

to serve our western land.' Gan-kwo under

which he explains heter than Kang-shing thus:一過勇,則不免于濫殺,
Wang Suh read Filep, which is susceptible of
being taken either for 7 or. The mean-

惟當于因殘者取之抗 ing is substantially the same, whether we adopt

者誅之,若有奔走來 以役西土,一the transla -ho il 擊之以勞 tion of this is after Kiang-shing, Ma Yung and |土之人,勉哉爾將 Wang Suh took the clause as = ='do your best

是 stood it differently:— It is thus you will make 將: 若于我之

我之命,而 them submissively acknowledge the righteous

勉,或輕進,或貪

或貪殺, ness of our western land' 不晶-as 最哉夫子 has been re

無勇而殺降,是違號令,而 peated at the close of the severnal instruction | 失紀律也,則軍有常必 or admonitions, we must suppose that the warn 戮及爾身有做救矣,可 ing here belongs to each of them. The · Daily Explanation' paraphrases the 9th and 10th part. 7.

10. 爾所所不

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THE BOOKS OF SHANG.

BOOK III. THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THE WAR.

商于步己翼死王惟

征自王日魄辰
厥伐周朝类越旁月

武成

DIFFICULTIES IN THE ARRANGEMENT AND IN-
TERPRETATION.

1 1. In the first month, the day jin-shin immediately followed the adese end of the moon's waning. The next day was kweise when the

king in the morning marched from Chow to attack and punish Shang

The Name of the Book.-t sif, 'The t lll (p. 6), he states how he had inherited Successful Completion of the War.' The phrase the possessions and the duties of king. Wăn, -Tť sť, meaning, literally, ' military affairs and how he declared to the spirits the crimes of completed, occurs in the 3d paragraph, and has Show ; from E H TT Í (p. 6) to FIE LE thence been taken to denominate the Bookoh It Th (p.8), he repeats his prayer to the spirits. by no means covers the contents, they all grow From $4 to the end, the historian prise. The Book is found only in the old Text. aitack on Show, of his death, of Woo's entrance

again resumes his narrative, and tells of the These will fully appear in the

into the capital of Yin, and of his governmental course of the exposition; it may be sufficient here to describe them generally, and for that

The prayer, however, which concludes with purpose I will use in the first place the words #HE TË This incomplete. According to of Ying-la. He says:This Book consists the analogy of other prayers, recorded in the the king's words is small. The language of the tu there onght to be, after those words, several parts is without the beginning and the some protestation by Woo of his own intentions. end properly marked, and its composition altoge. And when all the princes and officers were rether is different from that of the other Books.ceiving their investitures and commands from From 18 - ] (p. 1) down to a T the new emperor of the House of Chow, we

, (p. 4), the historian relates the march to a manner similar to T'ang, in his · Announcethe attack of Yin, and the return from the ment.” With so many speeches to them before enterprise, with the assembling of the princes: related to them after its close his prayer to the

the conflict, cannot believe that he simply -as introductory to the words of the king. spirits. On these two grounds I niust conclude From It to (both that a portion of the Book, immediately

followin p. 6), Woo narrates the rise of their House ing these words-- AIHE TE TI , has been of Clow ; from F di F (p. 5) to Z It lost.

measures.

6

term

"Perhaps it was wanting when the tablets Woo and Show, going on to subsequent events, were hidden away in the wall; perhaps it was and important governmental measures of the among the confused and broken fragments new dynasty. which Gan-kwò says there were in addition to Ch. I. Pp. 1-4. THE MARCH TO THE ATTACK, the 58 Books which he recovered. As he found AND CONQUEST, OF SHANG. THE RETURN, AND in the tablets of this Book a beginning of it and MEASURES ON THE CONCLUSION OF THE WAR. an end, he did not say anything of the interme

1. 惟一月壬辰旁死魄, diate portion being deficient.'

Ying-tă was thus of opinion that the Book , 'the first month'; but whether we was deficient; but it does not appear that he

are to understand the first month of the Hea had any doubts as to the relative order in which the several portions stand. He thought some year, the first month of spring; or the first tablets were lost; but did not suppose that any of winter, cannot yet be determined.

month of the Chow year,--the second month

Ts'ao of those preserved had been displaced. In the endeavours here to reinforce his view that Sung dynasty, however, the critics assumed the month is the first of the Hea year, by not only that there were portions missing, but that the remaining tablets were all disordered calling attention to the language, — , and confused. Ch'ing E-ch'uen (The It III), and not TE J; but this circumstance is of Lew Gan-she (# ), and others, had little weight. I is the calendaric their several ways of arranging them so as to produce a consistent narrative; and Ts'ae Chéin,

name of the day, and it was (read p-ang, profiting by the determinations of his master 3d tone, = ile near to' "close by') SE AAL, Choo He, produced an edition of the Book, which has superseded the old one in the copies 'next to the day of the dead disk. This ex. of the Shoo which are now taught in schools. pression is generally understood to be descriptive It will be found, with a translation, in an

of the first day of the new moon. In p. 4 we appendix. Scholars of the present dynasty for find the phrase #h, denoting the 15th do not discard the old text altogether. There day or full moon. In p. 2, again, we have the are some, however, who think they canimprove # %), “the beginning of the birth of light, position of the paragraphs somewhat different as denoting the third day, when the moon Arst in his edition of Doubts about the Shoo.' becomes visible. It is clear therefore that the Maou K'e-ling will not admit either of dis

was applied to the disk of the moon order or defect in the Book. He has certainly proved by references to the # and the from the the time it began to wane until the

new moon reappeared. How it came to be so that the prayer of Woo to the spirits used, I do not perceive. The it has was a part of his specch or announcement to the princes; see the 尚書廣聽錄

instead of A2, but pronounced in the same way;

and in the dict. we find the definition quoted, the 武成: so far it is established that the 一月體黑者謂之霸 the body disorder in the parts which the Sung critics complained of and tried to remedy,—if indeed of the moon when dark is called we should call it disorder,-existed even during the Chow dynasty. Maou says, 'If the text be [Fan Sze-lin ( t) observes that not good, we have only to be content with it as after the 1st day of the moon, the light went it is. In this he is right. The ingenuity of the critics has not been of service either to history on to grow, and the darkness of her disk (AAR) or the classic.

to disappear ; that if the previous month was CONTENTS. Those are summarily and cor- great consisted, that is, of 30 days), then on rectly stated in the prefatory Notice.- King the second day of the month, the light' began. Woo smote Yin; and the narrative of his pro- He concludes that this was the case here, and ceeding to the attack, and of his return and that the day denoted by BE A was not sending his animals back to their pastures, with his governmental measures, form. The Completion the second but the first day of the month. The of the War.' The whole is divided in Yung. editors of Yung-ching's Shoo are inclined to ching's Shoo into 9 parr., which I have re agree with him, saying it is more natural and arranged in 10, including them also in three in rule to find a specification of the first day chapters. The first chapter, containing 4 parr.,

of the mouth than of the second. This view consists of brief historical notes of the com.

does not seem unlikely.] mencement and close of Woo's expedition. The second also contains 4 parr., and gives the 越翼日癸一越一及;翼日 his nobles and officers on occasion, we may - W , 'the morrow :'* follow I suppose, of their solemn recognition of him as in the calendar. 王朝步自周 emperor, and of his confirming somo of them in their old investitures or appointments, and -#-15, “to travel," "to march;' I* two concluding parr., is again historical, and is, literally, the king paced it.' 周 is relates several incidents of the battle between understood to stand here for Woo's capital,

on

le

天林放文乃明四
下之乐山歸偃至 E
弗野于 武于來哉
服示桃陽于修豐自

2 In the fourth month, at the first appearance of the moon;-the

king came from Shang to Fung, when he hushed all the movements of war, and attended to the cultivations of peace. He sent back his horses to the south of mount Hwa, and let loose his oxen in the open country of T'aou-lin, showing the empire that he would not use them again. called Haou (film, which was 30 le south of and cut the head off with his yellow ' battlethe pres. dis. city of Ch'ang-gan, dep. of Se- of a large white flag. Much in the same way he gan, Shen-se. In the next par. it is stated that dealt with the bodies of two of Show's concuhe returned to Fung, which had been the capitalbines who had killed themselves; and then of his father Wan, in the pres. dis. of Hoo returned to his army. These accounts are B, of the same dep. The two places were taken from the Historical Records, and are only about 8 miles apart ; Haou on the east of the put down by subsequent writers as lying legends,

inconsistent with Woo's character. river Fung, and Fung on the west of it. The

Next day he entered the capital of Shang in site of Haou was converted into a lake (It great state, attended by his brothers and the

Ytbe) by the emp. Woo (H**charge of the empire. It was said to him, on
B.c. 139–87) of the Han dyn.

behalf of all the nobles, “The last descendant

FLE of
-F- 'to go,''to proceed.'

disowned the bright virtue of his forefathers,

having insolently discontinued the sacrifices to (We saw, in the “Great Speech,' Pt. ii., p. 1, the spirits, and having blindly tyrannized over that on the day mow-woo, the 28th day of the the people of Shang, the report of his deeds 1st month, king Woo halted on the northern ascended to the great God in heaven't crossed the river ;--see the 9th par. below. The H F# E ). On this, distance from Haou to Mång-tsin is said by Woo bowed twice, with his head to the ground, Ying-tě to be 1,000 le, and I have seen another and said, "It is right that I should change estimate of it at 900 le. Taking the larger the great charge; that I should put away the number, we have 25 days' marches, of 40 le House of Yin, and receive myself the great each, or about 14 miles per day, which could be appointment of Heaven' He then again bowed accomplished without difficulty. Five days twice, with his head to the ground, and went after (the day *** Woo drew up his army out. in the borders of Shang, and waited for the dawn

In this way king Woo took on himself the of the next morning, the 4th day of the 2d sovereignty of the empire. One of his first month, to decide the contest between himself steps was to appoint Show's son, Luh-foo Tube and Show,

After the battle, Show led to the Stag Ķ), prince over the domain of Yin ; and he tower,' and burned himself to death. In the appears to have remained in the capital of mean time, Woo, having received the congratu- Shang between two and three months, employed lations of the princes on his victory, pressed on in the measures described in the last two parr. after the tyrant. On arriving at the capital, of this Book, and in others requisite to the the people were waiting outside the walls in establishment of the dynasty of his House.] anxious expectation, which the king relieved by sending his ofħcers among them with the

Pp, 2, 3. Measures in the 4th month showing words,---- Supreme Heaven is sending down that the war was over. 2.既四月 blessing"(上天降休). The multitutes |哉(一始)生明-this was the 80 day reverently saluted the king, who bowed to them

of the month ;- see on the last par, But there in return, and hurried on to the place where had been an intercalary month between This the dead body of Show was. Having discharged three arrows at it from his chariot, he is proved in the following manner.– The day descended, struck the body with a ligtat sword.' T # of par. 3 evidently belonged to the 4th.

成大庆三豆奔侯廟祀o 0告柴日走衛邦宇丁 既武望庚越執駿周未

1115

至于豐

3 On the day ting-we he sacrificed in the ancestral temple of Chow,

when the chiefs of the imperial domain and of the teen, low, and wei domains all hurried about, carrying the dishes. Three days after, he presented a burnt-offering to Heaven, and worshipped towards the mountains and rivers, solemnly announcing the successful completion of the war. month. # F, the day of the battle of ' number ;-sce Kóe-ling's H ! Muh, was the 4th of the 2d month, which we may suppose had 29 days. This brings us to ) ), Bk. IV., on the point.

, for the first day of the next month, then the Le Ke, the Bk. L, pp. 29–22, 18th of which was a T#day; but it could King Woo. It may be that the author had benot be that of the text. We have to count 60 fure him some copy of the ti hit, current in days before we come to the next T # day, the Han dynasty, fuller than that which we which would consequently be in the 5th month, now have. In p. 19, it is said EL Ź the 1st and the 4th. The chronologers are all uŹ, in The agreed in supposing that there was sequeennd Ź do ta Ž 15 17 19 AL, month intercalary this year; and consequently the ting-we day of the text would be the 18th

# 藏之府庫,而弗復 or 19th of the fourth month.

用倒載干戈包之以虎皮, - Fung was the capital of Wăn and here was the ancestral temple of the princes of Chow. 然後天下知武王之不 That was the reason, as we gather from the next par., why Woo went in the first place to the Fung and not to Haou. 偃武修文, 3. Various sacrifices, and solemn announcement -in

the rest of the par. we have two instances of the completion of the War. Tiril F of the hushing of military measures,' (16 is 18-the fourth month would commence defined by 1, 'to sleep,' 'to send to sleep);'

on & # or , according as the prewhat the cultivations of peace' were, we are not told. II Zmiu Ź vious one had 29 or 30 days, and T # must

have been the 18th or 19th day. Before setting , 'the south of mount Hwa. For mount out on his enterprise, Woo had sacrificed to his Hwa, see on “The Tribute of Yu,' Pt. i., p. 62. father, to God and the earth ("The Great speech,'

The wild of T'aou-lin' (Peach forest) is Pt. i., p. 10); here at its close he sacrifices, and, referred to the country about the hill of Muh

we may suppose, gives thanks at the same

altars. (4), called also the hill of K'wa-foo FN, THE 15-see the account

and figure on pp. 148, 149, of the divisions of (**), in the south-east of the pres. dep. the empire under the Chow dynasty. By the of Tung-chow ( "H). An objection has #1 we must understand, I think, the central been taken to the credibility of the account here division,—the imperial domain (e) and on the ground that the horses and oxen belong. ed to the people, -- were only contributed by the we have three of the divisions them for the expedition; and that to appropriate which lay beyond it,--a part for the whole of the them to himself in this way, instead of return. ing them to their owners, was an act wfitting dom.' We cannot account for the irregularity

five domains which constituted the middle kingShow, and not at all to be expected from king Woo. But we may be sure these were Woo's of the order in which they are given. After 1 own horses and oxen. If it be granted that the people did supply a portion of the animals used we must understand that requivalent to the iu war, the sovereign bimself furnished a larger chiefs,' which I have supplied in the translation,

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